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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138216/autonomic-regulation-of-the-immune-system-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
François M Abboud, Madhu V Singh
The autonomic nervous system is a powerful regulator of circulatory adjustments to acute hemodynamic stresses. Here we focus on new concepts that emphasize the chronic influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on cardiovascular pathology. The autonomic neurohumoral system can dramatically influence morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease through newly discovered influences on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Specifically, the end-organ damage in heart failure or hypertension may be worsened or alleviated by pro- or anti-inflammatory pathways of the immune system, respectively, that are activated through neurohumoral transmitters...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133362/three-month-endothelial-human-endothelin-1-overexpression-causes-blood-pressure-elevation-and-vascular-and-kidney-injury
#2
Suellen C Coelho, Olga Berillo, Antoine Caillon, Sofiane Ouerd, Júlio C Fraulob-Aquino, Tlili Barhoumi, Stefan Offermanns, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
Endothelium-derived endothelin (ET)-1 has been implicated in the development of hypertension and end-organ damage, but its exact role remains unclear. We have shown that tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpressing (ieET-1) mice exhibited blood pressure rise after a 3-week induction in an ET type A (ETA) receptor-dependent manner, in absence of vascular and renal injury. It is unknown whether long-term ET-1 overexpression results in sustained blood pressure elevation and vascular and renal injury...
November 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133079/baicalein-attenuates-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-inhibiting-vascular-remodeling-in-rats
#3
Ruizan Shi, Zehui Wei, Diying Zhu, Naijie Fu, Wang Chang, Sha Yin, Yueqin Liang, Jianfeng Xing, Xuening Wang, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiopulmonary disorder characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) driven by progressive vascular remodeling. Reversing adverse vascular remodeling is an important concept in the treatment of PAH. Endothelial injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress are three main contributors to pulmonary vascular remodeling. Baicalein is a natural flavonoid that has been shown to possess anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and cardioprotective properties...
November 10, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132745/-membranous-microparticles-and-respiratory-disease
#4
REVIEW
B Renaud-Picard, J Toussaint, A Leclercq, J Reeb, L Kessler, F Toti, R Kessler
Microparticles (MP) are plasmic membrane fragments released from cells after physiological stimulation or stress conditions like inflammation or infection. Their production is correlated to the rate of cell apoptosis. All types of cells can produce MP but they are produced mainly by platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. They carry many bio-active molecules on their surface, specific to the parental cell, giving them the ability to be biomarkers and bio-effectors. MP are present in circulating blood, tissues and many biological fluids...
November 10, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132245/radial-vs-coccygeal-artery-doppler-blood-pressure-measurement-in-conscious-cats
#5
Florian K Zeugswetter, Alexander Tichy, Katharina Weber
Objectives The aims of the study were to compare the results of systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements at the radial and coccygeal artery by Doppler ultrasonography and to assess the impact of gender, age, body weight, body condition score (BCS) and stress score on disagreements. Methods Eighty cats were included in this prospective, block randomised crossover trial. Blood pressure measurements were performed at home, during hospitalisation or in a local animal shelter by a single trained observer according to the latest ISFM consensus guidelines...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131240/mirtogenol%C3%A2-supplementation-in-association-with-dorzolamide-timolol-or-latanoprost-improves-the-retinal-microcirculation-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-increased-ocular-pressure
#6
C Gizzi, P Torino-Rodriguez, G Belcaro, S Hu, M Hosoi, B Feragalli
OBJECTIVE: Supplementation with Mirtogenol® improves the retinal microcirculation and reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) in ocular hypertension, when administrated either alone or in association with an ophthalmic solution (latanoprost). In this study, microcirculatory parameters (perfusion of the circle of Zinn-Haller and retinal circulation) and oxidative stress were tested to assess the effects of Mirtogenol® plus traditional antihypertensive drugs in patients with elevated IOP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 88 otherwise healthy patients with increased IOP were followed-up in a supplement registry for 12 weeks...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131070/pathophysiology-of-post-transplant-hypertension-in-kidney-transplant-focus-on-calcineurin-inhibitors-induced-oxidative-stress-and-renal-sodium-retention-and-implications-with-rhoa-rho-kinase-pathway
#7
Lorenzo A Calò, Verdiana Ravarotto, Francesca Simioni, Elena Naso, Francesco Marchini, Luciana Bonfante, Lucrezia Furian, Paolo Rigotti
Post-transplant hypertension is a common occurrence during treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant population. The pathogenesis of vasoconstriction induced by CNIs involves vascular tone alterations and kidney sodium transport regulation. Among the factors involved a key role is played by the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system with enhanced release of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and increase of oxidative stress. A common pathway between oxidative stress and hypertension induced by CNIs may be identified in the involvement of the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, key for the induction of hypertension and cardiovascular-renal remodeling, of the oxidative stress mediated increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and increased renal sodium retention via increased activity of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule...
October 16, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128399/nitric-oxide-production-by-glomerular-podocytes
#8
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Aron M Geurts, Alexander Staruschenko
Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127234/ppar%C3%AE-agonists-acutely-inhibit-calcium-independent-pla2-to-reduce-h2o2-induced-contractions-in-aortae-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#9
Hui Chen, Ricky Y K Man, Susan W S Leung
Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which favors the release of endothelium-derived contracting factors, including vasoconstrictor prostanoids and reactive oxygen species. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonists, clinically used as lipid lowering drugs, possess antioxidant properties and exert beneficial effects in the vascular system. The present study aimed to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the acute effects of the PPARα agonists, Wy14643 and fenofibate, on endothelium-dependent contractions, in particular, those related to oxidative stress, in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124548/development-of-an-experimental-and-digital-cardiovascular-arterial-model-for-transient-hemodynamic-and-postural-change-studies-a-preliminary-framework-analysis
#10
Rodward L Hewlin, John P Kizito
The ultimate goal of the present work is to aid in the development of tools to assist in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Gaining an understanding of hemodynamic parameters for medical implants allow clinicians to have some patient-specific proposals for intervention planning. In the present work an experimental and digital computational fluid dynamics (CFD) arterial model consisting of a number of major arteries (aorta, carotid bifurcation, cranial, femoral, jejunal, and subclavian arteries) were fabricated to study: (1) the effects of local hemodynamics (flow parameters) on global hemodynamics (2) the effects of transition from bedrest to upright position (postural change) on hemodynamics, and (3) diffusion of dye (medical drug diffusion simulation) in the arterial system via experimental and numerical techniques...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124535/peculiarities-of-the-development-of-the-myocardial-infarction-in-isiah-rats
#11
S E Naumenko, T V Latysheva
We studied peculiarities of the development of myocardial infarction in rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH rats). The control group consisted of Wistar rats. Occlusion of the left coronary artery (30 min) followed by reperfusion (120 min) was performed. The infarct size was determined relative to the risk zone by staining with 1% triphenyltetrazolium. BP, blood filling, and blood flow in the caudal vessels were measured. The infarct size was 31.5±3.0% of the risk zone in Wistar rats and 47...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122812/nebivolol-but-not-metoprolol-treatment-improves-endothelial-fibrinolytic-capacity-in-adults-with-elevated-blood-pressure
#12
Brian L Stauffer, Caitlin A Dow, Kyle J Diehl, Tyler D Bammert, Jared J Greiner, Christopher A DeSouza
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial fibrinolytic function is impaired in adults with prehypertension and hypertension and plays a mechanistic role in the development of atherothrombotic events. The influence of β-blockers on endothelial fibrinolysis is unknown. This study compared the effects of chronic nebivolol and metoprolol treatment on endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in adults with elevated blood pressure (BP). METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-four middle-aged adults (36% women) with elevated BP completed a 3-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing nebivolol (5 mg/d), metoprolol succinate (100 mg/d), and placebo...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120962/endothelial-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease-part-i-general-mechanisms-a-joint-consensus-statement-from-the-european-society-of-hypertension-working-group-on-endothelin-and-endothelial-factors-and-the-japanese-society-of-hypertension
#13
Gian Paolo Rossi, Teresa M Seccia, Matthias Barton, A H Jan Danser, Peter W de Leeuw, Neeraj Dhaun, Damiano Rizzoni, Patrick Rossignol, Luis-Miguel Ruilope, Anton H van den Meiracker, Sadayoshi Ito, Naoyuki Hasebe, David J Webb
: Kidney damage is a common consequence of arterial hypertension, but is also a cause of atherogenesis. Dysfunction and/or harm of the endothelium in glomeruli and tubular interstitium damage the function of these structures and translates into dynamic changes of filtration fraction, with progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate, expansion of extracellular fluid volume, abnormal ion balance, and hypoxia, ultimately leading to chronic kidney disease. Considering the key role played by endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension have critically reviewed available knowledge on the mechanisms underlying endothelial cell injury...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120957/deletion-of-protein-kinase-b2-preserves-cardiac-function-by-blocking-interleukin-6-mediated-injury-and-restores-blood-pressure-during-angiotensin-ii-high-salt-diet-induced-hypertension
#14
Shuai Yang, Dandan Chen, Fan Chen, Xinmei Zhao, Yubin Zhang, Zhe Li, Liang Jin, Yitao Xu, Daniel Sanchis, Junmei Ye
OBJECTIVE: Protein kinase B2 (AKT2) is implicated in cardiomyocyte survival during various stress conditions. However, the role of AKT2 in heart function, cardiac hypertrophy and blood pressure (BP) control during hypertension is not fully understood. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the deletion of AKT2 protects cardiac function during angiotensin II/high-salt-diet (AngII/HSD) treatment and find out the signaling pathway. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J (wild type), AKT2 knockout and interleukin (IL)-6 knockout mice were fed a 4% NaCl diet for 5 weeks...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119967/rhynchophylla-total-alkaloid-rescues-autophagy-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-improves-endothelial-vasodilation-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#15
Chao Li, Feng Jiang, Yun-Lun Li, Yue-Hua Jiang, Wen-Qing Yang, Jie Sheng, Wen-Juan Xu, Qing-Jun Zhu
Autophagy plays an important role in alleviating oxidative stress and stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. However, the potential role of autophagy in endothelial vasodilation function has rarely been studied. This study aimed to investigate whether rhynchophylla total alkaloid (RTA) has a positive role in enhancing autophagy through decreasing oxidative stress, and improving endothelial vasodilation. In oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), RTA (200 mg/L) significantly suppressed ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress through rescuing autophagy, and decreased cell apoptosis...
November 9, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118892/apical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-case-report
#16
Ashraf Abugroun, Fatima Ahmed, Daniel Vilchez, Lalita Turaga
Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) is a rare variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, characterized by a spade-like left ventricular cavity. A 58-year-old African-American female with past medical history of hypertension presented for evaluation of recurrent exertional chest tightness, palpitations and headache. Prior workup including multiple stress tests and angiogram was non-conclusive. Electrocardiogram (EKG) showed characteristic marked T-waves inversions in inferior leads and left ventriculography revealed left ventricle apical hypertrophy with spade like left ventricular cavity that was typical of Yamaguchi syndrome...
October 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118884/breast-arterial-calcifications-on-mammography-do-not-predict-myocardial-ischemia-on-myocardial-perfusion-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography
#17
Ahmed Fathala, Salma Salem, Fahad Alanazi, Deema Abunayyan, Abdelmoneim M Eldali, Abdulaziz Alsugair
Background: The aim of this study was to determine if breast arterial calcification (BAC) on mammography predicts myocardial ischemia (MI) on stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS). BAC is a type of medial artery calcification that can be seen incidentally on mammography, but the relationship between coronary artery calcification and MI on MPS is yet unknown. Methods: A total of 435 consecutive women underwent mammography and stress MPS within 1 year of each other...
October 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118329/aortic-stiffness-improves-the-prediction-of-both-diagnosis-and-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Mathieu Ahouah, Céline Dreyfuss Tubiana, Jirar Topouchian, Michel E Safar, Jacques Blacher
Elective coronography has low diagnostic yield for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We aim to determine whether non-invasive aortic stiffness assessment improves diagnostic accuracy of CAD screening by reducing the number of false-positive results from the cardiac stress test. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2014 in our medical center. Electrocardiogram (ECG) stress test coupled with nuclear imaging was performed in 367 consecutive patients routinely followed for myocardial ischemia screening...
November 9, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118187/jnk2-upregulates-hypoxia-inducible-factors-and-contributes-to-hypoxia-induced-erythropoiesis-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Marc A Sala, Cong Chen, Qiao Zhang, Hanh Chi Do-Umehara, Wenjiao Wu, Alexander V Misharin, Gregory B Waypa, Deyu Fang, G R Scott Budinger, Shuwen Liu, Navdeep S Chandel, Paul T Schumacker, Jacob I Sznajder, Jing Liu
The hypoxic response is a stress response triggered by low-oxygen tension. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play a prominent role in the pathobiology of hypoxia-associated conditions, including pulmonary hypertension (PH) and polycythemia. The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), a stress-activated protein kinase that consists of two ubiquitously expressed isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, and a tissue-specific isoform, JNK3, has been shown to be activated by hypoxia. However, the physiological role of JNK1 and JNK2 in the hypoxic response remains elusive...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118111/differential-cell-matrix-mechanoadaptations-and-inflammation-drive-regional-propensities-to-aortic-fibrosis-aneurysm-or-dissection-in-hypertension
#20
M R Bersi, R Khosravi, A J Wujciak, D G Harrison, J D Humphrey
The embryonic lineage of intramural cells, microstructural organization of the extracellular matrix, local luminal and wall geometry, and haemodynamic loads vary along the length of the aorta. Yet, it remains unclear why certain diseases manifest differentially along the aorta. Toward this end, myriad animal models provide insight into diverse disease conditions-including fibrosis, aneurysm and dissection-but inherent differences across models impede general interpretations. We examined region-specific cellular, matrix, and biomechanical changes in a single experimental model of hypertension and atherosclerosis, which commonly coexist...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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