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Art trial

Noha Samir Kabil, Amira Saad Badran, Mariem Osama Wassel
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial restorations can increase the success rate of minimum invasive dentistry especially in young permanent molars with deep carious lesions as an attempt to preserve maximum dental structure and avoid pulp exposure. Further research is warranted to evaluate different antibacterial agents. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) or aqueous miswak (Salvadora persica) extract on the clinical performance and in vivo antibacterial activity of conventional anhydrous glass ionomer cement (GIC)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
M Bryant Howren, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
The current issue is devoted broadly to research on treatment adherence and chronic illness self-management behavior. As the prevalence of chronic illness increases, the pervasive problem of treatment nonadherence is increasingly viewed as having a major impact on treatment outcomes, public health and healthcare costs, making this issue particularly timely. Sixteen articles spanning an array of topics are presented; articles include empirical studies, statistical simulations, systematic reviews, and theoretical commentaries...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Dale Barnhart, Ellen Hertzmark, Enju Liu, Ester Mungure, Aisa N Muya, David Sando, Guerino Chalamilla, Nzovu Ulenga, Till Bärnighausen, Wafaie Fawzi, Donna Spiegelman
INTRODUCTION: Researchers planning cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) require estimates of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) from previous studies for sample size calculations. This paper fills a persistent gap in the literature by providing estimates of ICCs for many key HIV-related clinical outcomes. METHODS: Data from HIV-positive patients from 47 HIV care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were used to calculate ICCs by site of enrollment or site of ART initiation for various clinical outcomes using cross-sectional and longitudinal data...
December 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Ching-Tzu Yen, Meng-Ni Fan, Yung-Li Yang, Sheng-Chieh Chou, I-Shing Yu, Shu-Wha Lin
Hemophilia is the most well-known hereditary bleeding disorder, with an incidence of one in every 5000 to 30,000 males worldwide. The disease is treated by infusion of protein products on demand and as prophylaxis. Although these therapies have been very successful, some challenging and unresolved tasks remain, such as reducing bleeding rates, presence of target joints and/or established joint damage, eliminating the development of inhibitors, and increasing the success rate of immune-tolerance induction (ITI)...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
S Mickenautsch
OBJECTIVES: To provide a brief overview of the current evidence-base for direct posterior tooth restorations in permanent teeth placed using high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC). METHODS: The evidence sources: laboratory trials, uncontrolled clinical trials, controlled clinical trials with HVGIC restorations placed after conventional cavity preparation by drill and controlled clinical trials with HVGIC restorations placed following the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach, were assessed based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as well as methodological studies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Nicolás Merchante, Sofía Ibarra, Boris Revollo, Francisco Rodríguez-Arrondo, Esperanza Merino, Marcial Delgado-Fernández, Marta Montero-Alonso, Francisco Téllez, Maria J Galindo, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Maria A García, Carlos Mínguez, Alberto Romero-Palacios, Miguel Del Toro, Juan A Pineda
OBJECTIVE: To report the real-life results of sorafenib use in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The GEHEP-002 cohort ( ID: NCT02785835) has recruited 302 HCC cases diagnosed in HIV-infected patients from 32 centers from Spain. RIS-HEP12 study included 44 (14%) cases that have received at least one dose of sorafenib. The overall survival after the start of treatment (OSaT) was the main efficacy outcome...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Marco Moschini, Vidit Sharma, Giorgio Gandaglia, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Nicola Fossati, Emanuele Zaffuto, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, R Jeffrey Karnes
INTRODUCTION: The literature is conflicting on the long-term utility of adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer (PCa) demonstrating seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b; SVI). METHODS: Patients with SVI during RP and pelvic lymph node dissection at two major referral centers from 1986-2014 were included. Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariable Cox regressions were performed to determine if adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) and adjuvant hormonal therapy (aHT) were predictors of biochemical recurrence, cancer specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM)...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Angel R de Lera, A Ganesan
The modern drug discovery process has largely focused its attention in the so-called magic bullets, single chemical entities that exhibit high selectivity and potency for a particular target. This approach was based on the assumption that the deregulation of a protein was causally linked to a disease state, and the pharmacological intervention through inhibition of the deregulated target was able to restore normal cell function. However, the use of cocktails or multicomponent drugs to address several targets simultaneously is also popular to treat multifactorial diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Rebecca M Rentea, Shawn D St Peter, Charles L Snyder
Appendicitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in children. The diagnosis and treatment of the disease have undergone major changes in the past two decades, primarily as a result of the application of an evidence-based approach. Data from several randomized controlled trials, large database studies, and meta-analyses have fundamentally affected patient care. The best diagnostic approach is a standardized clinical pathway with a scoring system and selective imaging. Non-operative management of simple appendicitis is a reasonable option in selected cases, with the caveat that data in children remain limited...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Matteo Savoia, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano, Francesco Spallotta
Organ-specific mesenchymal cells naturally reside in the stroma, where they are exposed to some environmental variables affecting their biology and functions. Risk factors such as diabetes or aging influence their adaptive response. In these cases, permanent epigenetic modifications may be introduced in the cells with important consequences on their local homeostatic activity and therapeutic potential. Numerous results suggest that mesenchymal cells, virtually present in every organ, may contribute to tissue regeneration mostly by paracrine mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nicholas T Funderburg, Grace A McComsey, Manjusha Kulkarni, Tammy Bannerman, Jessica Mantini, Bernadette Thornton, Hui C Liu, Yafeng Zhang, Qinghua Song, Liang Fang, Jason Dinoso, Andrew Cheng, Scott McCallister, Marshall W Fordyce, Moupali Das
BACKGROUND: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and subsequent virologic suppression reduces immune activation and systemic inflammation. METHODS: We examined longitudinal changes in biomarkers of monocyte activation (sCD14, sCD163), and systemic (IL-6, hsCRP, sTNFR-I and D-dimer) and vascular (Lp-PLA2) inflammation in a subgroup (N=100 per arm) of participants enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF; TAF) to E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF; TDF) in treatment-naïve adults...
October 11, 2016: EBioMedicine
Zhe Li, Qin Li, Jun Wu, Manyuan Wang, Junxian Yu
Preclinical investigation and clinical experience have provided evidence on the potential anticancer effect of artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) in the recent two decades. The major mechanisms of action of ARTs may be due to toxic-free radicals generated by an endoperoxide moiety, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. It is very promising that ARTs are expected to be a new class of antitumor drugs of wide spectrum due to their detailed information regarding efficacy and safety...
October 7, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
O R Brouwer, H G van der Poel, R F Bevers, E J van Gennep, S Horenblas
This review aims to discuss the current state-of-the-art of sentinel node (SN) mapping in urological malignancies. The principles and methodological aspects of lymphatic mapping and SN biopsy in urological malignancies are reviewed. Literature search was restricted to English language. The references of the retrieved articles were examined to identify additional articles. The review also includes meta-analyses published in the past 5 years. SN biopsy for penile cancer is recommended by the European Association of Urology as the preferred staging tool for clinically node-negative patients with at least T1G2 tumours (level of evidence 2a, Grade B)...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mel S Lee, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Pei-Hsun Sung, John Y Chiang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
Despite state-of-the-art pharmaceutical regimens, continuous improvements in diagnostic techniques as well as refinements in equipment and interventional procedures, many diseases remain refractory to conventional therapies. Recent advances in stem cell (SC) biology have opened an avenue to exploring its therapeutic potential in various disease entities, especially those that are ischemia-related and refractory to conventional treatment. A number of experimental studies and clinical trials have already demonstrated promising outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
D L Fink, L Hedley, R F Miller
Biologic therapies are injectable immunomodulatory agents directed against specific immune cell or chemical targets. They have transformed the lives of HIV-uninfected individuals with severe inflammatory conditions including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. The perceived increased infection risk associated with these agents means that HIV-infected individuals have not been included in randomised control trials of these drugs. The literature for use of biologic therapies in HIV-infected populations is limited to case reports and case series...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Susannah L Woodd, Paul Kelly, John R Koethe, George Praygod, Andrea M Rehman, Molly Chisenga, Joshua Siame, Douglas C Heimburger, Henrik Friis, Suzanne Filteau
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa are malnourished. We aimed to increase understanding of the factors affecting their high mortality, particularly in the high-risk period before ART initiation. METHODS: We analysed potential risk factors for mortality of Zambian and Tanzanian participants enrolled in the NUSTART clinical trial. Malnourished adults (n = 1815; body mass index [BMI] <18...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mesut Mutluoglu, Gunalp Uzun, Michael Bennett, Peter Germonpré, David Smart, Daniel Mathieu
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one of the most common indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). The role of HBOT in DFUs is often debated. Recent evidence based guidelines, while recommending its use, urge further studies to identify the patient subgroups most likely to benefit from HBOT. A recent study in Diabetes Care aimed to assess the efficacy of HBOT in reducing the need for major amputation and improving wound healing in patients with chronic DFUs. In this study, patients with Wagner grade 2-4 diabetic foot lesions were randomly assigned to have HBOT (30 sessions/90 min/244 kPa) or sham treatment (30 sessions/90 min/air/125 kPa)...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Jim H Hu, Padraic O'Malley, Bilal Chughtai, Abby Isaacs, Jialin Mao, Jason D Wright, Dawn Hershman, Art Sedrakyan
PURPOSE: Robot-assisted surgery has been rapidly adopted in the U.S. for prostate cancer. Its adoption has been driven by market forces and patient preference, and debate continues regarding whether it offers improved outcomes to justify the higher cost relative to open surgery. We examined the comparative effectiveness of robot-assisted vs open radical prostatectomy in cancer control and survival in a nationally representative population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population based observational cohort study of patients with prostate cancer undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy during 2003 to 2012 used data captured in the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results)-Medicare linked database...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Urology
Silvia Costarelli, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Giuseppe Lapadula, Stefano Bonora, Giordano Madeddu, Franco Maggiolo, Andrea Antinori, Massimo Galli, Giovanni Di Perri, Pierluigi Viale, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Andrea Gori
BACKGROUND: In clinical trials, toxicity leading to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) discontinuation is rare (3% by 2 years); however in clinical practice it seems to be higher, particularly when TDF is co-administered with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r). Aims of this study were to assess the rate of TDF discontinuations in clinical practice and to identify factors associated with the risk of stopping TDF. METHODS: All antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients initiating a TDF-based regimen were selected from the ICONA Foundation Study cohort...
2016: PloS One
Maryam Akaberi, Zahra Sobhani, Behjat Javadi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Seyed Ahmad Emami
Traditional medicine is a useful guide in medical sciences. In the Islamic Iranian traditional medicine, the medicinal properties of many plants have been mentioned that could be exploited in drug discovery. We aimed to explore the nature and properties of Aloe spp. As described in some major Islamic traditional texts including Ferdows al-Hekmah fi'l-Tibbe (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine), Al-Hawi fi'l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine), Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art), Al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshah), and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure), and assess the conformity of traditional medicine instructions with the findings of modern pharmacological studies...
October 4, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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