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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797482/-principles-modalities-and-indications-of-the-administration-of-radium-in-cancers-focus-on-metastatic-prostate-cancer-state-of-arts
#1
REVIEW
Pauline Bertolaso, Laura Leroy, Marine Gross-Goupil, Olivier Aupee, Alain Ravaud, Guilhem Roubaud, Anne-Laure Cazeau, Sylvestre Le Moulec
Prostate cancer is the first cancer in men and has a specific tropism to bones. This tropism provided the rationale to develop bone targeting radiopharmaceutical agents, such as strontium, samarium and more recently the Radium-223, an alpha-emitter. In a phase III trial, ALSYMPCA, Radium-223 not only improved pain relief, but also impacted on overall survival. Despite an approval by both FDA and EMA, prescription of this agent remains limited by the lack of refund, especially in France. Radium-223 is currently evaluated in several clinical trials (combination with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy) in order to optimize the therapeutic sequences in metastatic bone prostate cancer and argues for being incorporated into the current therapeutic arsenal...
August 7, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797010/bilateral-internal-thoracic-arteries-what-is-the-state-of-the-art
#2
Bobby Yanagawa, Subodh Verma, John D Puskas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a broad overview of the current state of knowledge of coronary artery bypass grafting with bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA). RECENT FINDINGS: There exists a large body of literature from mostly observational studies supporting the use of BITA in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting but selection bias is a major issue with nonrandomized data. The precise method of BITA use does not appear to impact graft patency nor clinical outcomes - in other words, BITA in any configuration appears to be protective...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794617/sociodemographic-profile-and-predictors-of-outpatient-clinic-attendance-among-hiv-positive-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-selangor-malaysia
#3
Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Lekhraj Rampal, Norlijah Othman, Faisal Ibrahim, Kadir Shahar Hayati, Anuradha P Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent literature evidence suggests that sociodemographic, economic, and system- and patient-related factors are associated with clinic attendance among the HIV-positive population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) around the world. We examined the factors that predict outpatient clinic attendance among a cohort of HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed secondary data on outpatient clinic attendance and sociodemographic, economic, psychosocial, and patient-related factors among 242 adult Malaysian patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793994/dietary-fatty-acid-intake-after-myocardial-infarction-a-theoretical-substitution-analysis-of-the-alpha-omega-cohort
#4
Famke Jm Mölenberg, Janette de Goede, Anne J Wanders, Peter L Zock, Daan Kromhout, Johanna M Geleijnse
Background: Replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Whether this replacement is beneficial for drug-treated patients with cardiac disease is not yet clear.Objective: In a prospective study of Dutch patients with cardiac disease (Alpha Omega Cohort), we examined the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and IHD mortality when the sum of SFAs and trans fatty acids (TFAs) was theoretically replaced by total UFAs, PUFAs, or cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793785/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-pictorial-aid-intervention-for-medication-adherence-among-hiv-positive-patients-with-comorbid-diabetes-or-hypertension
#5
A K Monroe, J S Pena, R D Moore, K A Riekert, M N Eakin, S Kripalani, G Chander
As the HIV-infected population ages and the burden of chronic comorbidities increases, adherence to medications for HIV and diabetes and hypertension is crucial to improve outcomes. We pilot-tested a pictorial aid intervention to improve medication adherence for both HIV and common chronic conditions. Adult patients with HIV and diabetes (DM) and/or hypertension (HTN) attending a clinic for underserved patients and at risk for poor health outcomes were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either a pictorial aid intervention (a photographic representation of their medications, the indications, and the dosing schedule) or a standard clinic visit discharge medication list...
August 10, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782609/prodrugs-recent-approvals-and-a-glimpse-of-the-pipeline
#6
REVIEW
Jarkko Rautio, Jussi Kärkkäinen, Kenneth B Sloan
Prodrugs offer a versatile strategy to overcome flaws of viable drug candidates or clinically approved drugs. However, the strategic importance of prodrugs in the pharmaceutical industry has often been challenged, and prodrugs are often considered as the last option after lead optimization and when the selected drug candidate has faced significant pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic limitations. Based on recent success in marketed drugs, prodrug strategy should clearly be considered already in early stages of lead optimization...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781219/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-art-observation-training-to-improve-medical-student-ophthalmology-skills
#7
Jaclyn Gurwin, Karen E Revere, Suzannah Niepold, Barbara Bassett, Rebecca Mitchell, Stephanie Davidson, Horace DeLisser, Gil Binenbaum
PURPOSE: Observation and description are critical to the practice of medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular. However, medical education does not provide explicit training in these areas, and medical students are often criticized for deficiencies in these skills. We sought to evaluate the effects of formal observation training in the visual arts on the general and ophthalmologic observational skills of medical students. DESIGN: Randomized, single-masked, controlled trial...
August 3, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777263/a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-to-promote-option-b-retention-in-central-mozambique
#8
James T Pfeiffer, Manuel Napúa, Bradley H Wagenaar, Falume Chale, Roxanne Hoek, Mark Micek, Joao Manuel, Cathy Michel, Jessica Greenberg Cowan, James F Cowan, Sarah Gimbel, Kenneth Sherr, Stephen Gloyd, Rachel R Chapman
BACKGROUND: This randomized trial studied performance of Option B+ in Mozambique, and evaluated an enhanced retention package in public clinics. SETTING: The study was conducted at 6 clinics in Manica and Sofala Provinces in central Mozambique. METHODS: 761 pregnant women tested HIV+, immediately initiated ART, and were followed to track retention at 6 clinics from May 2014 - May 2015. Clinics were randomly allocated within a stepped-wedge fashion to intervention and control periods...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777174/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-other-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-parasomnias
#9
Birgit Ho Gl, Alex Iranzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnia encountered by neurologists is REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and nightmares are so frequent that every neurologist should be able to differentiate them from the dream enactment of RBD. Isolated sleep paralysis is relatively common and is often mistaken for other neurologic disorders. This article summarizes the current state of the art in the diagnosis of RBD, discusses the role of specific questionnaires and polysomnography in the diagnosis of RBD, and reviews recent studies on idiopathic RBD as an early feature of a synucleinopathy, secondary RBD, and its management...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774877/how-i-treat-pediatric-venous-thromboembolism
#10
Guy Young
The incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been increasing significantly in incidence over the past decade in part as a result of increased recognition of this serious disorder but more so due to the increased use of central venous catheters and other technological advancements involved in the care of ill children. Management of pediatric VTE is a complex undertaking considering that the vast majority of children who develop this complication have serious underlying medical disorders. Although the incidence is rising, compared to adults, this remains a relatively rare disorder and as such large scale clinical trials have not been completed rendering management decisions to be based upon extrapolation from adult data and the experience of the treating physician...
August 3, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771116/traditional-health-practitioners-management-of-hiv-aids-in-rural-south-africa-in-the-era-of-widespread-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Thembelihle Zuma, Daniel Wight, Tamsen Rochat, Mosa Moshabela
BACKGROUND: Traditional health practitioners (THPs) have been identified as a key local resource in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in South Africa. However, their approaches to the treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been met with scepticism by some biomedical practitioners amid increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: In light of this ambivalence, this study aims to document and identify treatment approaches of THPs to the management of illness among PLHIV in the current era of widespread access to ART...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770599/effect-of-frequency-of-clinic-visits-and-medication-pick-up-on-antiretroviral-treatment-outcomes-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Nathan Ford, Matthew Wiens, Maria Eugenia Socias, Eyerusalem Negussie, Ping Wu, Evan Popoff, Jay Park, Edward J Mills, Steve Kanters
INTRODUCTION: Expanding and sustaining antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage may require simplified HIV service delivery strategies that concomitantly reduce the burden of care on the health system and patients while ensuring optimal outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of reduced frequency of clinic visits and drug dispensing on patient outcomes. METHODS: As part of the development process of the World Health Organization antiretroviral (ARV) guidelines, we systematically searched medical literature databases for publications up to 30 August 2016...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#13
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768604/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-for-hiv-in-primary-care-a-health-economics-modelling-analysis
#14
Rebecca F Baggaley, Michael A Irvine, Werner Leber, Valentina Cambiano, Jose Figueroa, Heather McMullen, Jane Anderson, Andreia C Santos, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Alec Miners, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Chris J Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Early HIV diagnosis reduces morbidity, mortality, the probability of onward transmission, and their associated costs, but might increase cost because of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigated this trade-off by estimating the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in primary care. METHODS: We modelled the effect of the four-times higher diagnosis rate observed in the intervention arm of the RHIVA2 randomised controlled trial done in Hackney, London (UK), a borough with high HIV prevalence (≥0·2% adult prevalence)...
July 28, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764578/developments-in-early-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-hiv-infection-in-newborns
#15
Francisco Canals, Mar Masiá, Félix Gutiérrez
Infants who acquire HIV have an exceptionally high risk of morbidity and mortality if they do not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on ART in HIV-infected neonates. Data were obtained from literature searches from PubMed, abstracts from International Conferences (2000-2017), and authors' files. Expert opinion: Current evidence favors early diagnosis and prompt ART of HIV infection in newborns. The precise timing of initiation of ART remains undetermined...
August 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760794/comparison-of-a-freeze-all-strategy-including-gnrh-agonist-trigger-versus-a-fresh-transfer-strategy-including-hcg-trigger-in-assisted-reproductive-technology-art-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Sacha Stormlund, Kristine Løssl, Anne Zedeler, Jeanette Bogstad, Lisbeth Prætorius, Henriette Svarre Nielsen, Mona Bungum, Sven O Skouby, Anne Lis Mikkelsen, Anders Nyboe Andersen, Christina Bergh, Peter Humaidan, Anja Pinborg
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758025/pursuing-ethical-coherence-in-the-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-of-hiv-justice-and-injustice-in-option-b
#17
EDITORIAL
Nathan Hodson, Susan Bewley
Improved prevention of vertical transmission of HIV is an essential part of the global response to HIV. The Option B+ strategy took the extraordinary step of treating many non-pregnant women living with HIV (those with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/mm(3)) in the absence of evidence that they themselves would benefit from ART. This example of so-called AIDS exceptionalism reflects an understanding that the global response to HIV demands a different set of morals. This philosophical article explores a retrospective analysis of the ethical arguments made in support of Option B+ incorporating utilitarian, feminist and equity-based frameworks...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757058/immune-correlates-of-protection-for-dengue-state-of-the-art-and-research-agenda
#18
Leah C Katzelnick, Eva Harris
Dengue viruses (DENV1-4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses estimated to cause up to ∼400 million infections and ∼100 million dengue cases each year. Factors that contribute to protection from and risk of dengue and severe dengue disease have been studied extensively but are still not fully understood. Results from Phase 3 vaccine efficacy trials have recently become available for one vaccine candidate, now licensed for use in several countries, and more Phase 2 and 3 studies of additional vaccine candidates are ongoing, making these issues all the more urgent and timely...
July 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756159/automatic-identification-of-high-impact-articles-in-pubmed-to-support-clinical-decision-making
#19
Jiantao Bian, Mohammad Amin Morid, Siddhartha Jonnalagadda, Gang Luo, Guilherme Del Fiol
OBJECTIVES: The practice of evidence-based medicine involves integrating the latest best available evidence into patient care decisions. Yet, critical barriers exist for clinicians' retrieval of evidence that is relevant for a particular patient from primary sources such as randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. To help address those barriers, we investigated machine learning algorithms that find clinical studies with high clinical impact from PubMed®. METHODS: Our machine learning algorithms use a variety of features including bibliometric features (e...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755872/new-approaches-for-the-enhancement-of-chimeric-antigen-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-hiv
#20
REVIEW
Mayra A Carrillo, Anjie Zhen, Jerome A Zack, Scott G Kitchen
HIV infection continues to be a life-long chronic disease in spite of the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling viral replication and preventing disease progression. However, because of the high cost of treatment, severe side effects, and inefficiency in curing the disease with ART, there is a call for alternative therapies that will provide a functional cure for HIV. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the control and clearance of viral infections and therefore immune-based therapies have attempted to engineer HIV-specific CTLs that would be able to clear the infection from the body...
July 14, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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