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Prostate cancer screening

S S Goonewardene, D Gillatt, R Persad
Male Stress Urinary Incontinence is a complication post robotic radical prostatectomy. This is a major problem that needs to be solved, since it has great impact on quality of life affecting the patient's physical activity and social well-being. A systematic review relating to literature on impact of preoperative PFE on continence outcomes for patients undergoing prostatectomy was conducted. The search strategy aimed to identify all references related to pelvic floor exercises and post-prostatectomy. Search terms used were as follows: (Pelvic floor exercises) AND (incontinence) AND (prostatectomy)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Teemu J Murtola, Ville Jy Vihervuori, Jorma Lahtela, Kirsi Talala, Kimmo Taari, Teuvo Lj Tammela, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Diabetic men have lowered overall risk of prostate cancer (PCa), but the role of hyperglycaemia is unclear. In this cohort study, we estimated PCa risk among men with diabetic fasting blood glucose level. METHODS: Participants of the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC) were linked to laboratory database for information on glucose measurements since 1978. The data were available for 17,860 men. Based on the average yearly level, the men were categorised as normoglycaemic, prediabetic, or diabetic...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Rania S Ali, Hosam A Saad
Our current goal is the synthesis of polyheterocyclic compounds starting from 3-amino-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6- b ]indole 1 and studying their anticancer activity to determine whether increasing of the size of the molecules increases the anticancer activity or not. 1-Amino[1,2,4]triazino[3',4':3,4]-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6- b ]indole-2-carbonitrile ( 4 ) was prepared by the diazotization of 3-amino[1,2,4]-triazino[5,6- b ]indole 1 followed by coupling with malononitrile in basic medium then cyclization under reflux to get 4 ...
March 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maryam Khorasani, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Mojgan Asgari, Maryam Abolhasani, Hossein Shahrokh, Ali Afkar, Elham Kalantari, Amir Peymani, Reza Mahdian
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Currently, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam are the main screening tests used for PCa diagnosis. However, due to the low specificity of these tests, new alternative biomarkers such as deregulated RNAs and microRNAs have been implemented. OBJECTIVES: Aberrant expression of small heterodimer partner gene (SHP, NR0B2) and mir-141 are reported in various cancers...
February 28, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
M Malvezzi, G Carioli, P Bertuccio, P Boffetta, F Levi, C La Vecchia, E Negri
Background: We projected cancer mortality statistics for 2018 for the European Union (EU) and its six more populous countries, using the most recent available data. We focused on colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: We obtained cancer death certification data from stomach, colorectum, pancreas, lung, breast, uterus, ovary, prostate, bladder, leukaemia, and total cancers from the World Health Organisation database and projected population data from Eurostat...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Maegan V Mazereeuw, Diana R Withrow, E Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, Eduardo Vides, Loraine D Marrett
BACKGROUND: Métis people are 1 of 3 Aboriginal groups recognized by the Canadian constitution. We estimated site-specific incidence rates and survival for the most common cancers among Métis adults in Canada and compared these with rates among non-Aboriginal adults in Canada. METHODS: We examined responses to the 1991 long-form census, including self-reported Métis ancestry linked to national mortality and cancer databases for followup from 1992 to 2009. We estimated age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival...
March 19, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Heather H Cheng
An estimated one-fifth or more of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) harbor defects in genes involved in DNA repair pathway (e.g., BRCA2, BRCA1, and others). Early evidence suggests these alterations may be predictive of therapeutic response to PARP inhibitors and platinum chemotherapy, thought to reflect principles of synthetic lethality and are currently being investigated in an increasing number of prospective clinical trials. Other studies have examined these alterations as prognostic biomarkers and in association with response to currently available treatments...
March 16, 2018: Urologic Oncology
J M Cozar, I Robles-Fernandez, L J Martinez-Gonzalez, M Pascual-Geler, Alba Rodriguez-Martinez, M J Serrano, J A Lorente, M J Alvarez-Cubero
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The observed variability in progression and responses to the same treatment between patients underlie the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Nowadays, screening and follow-up biomarkers in PC are still having a deep lack of information, which makes difficult the cancer diagnosis, prognosis and the selection of the most suitable therapies. This is making that currently unnecessary biopsies, over-treatments and hormonoresistances have high rates of prevalence among patients...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Matthew J Resnick, Amy J Graves, Sunita Thapa, Robert Gambrel, Mark D Tyson, Daniel Lee, Melinda B Buntin, David F Penson
Importance: Despite rapid diffusion of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), whether ACO enrollment results in observable changes in cancer screening remains unknown. Objective: To determine whether Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) ACO enrollment changes the appropriateness of screening for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this population-based analysis of Medicare beneficiaries, we used Medicare data from 2007 through 2014 and evaluated changes in screening associated with ACO enrollment using differences-in-differences (DD) analyses...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Rick J Jansen, Bruce H Alexander, Richard B Hayes, Anthony B Miller, Sholom Wacholder, Timothy R Church
When some individuals are screen-detected before the beginning of the study, but otherwise would have been diagnosed symptomatically during the study, this results in different case-ascertainment probabilities among screened and unscreened participants, referred to here as lead-time-biased case-ascertainment (LTBCA). In fact, this issue can arise even in risk-factor studies nested within a randomized screening trial; even though the screening intervention is randomly allocated to trial arms, there is no randomization to potential risk-factors and uptake of screening can differ by risk-factor strata...
2018: PloS One
Wenjie Zhong, Kayvan Haghighi, Prem Rathore, Eddy Wong, Pascal Mancuso
Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy to treat localized prostate cancer has increased in popularity, although other options exist, including radiotherapy and active surveillance. The decision about choosing the right treatment has become pertinent for many patients. This literature review aimed to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding decisional aids and the associated decisional outcomes for the purpose of designing a method for both patients and doctors to use to make the best treatment decision for the patient...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Virendra Kumar, Girdhar S Bora, Rajeev Kumar, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. A large number of men are detected with PCa; however, the clinical behavior ranges from low-grade indolent tumors that never develop into a clinically significant disease to aggressive, invasive tumors that may rapidly progress to metastatic disease. The challenges in clinical management of PCa are at levels of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up after treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods have shown a potential role in detection, localization, staging, assessment of aggressiveness, targeting biopsies, etc...
April 2018: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Eric S Zhou, Karen Clark, Christopher J Recklitis, Richard Obenchain, Matthew Loscalzo
PURPOSE: Cancer patients are likely to experience sleep problems. Understanding their perception of sleep problems is important as subjective symptom experience is associated with treatment-seeking behavior. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and its correlates in a large sample of cancer patients at an important but understudied stage of their cancer journey: prior to initiating treatment. METHODS: Cancer patients (5702) (67.5% female; 76.9% White; 23...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
John S Wiener, Dominic C Frimberger, Hadley Wood
Until recently, spina bifida has been regarded a pediatric health issue, and adult consequences of the disorder have not been explored. The congenital neurologic and urologic anomalies, as well as sequelae of bladder management, can have a profound impact on adult male sexual function. Abnormalities in testicular descent, testicular development and function, fertility, penile sensation, erectile function, ejaculatory function, and orgasmic function are common in this population. These adults have substantial gaps in knowledge in normal sexual function and potential dysfunction as it relates to them specifically...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Mark A Henry, David H Howard, Benjamin J Davies, Christopher P Filson
OBJECTIVE To examine how Medicare reimbursement for prostate biopsies was allocated to physicians, ambulatory surgical centers (ASC), and hospitals from 2012-2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS Using Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data (2012-2015), we assessed provider payments to physicians and ASCs for transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies (CPT 55700, 76842, 76972) for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries. Data were aggregated at provider-level for those reporting >10 biopsies per year. Hospital payments were estimated based on Outpatient Prospective Payment System...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Junchao Chen, Clara Oromendia, Joshua A Halpern, Karla V Ballman
PURPOSE: Recent years have brought many changes in the management of localized prostate cancer as national screening guidelines have been updated and diagnostic practice patterns evolved. We sought to better understand how the changing landscape influenced treatment utilization in the United States. METHODS: We used the SEER database in this retrospective analysis of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer between 2004 and 2013. We evaluated utilization of primary treatment modalities over time with descriptive and trend analyses, and examined treatment utilization by cancer risk group and age at diagnosis...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Hong Truong, Leonard G Gomella, Mathew L Thakur, Edouard J Trabulsi
PURPOSE: Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Y Wang, W Guo, H Xu, X Zhu, T Yu, Z Jiang, Q Jiang, X Gang
The study aimed to identify the pivotal genes and pathways involved in prostate cancer metastasis. Using the expression profile dataset GSE7930, downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary and highly metastatic prostate cell samples were screened, followed by functional analysis and tumor associated genes (TAG) screening. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed and module analysis was performed. The expression of DEGs and pathway related genes were evaluated by PCR analysis and the migra- tion ability of prostate tumor cells was observed after FABP4-siRNA blocking...
2018: Neoplasma
Leen Naji, Harkanwal Randhawa, Zahra Sohani, Brittany Dennis, Deanna Lautenbach, Owen Kavanagh, Monica Bawor, Laura Banfield, Jason Profetto
PURPOSE: Although the digital rectal examination (DRE) is commonly performed to screen for prostate cancer, there is limited data to support its use in primary care. This review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of DRE in screening for prostate cancer in primary care settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) from their inception to June 2016...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Stacey A Fedewa, Ted Gansler, Robert Smith, Ann Goding Sauer, Richard Wender, Otis W Brawley, Ahmedin Jemal
PURPOSE: Previous studies report infrequent use of shared decision making for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. It is unknown whether this pattern has changed recently considering increased emphasis on shared decision making in prostate cancer screening recommendations. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine recent changes in shared decision making. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study among men aged 50 years and older in the United States using 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data (n = 9,598)...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
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