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Elham Kateeb, Elizabeth Momany
BACKGROUND: Beliefs about oral health during pregnancy demographic factors, such as level of education and socioeconomic status, are associated with an increased risk of oral diseases during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of pregnant women and the relation to the women's oral health knowledge, beliefs, behaviour, and access to dental care. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, pregnant women visiting pre-natal care clinics at the Palestinian Ministry of Health centres in the Jerusalem governorate were invited to complete a structured interview with questions about beliefs about oral health care and their oral hygiene practices...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Mehran Mazandarani, Naser Pariz
This paper deals with sub-optimal control of a fuzzy linear dynamical system. The aim is to keep the state variables of the fuzzy linear dynamical system close to zero in an optimal manner. In the fuzzy dynamical system, the fuzzy derivative is considered as the granular derivative; and all the coefficients and initial conditions can be uncertain. The criterion for assessing the optimality is regarded as a granular integral whose integrand is a quadratic function of the state variables and control inputs. Using the relative-distance-measure (RDM) fuzzy interval arithmetic and calculus of variations, the optimal control law is presented as the fuzzy state variables feedback...
March 16, 2018: ISA Transactions
Yoshihiko Hasegawa
Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Ayesha Sohail, O A Bég, Zhiwu Li, Sebahattin Celik
The mathematics of imaging is a growing field of research and is evolving rapidly parallel to evolution in the field of imaging. Imaging, which is a sub-field of biomedical engineering, considers novel approaches to visualize biological tissues with the general goal of improving health. "Medical imaging research provides improved diagnostic tools in clinical settings and supports the development of drugs and other therapies. The data acquisition and diagnostic interpretation with minimum error are the important technical aspects of medical imaging...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Toru Takagi, Akira Aoki, Shizuko Ichinose, Yoichi Taniguchi, Noriko Tachikawa, Takeshi Shinoki, Walter Meinzer, Anton Sculean, Yuichi Izumi
BACKGROUND: Recently, the occurrence of peri-implantitis has been increasing. However, a suitable method to debride the contaminated surface of titanium implants has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological changes of the microstructured fixture surface after erbium laser irradiation, and to clarify the effects of the erbium lasers when used to remove calcified deposits from implant fixture surfaces. METHODS: In experiment 1, sandblasted, large grit, acid etched surface implants were treated with Er:YAG laser or Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 30-60 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz with water spray...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
S-Y Kim, M-K Kang, S-M Kang, H-E Kim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the enamel damage caused by ultrasonic scaling of teeth with various enamel conditions that are difficult to identify by visual inspection, such as enamel cracks, early caries and resin restorations. METHODS: In total, 120 tooth surfaces were divided into 4 experimental groups using a quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital system: sound enamel group, enamel cracks group, early caries group and resin restoration group...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Omar N Atta, Hussein H Alhawari, Muayyad M Murshidi, Emad Tarawneh, Mujalli M Murshidi
INTRODUCTION: Ureterocele is a cystic dilatation of the lower part of the ureter. It is a congenital anomaly that is associated with other anomalies such as a duplicated system, and other diseases. It poses a great challenge owing to its numerous types and clinical presentations. Its incidence is 1 in every 4000 individuals. One of its presentations in the adult population is the presence of a stone, usually a solitary stone, inside the ureterocele. CASE PRESENTATION: We are reporting a case of an adult ureterocele complicated by a large calculus; managed endoscopically with transurethral deroofing of the ureterocele followed by cystolitholapaxy...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Meredyth L Jones, Brandon J Dominguez, Michael A Deveau
BACKGROUND: Calcium carbonate is a common urolith type in small ruminants with no high-yield experimental model to evaluate animal susceptibility or preventative measure response. HYPOTHESIS: That novel plastic winged implants would allow accumulation and quantification of calcium carbonate calculus formation in goats on a high-calcium diet and identify individual variation between goats in the mass of calculi produced. ANIMALS: Eight nonpregnant 3- and 4-year-old Boer-cross does, weighing 22...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Colin B Wiebe, Bonnie J Hoath, Gethin Owen, Jiarui Bi, Georgios Giannelis, Hannu S Larjava
Traditionally, periodontal hand instruments are honed or sharpened during patient care as they dull easily during contact with enamel, calculus and cementum. This approach is taught in dental and hygiene schools around the world and remains the standard of care. Recently, some professional organizations have questioned whether this practice should be abandoned because of safety issues. Questions have been raised whether sharpening stones can be properly sterilized and whether the sharpening of contaminated instruments poses a health hazard for the provider...
September 2017: Journal—Canadian Dental Association, Journal de L'Association Dentaire Canadienne
Sang Won Kim, Jun Nyung Lee, Hyun Tae Kim, Eun Sang Yoo
A vesicocutaneous fistula (VCF) is a tract that is formed abnormally between the bladder and the external surface of the body. VCF results in a great deal of inconvenience, discomfort, and physical disability for the affected patient. This condition can be caused by extensive trauma with pelvic bone fracture, radical pelvic surgery, irradiation of pelvic malignancies, hip arthroplasty, a large bladder calculus, and various other pathologies. The management of VCF should be approached on a case-by-case basis because of the complexity of the disease...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Sindhura Kolli, Denzil Etienne, Madhavi Reddy, Ghulamullah Shahzad
A double or accessory common bile duct (ACBD) is a rare congenital anomaly. We report the case of a 60-year-old American Asian male, who was found to have a double or duplicated common bile duct after being admitted for evaluation of a pancreatic mass. A duplicated bile duct has the same mucosa histologically as a single bile duct. However, the opening of a duplicated bile duct lacks a sphincter allowing retrograde flow of gut contents which results in a higher probability of intraductal calculus formation...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
James A Morone, David Blumenthal
There is a formidable historical arc to health care policy: Every modern US president has sought to expand coverage. Democrats eagerly placed the issue on the agenda. Republicans vociferously opposed Democratic proposals but countered with creative ways to expand coverage on their own terms. Democrats eventually absorbed elements of the latest Republican plan-which Republicans, in turn, attacked, and the cycle began anew. The dynamic interaction between the parties slowly, often haphazardly, expanded health insurance as each sought to extend coverage in its own way...
March 2018: Health Affairs
Jianke Zhang, Luyang Yin, Chang Zhou
The purpose of this paper is to solve fractional calculus of variational Herglotz problem depending on an Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative. Since the new Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative is non-singular and non-local, the Euler-Lagrange equations are proposed for the problems of Herglotz. Fractional variational Herglotz problems of variable order are considered and two cases are shown. The Noether-type theorem with this new fractional derivative is proved. Several typical examples of the results of this paper are expressed in this paper...
2018: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
Taekyun Kim, Dae San Kim, Gwan-Woo Jang, Jongkyum Kwon
The problem of counting derangements was initiated by Pierre Rémond de Montmort in 1708 (see Carlitz in Fibonacci Q. 16(3):255-258, 1978, Clarke and Sved in Math. Mag. 66(5):299-303, 1993, Kim, Kim and Kwon in Adv. Stud. Contemp. Math. (Kyungshang) 28(1):1-11 2018. A derangement is a permutation that has no fixed points, and the derangement number [Formula: see text] is the number of fixed-point-free permutations on an n element set. In this paper, we study the derangement polynomials and investigate some interesting properties which are related to derangement numbers...
2018: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
Thivviya Vairamuthu, Susan Pfeiffer
The Late Archaic in northeastern North America (4500-2800 B.P.) pre-dates reliance on pottery and domesticated plants. It is thought to reflect a highly mobile, seasonal migratory foraging/hunting regimen. A juvenile skeleton with pervasive bone wasting and fragile jaws from the Hind Site (AdHk-1), ca. 3000 B.P., southwestern Ontario, provides evidence of the social context of her family group, including aspects of mobility and food management. The well-preserved bones and teeth are considered in bioarchaeological context...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Werner Koch, David J Tannor
Complex-valued classical trajectories in complex time encounter singular times at which the momentum diverges. A closed time contour around such a singular time may result in final values for q and p that differ from their initial values. In this work, we develop a calculus for determining the exponent and prefactor of the asymptotic time dependence of p from the singularities of the potential as the singularity time is approached. We identify this exponent with the number of singularity loops giving distinct solutions to Hamilton's equations of motion...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Kelcy Higa, Stephen Irving, Richard J Cervantes, Jayce Pangilinan, Laura R Slykhouse, Dale P Woolridge, Richard Amini
This report highlights a presentation of urinary calculus impacted at the urethral meatus and bedside extraction after evaluation with point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). Visualization of a stone at the urethral meatus prompted a point-of-care ultrasound of the penile shaft and glans. The ultrasound ruled out anatomic variations such as urethral diverticula and as a result bedside removal was expedited. The stone was successfully removed with traction and intraurethral lidocaine gel without urethral lesions or injury to the meatus...
December 20, 2017: Curēus
Maria Teresa Valente, Eduardo Buozi Moffa, Karla Tonelli Bicalho Crosara, Yizhi Xiao, Thais Marchini de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira Machado, Walter Luiz Siqueira
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that duplication/hybridization of functional domains of naturally occurring pellicle peptides amplified the inhibitory effect of hydroxyapatite crystal growth, which is related to enamel remineralization and dental calculus formation. Histatin 3, statherin, their functional domains (RR14 and DR9), and engineered peptides (DR9-DR9 and DR9-RR14) were tested at seven different concentrations to evaluate the effect on hydroxyapatite crystal growth inhibition. A microplate colorimetric assay was used to quantify hydroxyapatite crystal growth...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tzung-Jiun Tsai, Hoi-Hung Chan, Kwok-Hung Lai, Chih-An Shih, Sung-Shuo Kao, Wei-Chih Sun, E-Ming Wang, Wei-Lun Tsai, Kung-Hung Lin, Hsien-Chung Yu, Wen-Chi Chen, Huay-Min Wang, Feng-Woei Tsay, Huey-Shyan Lin, Jin-Shiung Cheng, Ping-I Hsu
BACKGROUND: In patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS) and intact gallbladder, further management for the gallbladder after the CBDS clearance is still controversial. The relationship between gallbladder motility and the biliary complications were seldom discussed. Our study is to predict the subsequent biliary complications by gallbladder function test using fatty meal sonography (FMS) in patients with CBDS who had been treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
February 27, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Zainal Adwin Zainal Abidin, Firdaus Hayati, Guan Hee Tan, Eng Hong Goh, Jasman Hafidzul, Md Zainuddin Zulkifli
A 46-year gentleman presented with a left-sided lumbar region pain without fever or dysuria. He denied episodes of acute urinary retention. There was a hard mass at the distal urethra with normal laboratory blood tests. Computed tomography urogram revealed a concurrent left renal staghorn calculus and large distal urethral stone. The urethral stone was fragmented via endourologic technique successfully. We report a case of a non-obstructing large urethral calculus in a gentleman with concurrent left renal staghorn calculus and discuss the literature review...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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