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Keats R Conley, Fabien Lombard, Kelly R Sutherland
Mucous-mesh grazers (pelagic tunicates and thecosome pteropods) are common in oceanic waters and efficiently capture, consume and repackage particles many orders of magnitude smaller than themselves. They feed using an adhesive mucous mesh to capture prey particles from ambient seawater. Historically, their grazing process has been characterized as non-selective, depending only on the size of the prey particle and the pore dimensions of the mesh. The purpose of this review is to reverse this assumption by reviewing recent evidence that shows mucous-mesh feeding can be selective...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ching-Hsiang Fan, Ya-Hsuan Lee, Yi-Ju Ho, Chung-Hsin Wang, Shih-Tsung Kang, Chih-Kuang Yeh
The major challenges in treating malignant tumors are transport of therapeutic agents to hypoxic regions and real-time assessment of successful drug release via medical imaging modalities. In this study, we propose the use of macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) as carriers of drug-loaded phase-change droplets to penetrate ischemic or hypoxic regions within tumors. The droplets consist of perfluoropentane, lipid and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX, DOX-droplets). The efficiency of DOX-droplet uptake, migration mobility and viability of DOX-droplet-loaded macrophages (DLMs) were measured using a transmembrane cell migration assay, the alamarBlue assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively...
July 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Hui Jiang, Hao Dong, Xiaowei Peng, Yu Feng, Liangquan Zhu, Kai Niu, Yong Peng, Hongjie Fan, Jiabo Ding
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic epidemics worldwide. Vaccination against brucellosis is an important control strategy to prevent the disease in many high-prevalence regions. At present, Brucella vaccine strain S2 is the most widely used vaccine in China. To uncover the mechanisms underlying virulence attenuation of S2, in this study we characterized the transcriptional profile of S2 and 1330 infected macrophages by transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that expressions of 440 genes were significantly different between macrophages infected by 1330 and S2...
June 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Reginald C Adiele, Chiedukam A Adiele
Brain injuries in multiple sclerosis (MS) involve immunopathological, structural and metabolic defects on myelin sheath, oligodendrocytes (OLs), axons and neurons suggesting that different cellular mechanisms ultimately result in the formation of MS plaques, demyelination, inflammation and brain damage. Bioenergetics, oxygen and ion metabolism dominate the metabolic and biochemical pathways that maintain neuronal viability and impulse transmission which directly or indirectly point to mitochondrial integrity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) availability indicating the involvement of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of MS...
December 13, 2017: Mitochondrion
Zhenzheng Hu, Xiangyi Shi, Bowen Yu, Na Li, Ying Huang, Yongning He
Mannose receptor (MR, CD206) is an endocytic receptor on microphages and dendritic cells. It recognizes multiple ligands and plays important roles in regulating immune responses and maintaining glycoprotein homeostasis. However, the structure and functional mechanism of MR remain unclear. Here we determine the crystal structures of the N-terminal fragments of MR and reveal the potential binding mode of collagen on the fibronectin II domain. The SAXS and other biophysical data suggest that MR adopts an extended conformation at physiological pH and undergoes conformational changes as pH decreases, resulting in a compact conformation in an acidic environment...
January 2, 2018: Structure
Yiting Zhang, Yan Ding, Tai Lu, Yixin Zhang, Ningbo Xu, Lingyan Yu, Devin W McBride, Jerry J Flores, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Germinal matrix hemorrhage is induced by stereotaxic injection of collagenase into the germinal matrix of P7 Sprague-Dawley rats. Hemoglobin assay, western blot, immunofluorescence and neurobehavioral tests were used to test the effects of BLVRA on hematoma resolution and anti-inflammatory response. We showed that BLVRA triggered a signaling cascade that ameliorated post-hemorrhagic neurological deficits in both short-term and long-term neurobehavioral tests in a GMH rat model. Specifically, BLVRA inhibited toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression by translocating to the nucleus in an endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS)/nitric oxide (NO)-dependent manner...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Wang Zhongchao, Fan Liyuan, Tan Dan, Zhou Cong, Luo Shijun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect of enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) inhibitor GSK343 on periodontitis by regulating microphage differentiation. METHODS: Macrophage RAW264.7 cells were divided into the blank (A group), control (B group), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation (C group), and LPS+GSK343 (D group) groups. Phenotype transformations was determined through Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by detecting the differentiation of phenotypic biological markers, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Arginase-1 (Arg-1)...
June 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Wei-Qiang Chen, Zuo-Zhou Xie, Xiang Wang, Jin-Hong Zhao, Qin Hu, Ying-Hua Chen, Wen-Yong Gao, Yi Liu
This study aims to explore the influences of Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) involved in airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. Mice were divided into control, asthma, asthma + PON1 and asthma + NC groups, and asthma models were established via aerosol inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA). HE, Masson, and PAS stains were used to observe airway inflammation and remodeling, Giemsa staining to assess inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), qRT-PCR and Western blot to detect PON1 expression, lipid peroxidation and glutathione assays to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) levels, ELISA to determine inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin, and colorimetry to detect PON1 activities...
January 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yu Gao, Hong-Mei Zhang, Pi-Wu Wang, Mei Li
BACKGROUND: Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) accelerates the intrinsically slow conversion between cis- and trans- configurations of proline, thus affecting backbone conformation and altering the direction of peptide chains. PPIase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato (PSPTO) DC3000 (PSPTO-PPIase) is considered to belong to the FKBP subfamily of PPIase. OBJECTIVE: To solve the high resolution structure of the PSPTO-PPIase, and to explore its potential function in plants pathogen PSPTO DC3000...
2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Xinli Wen, Pan Zhai, Ruonan Feng, Ruijie Yang, Yilong Xi
Little research has focused on how rotifer communities respond to eutrophication based on their combined taxonomic and functional indices. In this research, the relationship of the environment and rotifer communities was comparatively investigated in two subtropical lakes over one year. The taxon-based indices, including species number (S), Margalef index (D), Simpson index (d), Shannon-wiener index (H'), and functional traits relying on the guild ratio (GR) and the modified guild ratio (GR') from the moderately eutrophic Lake Xiyanghu were significantly lower than those from the slightly eutrophic Lake Jinghu...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rui Qing, Zezhi Huang, Yufei Tang, Qingke Xiang, Fan Yang
AIMS: The present study is to investigate the effect of cordycepin on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microphages, as well as its mechanism of action. METHODS: Mouse RAW264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of cordycepin for 0-16h. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of HO-1 and the phosphorylation of c-Src and the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined using H2 DCFDA as fluorescent probe...
June 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Soha R Youssef, Sherif F Hendawy, Noha H Boshnak, Mariana S Sedhom
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent among pregnant women particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the iron status among Egyptian pregnant women and its impact on their neutrophil's count and antimicrobial functions. METHOD: Ninety pregnant females underwent complete blood count, iron profile, flow cytometric studies for neutrophil myeloperoxidase expression & oxidative burst using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation as well as neutrophil phagocytic and lytic indices...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Shan Zhong, Lei Zhao, Yan Wang, Chang Zhang, Jun Liu, Pei Wang, Wei Zhou, Ping Yang, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
AIMS: Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is involved in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Excess CD36 facilitates liver cells taking fatty acid and activates inflammatory signals to promote hepatic steatosis and inflammation. However, CD36 deficiency paradoxically promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by unknown mechanisms. We explored the probable molecular mechanism of hepatic inflammation induced by CD36 deficiency. RESULTS: CD36 deletion in mice (CD36-/- mice) specifically increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in hepatocytes, promoted macrophage migration to the liver, and aggravated hepatic inflammatory response and fibrosis...
August 1, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Byong H Lee, Deog H Oh
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Optimizing blood pressure results in an overall health outcome. Over the years, the gut microbiota has been found to play a significant role in host metabolic processes, immunity, and physiology. Dietary strategies have therefore become a target for restoring disturbed gut microbiota to treat metabolic diseases. Probiotics and their fermented products have been shown in many studies to lower blood pressure by suppressing nitrogen oxide production in microphages, reducing reactive oxygen species, and enhancing dietary calcium absorption...
June 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Juan E Uribe, Suzanne T Williams, José Templado, Barbara Buge, Rafael Zardoya
The subfamily Cantharidinae Gray, 1857 (Trochoidea: Trochidae) includes 23 recognized genera and over 200 known living species. These marine top shell snails are microphagous grazers that generally live in shallow rocky shores and in macroalgae and seagrass beds of sub-tropical and temperate waters from the Central and Western Indo-Pacific biogeographic regions to the Mediterranean Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revising the family Trochidae supported the monophyly of the subfamily Cantharidinae and its sister group relationship to the subfamily Stomatellinae...
February 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Feiyue Zhang, Xiaowen Liang, Wenzhu Zhang, Yong-Lei Wang, Haolu Wang, Yousuf H Mohammed, Bo Song, Run Zhang, Jingli Yuan
Although hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has long been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases in mammalian bodies, the functions of HOCl in specific organs at abnormal conditions, such as liver injury, remain unclear due to its high reactivity and the lack of effective methods for its detection. Herein, a unique Ir(III) complex-based chemosensor, Ir-Fc, was developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of HOCl. Ir-Fc was designed by incorporating a ferrocene (Fc) quencher to a Ir(III) complex through a HOCl-responsive linker...
January 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Zedong Wang, Shuchao Wang, Wei Wang, Yi Gu, Huanhuan Liu, Feng Wei, Quan Liu
Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, encodes two casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms, CK1α and CK1β, with only CK1α having enzyme activity. Here we investigated the biological role of CK1α by construction of a CK1α deletion mutant (Δck1α) based on the type I parasite, and complement the mutant with restored expression of CK1α. Deletion of CK1α resulted in markedly defective parasite replication in vitro. Infected mice with Δck1α parasite caused suppression of IL-12 production, severe liver damage, higher tissue burdens, and short survival time relative to the CK1α-positive parental strain...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Soniya Sukumaran, Tejal Vijapure, Priti Kubal, Jyoti Mulik, M A Rokade, Shailesh Salvi, Jubin Thomas, V S Naidu
Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery...
2016: PloS One
Justin C Havird, Scott R Santos
Many crustacean species progress through a series of metamorphoses during the developmental transition from embryo to adult. The molecular genetic basis of this transition, however, is not well characterized for a large number of crustaceans. Here, we employ multiple RNA-Seq methodologies to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between "early" (i.e., Z1 - Z2 ) as well as "late" (i.e., Z3 - Z4 ) larval and adult developmental stages of Halocaridina rubra Holthuis (1963), an atyid shrimp endemic to the environmentally variable anchialine ecosystem of the Hawaiian Islands...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Felipe Gusmão, Maikon Di Domenico, A Cecilia Z Amaral, Alejandro Martínez, Brett C Gonzalez, Katrine Worsaae, Juliana A Ivar do Sul, Paulo da Cunha Lana
Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites...
September 2016: Environmental Pollution
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