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Reticular Formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445639/toward-covalent-organic-frameworks-bearing-three-different-kinds-of-pores-the-strategy-for-construction-and-cof-to-cof-transformation-via-heterogeneous-linker-exchange
#1
Cheng Qian, Qiao-Yan Qi, Guo-Fang Jiang, Fu-Zhi Cui, Yuan Tian, Xin Zhao
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of crystalline porous organic materials which are fabricated via reticular chemistry. Their topologic structures can be precisely predicted on the basis of the structures of building blocks. However, constructing COF with complicated structures has remained a great challenge, due to the limited strategies that can access to structural complexity of COFs. In this work, we have developed a new approach to produce COFs bearing three different kinds of pores...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424968/visualization-of-reticulophagy-in-living-cells-using-an-endoplasmic-reticulum-targeted-p62-mutant
#2
Liang Wang, Lei Liu, Lingsong Qin, Qingming Luo, Zhihong Zhang
Reticulophagy is a type of selective autophagy in which protein aggregate-containing and/or damaged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fragments are engulfed for lysosomal degradation, which is important for ER homeostasis. Several chemical drugs and mutant proteins that promote protein aggregate formation within the ER lumen can efficiently induce reticulophagy in mammalian cells. However, the exact mechanism and cellular localization of reticulophagy remain unclear. In this report, we took advantage of the self-oligomerization property of p62/SQSTM1, an adaptor for selective autophagy, and developed a novel reticulophagy system based on an ER-targeted p62 mutant to investigate the process of reticulophagy in living cells...
April 13, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420469/-heparin-reduces-endothelial-cell-damage-induced-by-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#3
Yanting Qiao, Jing Jiang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Clarify the effect of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on endothelial cell injury, and investigate whether the heparin can exert a protective effect on endothelial cells by reducing the endothelial cell injury induced by NETs. METHODS: Neutrophils (PMN) were obtained from healthy human peripheral blood by Percoll-Histopaque density gradient centrifugation, and was stimulated with phorbol ester (PMA) to induce NETs. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of NETs was detected by immunofluorescence staining combined with fluorescence detector...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394483/corticobulbar-projections-from-distinct-motor-cortical-areas-to-the-reticular-formation-in-macaque-monkeys
#4
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adja Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tact, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analyzed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347678/one-and-a-half-syndrome-following-penetrating-head-injury-case-report
#5
Mathew R Voisin, Sanskriti Sasikumar, Jeremy H Russell, Gelareh Zadeh
The authors report a case of a 22-year-old otherwise healthy female who presented following a head injury during a bar altercation, with no associated loss of consciousness and an unknown mechanism of injury. Examination revealed an isolated 1cm laceration on the right upper eyelid, superior to her medial canthus. She experienced diplopia on right horizontal gaze due to a left internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) with an associated left conjugate horizontal gaze palsy, collectively described as a left one-and-a-half syndrome...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#6
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337130/the-brainstem-in-emotion-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Brian L Edlow, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322869/scaffold-free-high-throughput-generation-of-quiescent-valvular-microtissues
#8
Annelies Roosens, Inès Puype, Ria Cornelissen
AIMS: The major challenge of working with valvular interstitial cells in vitro is the preservation or recovery of their native quiescent state. In this study, a biomimetic approach is used which aims to engineer small volume, high quality valve microtissues, having a potential in regenerative medicine and as a relevant 3D in vitro model to provide insights into valve (patho)biology. METHODS AND RESULTS: To form micro-aggregates, porcine valvular interstitial cells were seeded in agarose micro-wells and cultured in medium supplemented with 250μM Ascorbic Acid 2-phosphate for 22days...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293461/a-rare-cause-of-cytopenia-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-autoimmune-myelofibrosis
#9
Döndü Üsküdar Cansu, Hava Üsküdar Teke, Cengiz Korkmaz
Hematological abnormalities are very common in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Myelofibrosis is a bone marrow disorder in which there is excessive fibrous tissue formation in the bone marrow. Various benign and malignant disorders can cause or be associated with a diffuse increase in the bone marrow reticular tissue. Some diseases such as infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune diseases may also induce bone marrow fibrosis (secondary myelofibrosis). Cytopenia from autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) in SLE is a rare condition...
March 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286099/tinnitus-and-hyperacusis-contributions-of-paraflocculus-reticular-formation-and-stress
#10
Yu-Chen Chen, Guang-Di Chen, Benjamin D Auerbach, Senthilvelan Manohar, Kelly Radziwon, Richard Salvi
Tinnitus and hyperacusis are common and potentially serious hearing disorders associated with noise-, age- or drug-induced hearing loss. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus and hyperacusis are linked to excessive neural activity in a distributed brain network that not only includes the central auditory pathway, but also brain regions involved in arousal, emotion, stress and motor control. Here we examine electrophysiological changes in two novel non-auditory areas implicated in tinnitus and hyperacusis: the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC), involved in arousal, and the paraflocculus lobe of the cerebellum (PFL), implicated in head-eye coordination and gating tinnitus and we measure the changes in corticosterone stress hormone levels...
March 7, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#11
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
March 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242738/neuronal-control-of-fixation-and-fixational-eye-movements
#12
REVIEW
Richard J Krauzlis, Laurent Goffart, Ziad M Hafed
Ocular fixation is a dynamic process that is actively controlled by many of the same brain structures involved in the control of eye movements, including the superior colliculus, cerebellum and reticular formation. In this article, we review several aspects of this active control. First, the decision to move the eyes not only depends on target-related signals from the peripheral visual field, but also on signals from the currently fixated target at the fovea, and involves mechanisms that are shared between saccades and smooth pursuit...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231568/fiber-connections-of-the-caudal-corpus-cerebelli-with-special-reference-to-the-intrinsic-circuitry-in-a-teleost-oreochromis-niloticus
#13
Kosuke Imura, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Masami Yoshimoto, Masato Endo, Kengo Funakoshi, Hironobu Ito
The caudal part of the corpus cerebelli of Nile tilapia can be divided into dorsal and ventral regions. The granule cell layer of the dorsal (dGL) and ventral (vGL) regions of the caudal corpus cerebelli is known to receive indirect inputs from the telencephalon relayed by the nucleus paracommissuralis. The descending pathways are topographically organized, and the dGL and vGL receive inputs from different dorsal telencephalic parts. The caudal corpus cerebelli, in turn, projects extracerebellar efferents. However, it remains unknown how the descending telencephalic inputs are processed within the cerebellum...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#14
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222099/morphological-study-of-tooth-development-in-podoplanin-deficient-mice
#15
Kenyo Takara, Naoki Maruo, Kyoko Oka, Chiaki Kaji, Yuji Hatakeyama, Naruhiko Sawa, Yukinari Kato, Junro Yamashita, Hiroshi Kojima, Yoshihiko Sawa
Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217890/cerebellar-hemangioblastoma-with-perivascular-pseudorosette-formation-and-glial-differentiation-a-case-report
#16
Jian Wang, Xu-Yong Lin, Xue-Shan Qiu, En-Hua Wang, Lian-He Yang, Juan-Han Yu
Hemangioblastoma is a well-circumscribed, highly vascular, lipid-rich and low-grade tumor of uncertain histogenesis. Its histopathological features have been well established. Herein, we present a case of cerebellar hemangioblastoma in a 43-year-old woman. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly composed of cellular areas showing eosinophilic or vacuolated stromal cells arranged in nests and sheets. Focally, conventional reticular areas could be seen. Additionally, in some areas, the stromal cells were arranged radially around blood vessels, exhibiting perivascular pseudorosette structures, which were similar mostly to those of ependymomas...
August 24, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210848/prefrontal-hippocampal-coupling-by-theta-rhythm-and-by-2-5%C3%A2-hz-oscillation-in-the-delta-band-the-role-of-the-nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus
#17
Alexis Roy, Frans Pettersson Svensson, Amna Mazeh, Bernat Kocsis
Rhythmic synchronizations of hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) at theta frequencies (4-8 Hz) are thought to mediate key cognitive functions, and disruptions of HC-PFC coupling were implicated in psychiatric diseases. Theta coupling is thought to represent a HC-to-PFC drive transmitted via the well-described unidirectional HC projection to PFC. In comparison, communication in the PFC-to-HC direction is less understood, partly because no known direct anatomical connection exists. Two recent findings, i...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188328/neurons-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-receive-converging-inputs-from-the-hindlimb-and-labyrinth
#18
Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Samuel R Wittman, Bill J Yates, Andrew A McCall
The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183605/obtaining-the-palygorskite-chitosan-composite-for-modified-release-of-5-aminosalicylic-acid
#19
Ana Cristina Sousa Gramoza Vilarinho Santana, José Lamartine Soares Sobrinho, Edson Cavalcanti da Silva Filho, Livio Cesar Cunha Nunes
This study's aim was to obtain composites from palygorskite (PLG) and chitosan (CS) in order to modify 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) release. Initially, the PLG:CS composite was obtained using glutaraldehyde (GLA) as a reticular agent. Then, PLG, CS and PLG:CS were characterized by means of analytical techniques such as CHN elemental analysis, surface area analysis, XRD, FTIR, DSC and TG, SEM, adsorption tests and release profiles. Based on analytical data, the formation of the PLG:CS composite which showed the presence about 19% of CS, decrease in specific surface area, morphological analysis modified, visible change of crystallinity, of FTIR and thermal analysis...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177529/a-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-projection-to-medial-rectus-motoneurons-supplying-singly-and-multiply-innervated-extraocular-muscle-fibers
#20
Martin O Bohlen, Susan Warren, Paul J May
We recently demonstrated a bilateral projection to the supraoculomotor area from the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF), a region implicated in horizontal gaze changes. C-group motoneurons, which supply multiply innervated fibers in the medial rectus muscle, are located within the primate supraoculomotor area, but their inputs and function are poorly understood. Here, we tested whether C-group motoneurons in Macaca fascicularis monkeys receive a direct cMRF input by injecting this portion of the reticular formation with anterograde tracers in combination with injection of retrograde tracer into the medial rectus muscle...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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