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Reticular Formation

Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Sameh K Elsaidi, Mona H Mohamed, John S Loring, Bernard Peter McGrail, Praveen K Thallapally
The synthetic approaches for fine-tuning the structural properties of coordination polymers or metal organic frameworks have exponentially grown during the last decade. This is due to the control over the properties of the resulting structures such as stability, pore size, pore chemistry and surface area for myriad possible applications. Herein, we present a new class of porous materials called Covalent Coordination Frameworks (CCFs) that were designed and effectively synthesized using a two-step reticular chemistry approach...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Paul Hasler, Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes are the first responders of the immune system to threats by invading microorganisms. In the traditional view, they combat the intruders by phagocytosis and externalisation of granules containing lytic and microbicidal factors. A dozen years ago, this concept was expanded by the observation that neutrophils may react to bacteria by extruding their nuclear chromosomal DNA with attached nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents to form extracellular reticular structures. Since they trapped and immobilised the microbes, they were designated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and their ensuing cell death NETosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Kentaro Hayashi, Yoko Mochizuki, Ryoko Takeuchi, Toshio Shimizu, Masahiro Nagao, Kazuhiko Watabe, Nobutaka Arai, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Osamu Onodera, Masaharu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Eiji Isozaki
In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that had progressed to result in a totally locked-in state (communication Stage V), in which all voluntary movements are lost and communication is impossible. In 11 patients, six had phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (pTDP-43)-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), two had fused in sarcoma (FUS)-ir NCI, and three had copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-ir NCI...
September 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Cindy Mai, Stijn E Verleden, John E McDonough, Stijn Willems, Walter De Wever, Johan Coolen, Adriana Dubbeldam, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Eric K Verbeken, Geert M Verleden, James C Hogg, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim A Wuyts, Johny A Verschakelen
Purpose To elucidate the underlying lung changes responsible for the computed tomographic (CT) features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and to gain insight into the way IPF proceeds through the lungs and progresses over time. Materials and Methods Micro-CT studies of tissue cores obtained from explant lungs were examined and were correlated 1:1 with a CT study obtained immediately before transplantation. Samples for histologic analysis were obtained from selected cores. Results In areas with no or minimal abnormalities on CT images, small areas of increased attenuation located in or near the interlobular septa can be seen on micro-CT studies...
October 6, 2016: Radiology
Dalal Alezi, Ioannis Spanopoulos, Constantinos Tsangarakis, Aleksander Shkurenko, Karim Adil, Youssef Belmabkhout, Michael O Keeffe, Mohamed Eddaoudi, Pantelis N Trikalitis
The ability to direct the assembly of hexagonal building units offers great prospective to construct the awaited and looked-for hypothetical polybenzene (pbz) or "cubic graphite" structure, described 70 years ago. Here, we demonstrate the successful use of reticular chemistry as an appropriate strategy for the design and deliberate construction of a zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with the intricate pbz underlying net topology. The judicious selection of the perquisite hexagonal building units, six connected organic and inorganic building blocks, allowed the formation of the pbz-MOF-1, the first example of a Zr(IV)-based MOF with pbz topology...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Michael M Halassa, László Acsády
The thalamus is the major source of cortical inputs shaping sensation, action, and cognition. Thalamic circuits are targeted by two major inhibitory systems: the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and extrathalamic inhibitory (ETI) inputs. A unifying framework of how these systems operate is currently lacking. Here, we propose that TRN circuits are specialized to exert thalamic control at different spatiotemporal scales. Local inhibition of thalamic spike rates prevails during attentional selection, whereas global inhibition more likely prevails during sleep...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
Andrew D Doyle
Rat tail collagen solutions have been used as polymerizable in vitro three dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) gels for single and collective cell migration assays as well as spheroid formation. Factors such as ECM concentration, pH, ionic concentration, and temperature can alter collagen polymerization and ECM architecture. This unit describes how to generate 3D collagen gels that have distinct architectures ranging from a highly reticular meshwork of short thin fibrils with small pores to a loose matrix consisting of stiff, parallel-bundled long fibrils by changing collagen polymerization temperature...
2016: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Shoko Nagata, Shiro Nakamura, Kiyomi Nakayama, Ayako Mochizuki, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tomio Inoue
Dendrites of masseter (jaw-closing) motoneurons (MMNs) are well developed and ramify extensively throughout the trigeminal motor nucleus and often extend into the adjacent reticular formation. It is possible that the dendrites have active properties, which are altered with the development of the orofacial musculoskeletal system. Thus, we examined the changes in somatic voltage responses evoked by photostimulation of the MMN dendrites by laser photolysis of caged glutamate from postnatal day (P) 2-5 and 9-12 rats...
August 24, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Noelle R Catarineu, Alexander Schoedel, Philipp Urban, Maureen B Morla, Christopher A Trickett, Omar M Yaghi
Structural diversity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been largely limited to linkers with at most two different types of coordinating groups. MOFs constructed from linkers with three or more nonidentical coordinating groups have not been explored. Here, we report a robust and porous crystalline MOF, Zn3(PBSP)2 or MOF-910, constructed from a novel linker PBSP (phenylyne-1-benzoate, 3-benzosemiquinonate, 5-oxidopyridine) bearing three distinct types of coordinative functionality. The MOF adopts a complex and previously unreported topology termed tto...
August 31, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Thong D Pham, Jonathan D Trobe
BACKGROUND: Impairment of unidirectional horizontal saccades with sparing of smooth pursuit has been described in human lesions in the dorsomedial pons. They have been too large to allow localization to the pontine paramedian reticular formation (PPRF). METHODS: Single case report. RESULTS: A patient with impaired rightward saccades but spared rightward pursuit eye movements had a brain MRI showing a discrete area of restricted diffusion in the region corresponding to the PPRF...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
N E Sharanova, N V Kirbaeva, I Yu Toropygin, E V Khryapova, E V Koplik, C Kh Soto, S S Pertsov, A V Vasiliev
We compared proteome profiles of selected brain areas (cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and reticular formation) and measured cathepsins B and D activity in liver lysosomal fraction in rats with different behavioral activity under conditions of emotional stress. In passive rats, the expression of some proteins in various brain regions was changed and baseline cathepsin B activity was higher than in active animals. Taken together, the results attest to differences in the adaptive response formation in rats, depending on behavioral features...
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
N P Loginova, V A Chetvertnykh, N V Chemurziyeva
Biopsy specimens of the thymus were studied in children aged under 11 months (n = 77) with congenital heart defects and circulatory hypoxia of varying severity. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Shubich's method (to demonstrate mast cells). The expression of Ki-67, CD3 and CD34 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The ultrastructure of thymic tissues was also examined. It was found that the severity of hypoxia determined the morphological changes in the organ associated with a development of large complex of tissue reactions...
2016: Morfologi︠a︡
Shannon H Romer, Kari Seedle, Sarah M Turner, Jie Li, Mark L Baccei, Steven A Crone
Inspiratory accessory respiratory muscles (ARMs) enhance ventilation when demands are high, such as during exercise and/or pathological conditions. Despite progressive degeneration of phrenic motor neurons innervating the diaphragm, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and rodent models are able to maintain ventilation at early stages of disease. In order to assess the contribution of ARMs to respiratory compensation in ALS, we examined the activity of ARMs and ventilation throughout disease progression in SOD1(G93A) ALS model mice at rest using a combination of electromyography and unrestrained whole body plethysmography...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Ashok Kumar, Baljinder Singh, Girish Mahajan, Parduman R Sharma, Sandip B Bharate, Mubashir J Mintoo, Dilip M Mondhe
Colchicine, an antimitotic alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale, is a classical drug for treatment of gout and familial Mediterranean fever. It causes antiproliferative effects through the inhibition of microtubule formation, which leads to mitotic arrest and cell death by apoptosis. Here, we report that a novel colchicine analog, 4o (N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-chlorophenylamino]-5,6,7,9-tetrahydrobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamide), which exhibited potent anticancer activities both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Lorenzo Alibardi
The development and cornification of the ramphoteca (beak) in turtles are not known. The microscopic aspects of beak formation have been analyzed in the pleurodirian turtle Emydura macquarii using histological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural methods. At embryonic Stage 15 the maxillar beak is originated from discontinuous placodes (one frontal and two oral) formed in the epidermis above and below the mouth that later merge into the epidermis of the beak. The mandibular beak is formed by two lateral placodes...
October 2016: Journal of Morphology
Yukinori Terada, Hiroki Toda, Ryosuke Okumura, Naokado Ikeda, Yoshiaki Yuba, Toshiro Katayama, Koichi Iwasaki
PURPOSE: Microcystic meningioma, a rare meningioma subtype, can present diagnostic difficulty. We aimed to investigate the historadiological properties of microcystic meningioma using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) analysis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed conventional MRI and DWI results of six microcystic meningioma cases by examining their appearance and determining their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Neuroradiology
Heidi R Fuller, Lucia Marani, Ian Holt, Peter L Woodhams, Michael M Webb, Monte A Gates
Almost 30 years ago, the monoclonal antibody Py was developed to detect pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus. The utility of this antibody quickly expanded when several groups discovered that it could be used to identify very specific populations of neurons in the normal, developing, and diseased or injured central nervous system. Despite this body of literature, the identity of the antigen that the Py antibody recognizes remained elusive. Here, immunoprecipitation experiments from the adult rat cortex identified the Py antigen as neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H)...
June 16, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Jiawei He, Yuan Long, Yiyan Wang, Chaoliang Wei, Jingjing Zhan
This Research Article described a facile one-step method to prepare reticulated N-doped carbonaceous submicron spheres. Through a simple aerosol-assisted technology, glucosamine sulfate used as a carbon source was aerosolized and carbonized to functionalized carbonaceous submicron spheres. The electrostatic attraction between protonated amino groups and sulfate in the aerosol droplets induced a self-assembly and led to the formation of reticular structure, avoiding the use of templates. Compared to bare carbonaceous materials produced from glucose, reticulated N-doped carbonaceous spheres exhibit higher efficiency in the removal of Cr(VI), where the doping of element nitrogen led to electrostatic attraction between protonated nitrogen and chromium ions, and reticulated structure created relatively higher surface area and pore volume, facilitating materials to contact with Cr(VI) ions...
July 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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