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Reticular Formation

E V Aleksandrova, A I Batalov, E L Pogosbekyan, N E Zakharova, L M Fadeeva, A D Kravchuk, I N Pronin, A A Potapov
The study purpose was to develop a technique for intravital visualization of the brainstem reticular formation fibers in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 21 subjects (13 males and 8 females) aged 21 to 62 years. The study was performed on a magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a magnetic field strength of 3 T in T1, T2, T2-FLAIR, DWI, and SWI modes. A CSD-HARDI algorithm was used to identify thin intersecting fibers of the reticular formatio...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Ashfaqul Hoque, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Simon T Bond, Naomi X Y Ling, Anne M Kong, John W Scott, Nadeeka Bandara, Damián Hernández, Guei-Sheung Liu, Raymond C B Wong, Michael T Ryan, Derek J Hausenloy, Bruce E Kemp, Jonathan S Oakhill, Brian G Drew, Alice Pébay, Shiang Y Lim
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a valuable tool for studying the cardiac developmental process in vitro, and cardiomyocytes derived from iPSCs are a putative cell source for personalized medicine. Changes in mitochondrial morphology have been shown to occur during cellular reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell differentiation. However, the relationships between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac mesoderm commitment of iPSCs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that changes in mitochondrial morphology from a small granular fragmented phenotype in pluripotent stem cells to a filamentous reticular elongated network in differentiated cardiomyocytes are required for cardiac mesodermal differentiation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Zhengmu Wang, Hongbin Zhang, Axel J Chu, John Jackson, Karen Lin, Chinten James Lim, Dirk Lange, Mu Chiao
Well-organized composite formations such as hierarchical nested-network (NN) structure in bone tissue and reticular connective tissue present remarkable mechanical strength and play a crucial role in achieving physical and biological functions for living organisms. Inspired by these delicate microstructures in nature, an analogous scaffold of double network hydrogel was fabricated by creating a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) network in the porous structure of alginate hydrogels. The resulting hydrogel possessed hierarchical NN structure and showed significantly improved mechanical strength but still maintained high elasticity comparable to soft tissues due to a mutual strengthening effect between the two networks...
February 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Pierre Simonet, Karen Gaget, Séverine Balmand, Mélanie Ribeiro Lopes, Nicolas Parisot, Kurt Buhler, Gabrielle Duport, Veerle Vulsteke, Gérard Febvay, Abdelaziz Heddi, Hubert Charles, Patrick Callaerts, Federica Calevro
Symbiotic associations play a pivotal role in multicellular life by facilitating acquisition of new traits and expanding the ecological capabilities of organisms. In insects that are obligatorily dependent on intracellular bacterial symbionts, novel host cells (bacteriocytes) or organs (bacteriomes) have evolved for harboring beneficial microbial partners. The processes regulating the cellular life cycle of these endosymbiont-bearing cells, such as the cell-death mechanisms controlling their fate and elimination in response to host physiology, are fundamental questions in the biology of symbiosis...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kevin K Ohlemiller, Tejbeer Kaur, Mark E Warchol, Robert H Withnell
The endocochlear potential (EP) provides part of the electrochemical drive for sound-driven currents through cochlear hair cells. Intense noise exposure (110 dB SPL, 2 h) differentially affects the EP in three inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 [B6], CBA/J [CBA], BALB/cJ [BALB]) (Ohlemiller and Gagnon, 2007, Hearing Research 224:34-50; Ohlemiller et al., 2011, JARO 12:45-58). At least for mice older than 3 mos, B6 mice are unaffected, CBA mice show temporary EP reduction, and BALB mice may show temporary or permanent EP reduction...
February 1, 2018: Hearing Research
David Écija, José I Urgel, Ari P Seitsonen, Willi Auwärter, Johannes V Barth
Metallo-supramolecular engineering on surfaces provides a powerful strategy toward low-dimensional coordination architectures with prospects for several application fields. To date, most efforts have relied on transition metal centers, and only recently did we pioneer lanthanide-directed assembly. Coordination spheres and motifs with rare-earth elements generally display distinct properties and structural features. The size of the cations and shielding role of the 4f orbitals induces high coordination numbers, frequently entailing flexible coordination geometries...
February 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Stephan Knöchner, K Kronberg, U Schumann
ANAMNESIS:  A 47-year-old recreational sportsman showed in a routine ergometry polymorphic ventricular extrasystoles with good physical performance. INVESTIGATIONS:  In resting ECG impressed ventricular extrasystoles (VES) predominantly right-hand-block-like with superior axis, a long-term ECG yielded up to 100 VES per hour. Echocardiographically imposing 4 - 5 trabeculae, feathered, reticular structures apically in the left and lower in the right ventricle...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Federico Verde, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Albert Ludolph
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. ALS shares with a considerable proportion of FTD cases the same neuropathological substrate, namely, inclusions of abnormally phosphorylated protein TDP-43 (pTDP-43). In analogy with pathological staging systems elaborated in the past decades for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), a model of staging of pTDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS (sALS) has been recently proposed...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Maosen Wang, Yi He, Terrence J Sejnowski, Xin Yu
Astrocytic Ca2+-mediated gliovascular interactions regulate the neurovascular network in situ and in vivo. However, it is difficult to measure directly both the astrocytic activity and fMRI to relate the various forms of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signaling to brain states under normal and pathological conditions. In this study, fMRI and GCaMP-mediated Ca2+ optical fiber recordings revealed distinct evoked astrocytic Ca2+ signals that were coupled with positive BOLD signals and intrinsic astrocytic Ca2+ signals that were coupled with negative BOLD signals...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katharina Helene Susek, Eva Korpos, Jula Huppert, Chuan Wu, Irina Savelyeva, Frank Rosenbauer, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Steffen Koschmieder, Lydia Sorokin
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) functions are regulated by a specialized microenvironment in the bone marrow - the hematopoietic stem cell niche - of which the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an integral component. We describe here the localization of ECM molecules, in particular the laminin α4, α3 and α5 containing isoforms in the bone marrow. Laminin 421 (composed of laminin α4, β2, γ1 chains) is identified as a major component of the bone marrow ECM, occurring abundantly surrounding venous sinuses and in a specialized reticular fiber network of the intersinusoidal spaces of murine bone marrow (BM) in close association with HSPC...
January 19, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Marjolijn Deprez, Kelly Luyck, Laura Luyten, Tim Tambuyzer, Bart Nuttin, Myles Mc Laughlin
Despite the current success of neuromodulation, standard biphasic, rectangular pulse shapes may not be optimal to achieve symptom alleviation. Here, we compared stimulation efficiency (in terms of charge) between complex and standard pulses in two areas of the rat brain. In motor cortex, Gaussian and interphase gap stimulation (IPG) increased stimulation efficiency in terms of charge per phase compared with a standard pulse. Moreover, IPG stimulation of the deep mesencephalic reticular formation in freely moving rats was more efficient compared to a standard pulse...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rana A Eser, Alexander J Ehrenberg, Cathrine Petersen, Sara Dunlop, Maria B Mejia, Claudia K Suemoto, Christine M Walsh, Hima Rajana, Jun Oh, Panos Theofilas, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Thomas C Neylan, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg
The brainstem nuclei of the reticular formation (RF) are critical for regulating homeostasis, behavior, and cognition. RF degenerates in tauopathies including Alzheimer disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Although the burden of phopho-tau inclusion is high across these diseases, suggesting a similar vulnerability pattern, a distinct RF-associated clinical phenotype in these diseases indicates the opposite. To compare patterns of RF selective vulnerability to tauopathies, we analyzed 5 RF nuclei in tissue from 14 AD, 14 CBD, 10 PSP, and 3 control cases...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Barbara E Jones
We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition...
November 2017: ENeuro
Koichi Okamoto, Isao Naito, Toshio Fukuda, Keiji Suzuki, Masamitsu Takatama
We report the case of a 72-year-old Japanese woman with moyamoya disease (MMD). She experienced her first intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at the age of 32 years, and had nine ICHs and/or intraventricular hemorrhages during the following 40 years. Cerebral angiograms and vascular pathologies at autopsy confirmed that the patient suffered from MMD. Macroscopically, there were brown-colored changes in the subarachnoid space, mainly at the base of the brain and around the cerebellar hemispheres. Microscopically, hemosiderin deposits were observed mainly in the old hemorrhagic lesions and on the surface of the brainstem and cerebellum...
December 27, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Haiyan Wang, Libang Zhu, Junling Duan, Minghui Wang, Huanshun Yin, Po Wang, Shiyun Ai
2'-O-methyl group on the 3' terminal nucleotide in plant microRNAs, as one kind of RNA methylations, is caused by HEN1 RNA methyltransferase (HENMT1), which is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Herein, a simple and label-free PEC biosensing method was proposed for assay of HENMT1 activity and inhibitor screening based on peroxidase mimic PtCu nanoframes (PtCu NFs) catalytic signal amplification. In this work, MoS2@Graphene quantum dots/Phosphorus-doped rodlike carbon nitride (MoS2@GQDs/P-RCN) heterojunction was used as photoactive materials...
December 21, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nian-Ge Xia, Yan-Yan Chen, Jia Li, Xi Chen, Zu-Sen Ye, Si-Yan Chen, Zhen-Guo Zhu
BACKGROUND: Eight-and-a-half syndrome is caused by a lesion in the dorsal tegmentum of the caudal pons involving parapontine reticular formation and median longitudinal fasciculus, as well as the nucleus and/or the fasciculus of the facial nerve. It is characterized by one-and-a-half syndrome and an ipsilateral cranial nerve VII palsy. Also, many variants of eight-and-a-half syndrome have been described, including nine syndrome, thirteen-and-a-half syndrome and fifteen-and-a-half syndrome...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
Ornnicha Thanatvarakorn, Taweesak Prasansuttiporn, Suppason Thittaweerat, Richard M Foxton, Shizuko Ichinose, Junji Tagami, Keiichi Hosaka, Masatoshi Nakajima
OBJECTIVES: Smear layer deproteinizing was proved to reduce the organic phase of smear layer covered on dentin surface. It was shown to eliminate hybridized smear layer and nanoleakage expression in resin-dentin bonding interface of two-step self-etch adhesive. This study aimed to investigate those effects on various one-step self-etch adhesives. METHODS: Four different one-step self-etch adhesives were used in this study; SE One (SE), Scotchbond™ Universal (SU), BeautiBond Multi (BB), and Bond Force (BF)...
March 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Giasemi K Angeli, Christina Sartsidou, Styliani Vlachaki, Ioannis Spanopoulos, Constantinos Tsangarakis, Andreas Kourtellaris, Emmanuel Klontzas, George E Froudakis, Anastasios Tasiopoulos, Pantelis N Trikalitis
In recent years, the design and discovery of new metal-organic framework (MOF) platforms with distinct structural features and tunable chemical composition has remarkably enhanced by applying reticular chemistry rules and the molecular building block (MBB) approach. We targeted the synthesis of new rare earth (RE)-MOF platforms based on a rectangular-shaped 4-c linker, acting as a rigid organic MBB. Accordingly, we designed and synthesized the organic ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-dimethyl-benzene (H4 L), in which the two methyl groups attached to the central phenyl ring lock the four peripheral carboxyphenyl groups to an orthogonal/vertical position...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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