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Reticular Formation

Guela Sokhadze, Peter Whitney Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yucel Akgul, Ryan Constantine, Mason Bartels, Philipp Scherer, Kathryn Davis, Jeffrey M Kenkel
Background: Multiple processing and handling methods of autologous fat yields to variations in graft retention and viability, which results in unpredictable clinical outcomes. Objective: This study aims to understand the skin effects of fat graft preparations that contain a varying ratio of free-lipid and stem-cell-bearing stromal vascular fractions (SVF). Methods: Lipoaspirates from consenting patients were processed into emulsified fat and then SVF and adipocyte fractions (free-lipid)...
May 2, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Robert M Brownstone, Jeremy W Chopek
The pontomedullary reticular formation (RF) is a key site responsible for integrating descending instructions to execute particular movements. The indiscrete nature of this region has led not only to some inconsistencies in nomenclature, but also to difficulties in understanding its role in the control of movement. In this review article, we first discuss nomenclature of the RF, and then examine the reticulospinal motor command system through evolution. These command neurons have direct monosynaptic connections with spinal interneurons and motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Tyson D Fuller, Trudi A Westfall, Tirthasree Das, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Epilepsy, which affects ∼1% of the population, is caused by abnormal synchronous neural activity in the central nervous system (CNS). While there is a significant genetic contribution to epilepsy, the underlying causes for the majority of genetic cases remain unknown. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Project (UDP) utilized exome sequencing to identify genetic variants in patients affected by various conditions with undefined etiology, including epilepsy. Confirming the functional relevance of the candidate genes identified by exome sequencing in a timely manner is crucial to translating exome data into clinically useful information...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
Mari Carmen Uribe, Harry J Grier
The viviparous teleost Heterandria formosa is a remarkable species for its reproductive characters including: (a) the smallest oocyte in viviparous fish species; (b) a high level of matrotrophy with a complex placenta; and (c) the highest level of superfetation. Superfetation involves (d) the continuous development of oocytes and fertilization at the same time with embryos in gestation. The sequential fertilization of oocytes requires (e) storage of spermatozoa in the ovary. Among these characteristics, fertilization is of fundamental interest, specifically the intrafollicular fertilization of poeciliids, species that do not present micropyle, and the consequent formation of the fertilization plug, a structure developed at the periphery of the follicle where the entrance of spermatozoa occurs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Arash Kamali, Niloofar Karbasian, Pejman Rabiei, Andres Cano, Roy F Riascos, Nitin Tandon, Octavio Arevalo, Laura Ocasio, Kyan Younes, Mahsa Khayat-Khoei, Saeedeh Mirbagheri, Khader M Hasan
The cerebellum is shown to be involved in some limbic functions of the human brain such as emotion and affect. The major connection of the cerebellum with the limbic system is known to be through the cerebello-hypothalamic pathways. The consensus is that the projections from the cerebellar nuclei to the limbic system, and particularly the hypothalamus, or from the hypothalamus to the cerebellar nuclei, are through multisynaptic pathways in the bulbar reticular formation. The detailed anatomy of the pathways responsible for mediating these responses, however, is yet to be determined...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ian G G Pengra, Margaret A Marchaterre, Andrew H Bass
Motivated by studies of speech deficits in humans, several studies over the past two decades have investigated the potential role of a forkhead domain transcription factor, FoxP2, in the central control of acoustic signaling/vocalization among vertebrates. Comparative neuroanatomical studies that mainly include mammalian and avian species have mapped the distribution of FoxP2 expression in multiple brain regions that imply a greater functional significance beyond vocalization that might be shared broadly across vertebrate lineages...
April 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Charles Mignon, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Irene Castellano-Pellicena, Natalia V Botchkareva, Desmond J Tobin
BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of photobiomodulation (PBM), demonstrating encouraging results for the treatment of cutaneous disorders. Confidence in this approach, however, is impaired not only by a lack of understanding of the light-triggered molecular cascades but also by the significant inconsistency in published experimental outcomes, design of the studies and applied optical parameters. This study aimed at characterizing the response of human dermal fibroblast subpopulations to visible and near-infrared (NIR) light in an attempt to identify the optical treatment parameters with high potential to address deficits in aging skin and non-healing chronic wounds...
April 17, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Although there are a few studies of portions of the vestibular system such as the vestibulocerebellar tract and the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN), no study of the ipsilateral vestibulothalamic tract (VTT) (originating from the VN and mainly connecting to the lateral thalami nuclei) has been reported. In the current study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigate the reconstruction method and characteristics of the ipsilateral VTT in normal subjects. Thirty-three subjects were recruited for this study...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Lei Mei, Kong-Qiu Hu, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Shu-Wen An, Zhi-Fang Chai, Wei-Qun Shi
We report the syntheses and characterization of four new heterometallic uranyl-silver compounds from isonicotinic acid derivatives with a stepwise ortho chlorination of carboxyl group, that is, isonicotinic acid (H-PCA), 3-chloroisonicotinic acid (H-3-MCPCA), and 3,5-dichloroisonicotinic acid (H-3,5-DCPCA). Compound 1, (UO2 )Ag4 (3,5-DCPCA)6 (3,5-DCPy)2 , from H-3,5-DCPCA displays a heterometallic three-dimensional (3D) framework through the connection of 3,5-DCPCA and in situ-formed 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-DCPy) with the aid of multiple argentophilic interactions...
April 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Carlos A Cuellar, Braniff De La Torre Valdovinos, Nayeli Huidobro, Rodolfo Delgado-Lezama, Rafael Ornelas-Kobayashi, Elias Manjarrez
In a previous report, we found neurons with ON-OFF and OFF-ON firing activity in the obex reticular formation during scratching. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the spinal neurons also exhibit this type of activity in relation to the "postural stage" of fictive scratching in the cat. We found that the extensor and intermediate scratching neurons exhibit an ON-OFF firing rate; conversely, the flexor neurons show an OFF-ON activity, relative to every scratching episode. These patterns of spiking activity are similar to those found in neurons from the obex reticular formation during scratching...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Marta Galán-Díez, Stavroula Kousteni
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside and are maintained in specialized microenvironments within the bone marrow known as niches, which are comprised of various cell types. Among them, leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)-abundant reticular (CAR) cells are known to create a niche for HSCs and at the same time to give rise to osteoblasts. These two functions of CAR/LepR+ cells appear to be tightly but inversely regulated to ensure adequate physical space for HSCs. However, how osteogenesis is prevented in CAR cells to maintain spaces available for HSCs and hematopoiesis remains unclear...
March 1, 2018: Genes & Development
Pi-Feng Wei, Ming-Zhu Qi, Zhi-Peng Wang, San-Yuan Ding, Wei Yu, Qiang Liu, Li-Ke Wang, Huai-Zhen Wang, Wan-Kai An, Wei Wang
The structural uniqueness of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) has brought these new materials great potential for advanced applications. One of the key aspects yet to be developed is how to improve the robustness of covalently linked reticular frameworks. In order to make the best use of π-conjugated structures, we develop herein a "killing two birds with one stone" strategy and construct a series of ultrastable benzoxazole-based COFs (denoted as LZU-190, LZU-191, and LZU-192) as metal-free photocatalysts...
March 27, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Patricia Keler Freitas Machado Vasconcellos, Manuela Pimentel Nóia, Isabele Cardoso Vieira De Castro, Jean Nunes Dos Santos, Antonio Luiz B Pinheiro, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro Marques, Eduardo Antonio Gonçalves Ramos, Clarissa Gurgel Rocha
The present study aims to assess the influence of Aluminum-Gallium-Indium-Phosphide laser (AlGaInP laser, λ = 660 nm), whether or not in association with the application of a membrane of bacterial cellulose (Nexfill™), during recovery from induced second-degree burns at the dorsum of Wistar rats. (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar). Forty-eight animals have been distributed into four groups: Control (burns remained untreated), Group I (laser-treated), Group II (treated with Nexfill), and Group III (laser + Nexfill™)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Katsuya Kato, Kenichi Gemba, Kazuto Ashizawa, Hiroaki Arakawa, Satoshi Honda, Naomi Noguchi, Sumihisa Honda, Nobukazu Fujimoto, Takumi Kishimoto
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to reveal the prevalence of lung cancer (LC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in subjects with past asbestos exposure (AE). We also examined pulmonary or pleural changes correlated with the development of LC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study. There were 2132 subjects enrolled between 2010 and 2012. They included 96.2% men and 3.8% women, with a mean age of 76.1 years; 78.8% former or current smokers; and 21...
April 2018: European Journal of Radiology
E V Aleksandrova, A I Batalov, E L Pogosbekyan, N E Zakharova, L M Fadeeva, A D Kravchuk, I N Pronin, A A Potapov
The study purpose was to develop a technique for intravital visualization of the brainstem reticular formation fibers in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 21 subjects (13 males and 8 females) aged 21 to 62 years. The study was performed on a magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a magnetic field strength of 3 T in T1, T2, T2-FLAIR, DWI, and SWI modes. A CSD-HARDI algorithm was used to identify thin intersecting fibers of the reticular formatio...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Ashfaqul Hoque, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Simon T Bond, Naomi X Y Ling, Anne M Kong, John W Scott, Nadeeka Bandara, Damián Hernández, Guei-Sheung Liu, Raymond C B Wong, Michael T Ryan, Derek J Hausenloy, Bruce E Kemp, Jonathan S Oakhill, Brian G Drew, Alice Pébay, Shiang Y Lim
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a valuable tool for studying the cardiac developmental process in vitro, and cardiomyocytes derived from iPSCs are a putative cell source for personalized medicine. Changes in mitochondrial morphology have been shown to occur during cellular reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell differentiation. However, the relationships between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac mesoderm commitment of iPSCs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that changes in mitochondrial morphology from a small granular fragmented phenotype in pluripotent stem cells to a filamentous reticular elongated network in differentiated cardiomyocytes are required for cardiac mesodermal differentiation...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Zhengmu Wang, Hongbin Zhang, Axel J Chu, John Jackson, Karen Lin, Chinten James Lim, Dirk Lange, Mu Chiao
Well-organized composite formations such as hierarchical nested-network (NN) structure in bone tissue and reticular connective tissue present remarkable mechanical strength and play a crucial role in achieving physical and biological functions for living organisms. Inspired by these delicate microstructures in nature, an analogous scaffold of double network hydrogel was fabricated by creating a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) network in the porous structure of alginate hydrogels. The resulting hydrogel possessed hierarchical NN structure and showed significantly improved mechanical strength but still maintained high elasticity comparable to soft tissues due to a mutual strengthening effect between the two networks...
April 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Pierre Simonet, Karen Gaget, Séverine Balmand, Mélanie Ribeiro Lopes, Nicolas Parisot, Kurt Buhler, Gabrielle Duport, Veerle Vulsteke, Gérard Febvay, Abdelaziz Heddi, Hubert Charles, Patrick Callaerts, Federica Calevro
Symbiotic associations play a pivotal role in multicellular life by facilitating acquisition of new traits and expanding the ecological capabilities of organisms. In insects that are obligatorily dependent on intracellular bacterial symbionts, novel host cells (bacteriocytes) or organs (bacteriomes) have evolved for harboring beneficial microbial partners. The processes regulating the cellular life cycle of these endosymbiont-bearing cells, such as the cell-death mechanisms controlling their fate and elimination in response to host physiology, are fundamental questions in the biology of symbiosis...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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