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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527391/melanin-concentrating-hormone-and-sleep
#1
REVIEW
Jozelia Gomes Pacheco Ferreira, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Antoine Adamantidis
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an essential neuromodulator involved with homeostatic regulation and motivated behaviors. The majority of MCH neurons are localized within the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic and incerto-hypothalamic areas but others regions, as the olfactory turbecle, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the paramediam pontine reticular formation and the medial preoptic area, can also express the peptide depending on the gender and metabolic state of the animal. If the MCH on these novel sites of expression are also related with the control of wake-sleep cycle will be discuss in this review...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506065/opening-of-an-accessible-microporosity-in-an-otherwise-nonporous-metal-organic-framework-by-polymeric-guests
#2
Benjamin Le Ouay, Susumu Kitagawa, Takashi Uemura
The development of highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is greatly sought after, due to their wide range of applications. As an alternative to the development of new structures, we propose to obtain new stable configurations for flexible MOFs by insertion of polymeric guests. The guests prevent the otherwise spontaneous closing of the host frameworks and result in stable opened forms. Introduced at a fraction of the maximal capacity, polymer chains cause an opening of the occupied nanochannels, and because of the MOF reticular stiffness, this opening is propagated to the neighboring nanochannels that become accessible for adsorption...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495333/sensory-experience-dependent-formation-of-perineuronal-nets-and-expression-of-cat-315-immunoreactive-components-in-the-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#3
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are structures of extracellular matrix molecules surrounding the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of certain neurons. While PNNs are present throughout the mouse cerebral cortex, recent studies have shown that the components differ among cortical sub-regions and layers, suggesting region-specific functions. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV neurons) may be important regulators of cortical plasticity during the early "critical period" that is sensitive to sensory input. Here we examined the distribution and developmental functions of PNN components associated with PV neurons in the somatosensory cortex during the critical period...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487639/reticular-formation-connections-underlying-horizontal-gaze-the-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-cmrf-as-a-conduit-for-the-collicular-saccade-signal
#4
Niping Wang, Eddie Perkins, Lan Zhou, Susan Warren, Paul J May
The central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF) occupies much of the core of the midbrain tegmentum. Physiological studies indicate that it is involved in controlling gaze changes, particularly horizontal saccades. Anatomically, it receives input from the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) and it has downstream projections to the brainstem, including the horizontal gaze center located in the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). Consequently, it has been hypothesized that the cMRF plays a role in the spatiotemporal transformation needed to convert spatially coded collicular saccade signals into the temporally coded signals utilized by the premotor neurons of the horizontal gaze center...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484370/clustered-protocadherins-are-required-for-building-functional-neural-circuits
#5
Sonoko Hasegawa, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Makiko Kumagai, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Etsuko Tarusawa, Hiro Kanda, Makoto Sanbo, Yumiko Yoshimura, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi
Neuronal identity is generated by the cell-surface expression of clustered protocadherin (Pcdh) isoforms. In mice, 58 isoforms from three gene clusters, Pcdhα, Pcdhβ, and Pcdhγ, are differentially expressed in neurons. Since cis-heteromeric Pcdh oligomers on the cell surface interact homophilically with that in other neurons in trans, it has been thought that the Pcdh isoform repertoire determines the binding specificity of synapses. We previously described the cooperative functions of isoforms from all three Pcdh gene clusters in neuronal survival and synapse formation in the spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458632/the-monoamine-brainstem-reticular-formation-as-a-paradigm-for-re-defining-various-phenotypes-of-parkinson-s-disease-owing-genetic-and-anatomical-specificity
#6
REVIEW
Stefano Gambardella, Rosangela Ferese, Francesca Biagioni, Carla L Busceti, Rosa Campopiano, Anna M P Griguoli, Fiona Limanaqi, Giuseppe Novelli, Marianna Storto, Francesco Fornai
The functional anatomy of the reticular formation (RF) encompasses a constellation of brain regions which are reciprocally connected to sub-serve a variety of functions. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal degeneration within one of these regions spreads synaptically along brainstem circuitries. This is exemplified by the recruitment of various brainstem reticular nuclei in specific Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotypes, and by retrospective analysis of lethargic post-encephalitic parkinsonism. In fact, the spreading to various monoamine reticular nuclei can be associated with occurrence of specific motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445639/toward-covalent-organic-frameworks-bearing-three-different-kinds-of-pores-the-strategy-for-construction-and-cof-to-cof-transformation-via-heterogeneous-linker-exchange
#7
Cheng Qian, Qiao-Yan Qi, Guo-Fang Jiang, Fu-Zhi Cui, Yuan Tian, Xin Zhao
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of crystalline porous organic materials which are fabricated via reticular chemistry. Their topologic structures can be precisely predicted on the basis of the structures of building blocks. However, constructing COFs with complicated structures has remained a great challenge, due to the limited strategies that can access to the structural complexity of COFs. In this work, we have developed a new approach to produce COFs bearing three different kinds of pores...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424968/visualization-of-reticulophagy-in-living-cells-using-an-endoplasmic-reticulum-targeted-p62-mutant
#8
Liang Wang, Lei Liu, Lingsong Qin, Qingming Luo, Zhihong Zhang
Reticulophagy is a type of selective autophagy in which protein aggregate-containing and/or damaged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fragments are engulfed for lysosomal degradation, which is important for ER homeostasis. Several chemical drugs and mutant proteins that promote protein aggregate formation within the ER lumen can efficiently induce reticulophagy in mammalian cells. However, the exact mechanism and cellular localization of reticulophagy remain unclear. In this report, we took advantage of the self-oligomerization property of p62/SQSTM1, an adaptor for selective autophagy, and developed a novel reticulophagy system based on an ER-targeted p62 mutant to investigate the process of reticulophagy in living cells...
April 13, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420469/-heparin-reduces-endothelial-cell-damage-induced-by-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#9
Yanting Qiao, Jing Jiang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Clarify the effect of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on endothelial cell injury, and investigate whether the heparin can exert a protective effect on endothelial cells by reducing the endothelial cell injury induced by NETs. METHODS: Neutrophils (PMN) were obtained from healthy human peripheral blood by Percoll-Histopaque density gradient centrifugation, and was stimulated with phorbol ester (PMA) to induce NETs. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of NETs was detected by immunofluorescence staining combined with fluorescence detector...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394483/corticobulbar-projections-from-distinct-motor-cortical-areas-to-the-reticular-formation-in-macaque-monkeys
#10
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adjia Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tract, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analysed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347678/one-and-a-half-syndrome-following-penetrating-head-injury-case-report
#11
Mathew R Voisin, Sanskriti Sasikumar, Jeremy H Russell, Gelareh Zadeh
The authors report a case of a 22-year-old otherwise healthy female who presented following a head injury during a bar altercation, with no associated loss of consciousness and an unknown mechanism of injury. Examination revealed an isolated 1cm laceration on the right upper eyelid, superior to her medial canthus. She experienced diplopia on right horizontal gaze due to a left internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) with an associated left conjugate horizontal gaze palsy, collectively described as a left one-and-a-half syndrome...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#12
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337130/the-brainstem-in-emotion-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Brian L Edlow, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322869/scaffold-free-high-throughput-generation-of-quiescent-valvular-microtissues
#14
Annelies Roosens, Inès Puype, Ria Cornelissen
AIMS: The major challenge of working with valvular interstitial cells in vitro is the preservation or recovery of their native quiescent state. In this study, a biomimetic approach is used which aims to engineer small volume, high quality valve microtissues, having a potential in regenerative medicine and as a relevant 3D in vitro model to provide insights into valve (patho)biology. METHODS AND RESULTS: To form micro-aggregates, porcine valvular interstitial cells were seeded in agarose micro-wells and cultured in medium supplemented with 250μM Ascorbic Acid 2-phosphate for 22days...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293461/a-rare-cause-of-cytopenia-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-autoimmune-myelofibrosis
#15
Döndü Üsküdar Cansu, Hava Üsküdar Teke, Cengiz Korkmaz
Hematological abnormalities are very common in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Myelofibrosis is a bone marrow disorder in which there is excessive fibrous tissue formation in the bone marrow. Various benign and malignant disorders can cause or be associated with a diffuse increase in the bone marrow reticular tissue. Some diseases such as infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune diseases may also induce bone marrow fibrosis (secondary myelofibrosis). Cytopenia from autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) in SLE is a rare condition...
March 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286099/tinnitus-and-hyperacusis-contributions-of-paraflocculus-reticular-formation-and-stress
#16
Yu-Chen Chen, Guang-Di Chen, Benjamin D Auerbach, Senthilvelan Manohar, Kelly Radziwon, Richard Salvi
Tinnitus and hyperacusis are common and potentially serious hearing disorders associated with noise-, age- or drug-induced hearing loss. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus and hyperacusis are linked to excessive neural activity in a distributed brain network that not only includes the central auditory pathway, but also brain regions involved in arousal, emotion, stress and motor control. Here we examine electrophysiological changes in two novel non-auditory areas implicated in tinnitus and hyperacusis: the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC), involved in arousal, and the paraflocculus lobe of the cerebellum (PFL), implicated in head-eye coordination and gating tinnitus and we measure the changes in corticosterone stress hormone levels...
June 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#17
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242738/neuronal-control-of-fixation-and-fixational-eye-movements
#18
REVIEW
Richard J Krauzlis, Laurent Goffart, Ziad M Hafed
Ocular fixation is a dynamic process that is actively controlled by many of the same brain structures involved in the control of eye movements, including the superior colliculus, cerebellum and reticular formation. In this article, we review several aspects of this active control. First, the decision to move the eyes not only depends on target-related signals from the peripheral visual field, but also on signals from the currently fixated target at the fovea, and involves mechanisms that are shared between saccades and smooth pursuit...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231568/fiber-connections-of-the-caudal-corpus-cerebelli-with-special-reference-to-the-intrinsic-circuitry-in-a-teleost-oreochromis-niloticus
#19
Kosuke Imura, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Masami Yoshimoto, Masato Endo, Kengo Funakoshi, Hironobu Ito
The caudal part of the corpus cerebelli of Nile tilapia can be divided into dorsal and ventral regions. The granule cell layer of the dorsal (dGL) and ventral (vGL) regions of the caudal corpus cerebelli is known to receive indirect inputs from the telencephalon relayed by the nucleus paracommissuralis. The descending pathways are topographically organized, and the dGL and vGL receive inputs from different dorsal telencephalic parts. The caudal corpus cerebelli, in turn, projects extracerebellar efferents. However, it remains unknown how the descending telencephalic inputs are processed within the cerebellum...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#20
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience
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