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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900462/effects-of-a-trpv1-agonist-capsaicin-on-respiratory-rhythm-generation-in-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-from-newborn-rats
#1
Mariho Tani, Sayumi Kotani, Chikara Hayakawa, Shih-Tien Lin, Saki Irie, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Hiroshi Onimaru
The heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, there is no report on how the activation of TRPV1 causes the modulation of neuronal activity in the medullary respiratory center. We examined effects of capsaicin, a specific agonist of TRPV1 channels, on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats. Capsaicin induced a biphasic response in the respiratory rhythm (a transient decrease followed by an increase in the C4 rate)...
November 29, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881927/appearance-of-fetal-pain-could-be-associated-with-maturation-of-the-mesodiencephalic-structures
#2
REVIEW
Slobodan Sekulic, Ksenija Gebauer-Bukurov, Milan Cvijanovic, Aleksandar Kopitovic, Djordje Ilic, Djordje Petrovic, Ivan Capo, Ivana Pericin-Starcevic, Oliver Christ, Anastasia Topalidou
Fetal pain remains a controversial subject both in terms of recognizing its existence and the time-frame within which it appears. This article investigates the hypothesis that pain perception during development is not related to any determined structures of the central nervous system (CNS), on the contrary, the process of perception could be made with any structure satisfying conditions that the perception of pain is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulate-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#3
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 hours, and measured core and fat temperatures, and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853955/different-foveal-schisis-patterns-in-each-retinal-layer-in-eyes-with-hereditary-juvenile-retinoschisis-evaluated-by-en-face-optical-coherence-tomography
#4
Tomoyo Yoshida-Uemura, Satoshi Katagiri, Tadashi Yokoi, Sachiko Nishina, Noriyuki Azuma
PURPOSE: To analyze the structures of schisis in eyes with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis using en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the medical records of patients with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis who underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations including swept-source OCT. RESULTS: OCT images were obtained from 16 eyes of nine boys (mean age ± standard deviation, 10...
November 16, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853785/halogenated-mof-5-variants-show-new-configuration-tunable-band-gaps-and-enhanced-optical-response-in-the-visible-and-near-infrared
#5
Li-Ming Yang, Guo-Yong Fang, Jing Ma, Raghani Pushpa, Eric Ganz
Inspired by recent experimental fabrication of mono-halogenated versions of Metal-Organic Framework MOF-5 (i.e., X-MOF-5, X = F to I) and some experimentally known fully halogenated MOF compounds, we systematically studied frameworks incorporating full halogenation of the BDC linkers of the prototypical Iso-Reticular Metal-Organic Framework (IRMOF) series, exemplified by MOF-5. Using quantum chemistry calculations, we find that halogenation leads to a 90° rotation of the aryl group, which is mainly ascribed to overcrowding between halogen atoms and the carboxyl and benzene ring and strong repulsion among in-plane atoms/groups...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832595/psychosocial-stress-alters-the-strength-of-reticulospinal-input-to-the-human-upper-trapezius
#6
Ryan J Marker, Serge Campeau, Katrina Shaun Maluf
Psychosocial stress has been shown to influence several aspects of human motor control associated with the fight-or-flight response, including augmentation of upper trapezius muscle activity. Given the established role of the reticular formation in arousal, this study investigated the contribution of reticulospinal activation to trapezius muscle activity during exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor. Twenty-five healthy adults were exposed to startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) while performing a motor task during periods of low and high psychosocial stress...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788521/development-of-electrophysiological-properties-of-nucleus-gigantocellularis-neurons-correlated-with-increased-cns-arousal
#7
Xu Liu, Donald W Pfaff, Diany P Calderon, Inna Tabansky, Xin Wang, Yun Wang, Lee-Ming Kow
Many types of data have suggested that neurons in the nucleus gigantocellularis (NGC) in the medullary reticular formation are critically important for CNS arousal and behavioral responsiveness. To extend this topic to a developmental framework, whole-cell patch-recorded characteristics of NGC neurons in brainstem slices and measures of arousal-dependent locomotion of postnatal day 3 (P3) to P6 mouse pups were measured and compared. These neuronal characteristics developed in an orderly, statistically significant monotonic manner over the course of P3-P6: (1) proportion of neurons capable of firing action potential (AP) trains, (2) AP amplitude, (3) AP threshold, (4) amplitude of inward and outward currents, (5) amplitude of negative peak currents, and (6) steady state currents (in I-V plot)...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778380/precision-construction-of-2d-heteropore-covalent-organic-frameworks-by-a-multiple-linking-site-strategy
#8
Cheng Qian, Shun-Qi Xu, Guo-Fang Jiang, Tian-Guang Zhan, Xin Zhao
Integrating different kinds of pores into one covalent organic framework (COF) endows it with hierarchical porosity and thus generates a member of a new class of COFs, namely, heteropore COFs. Whereas the construction of COFs with homoporosity has already been well developed, the fabrication of heteropore COFs still faces great challenges. Although two strategies have recently been developed to successfully construct heteropore COFs from noncyclic building blocks, they suffer from the generation of COF isomers, which decreases the predictability and controllability of construction of this type of reticular materials...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766053/new-horizon-in-platelet-function-with-special-reference-to-a-recently-found-molecule-clec-2
#9
Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736096/covalent-coordination-frameworks-a-new-route-for-synthesis-and-expansion-of-functional-porous-materials
#10
Sameh K Elsaidi, Mona H Mohamed, John S Loring, Bernard Peter McGrail, Praveen K Thallapally
The synthetic approaches for fine-tuning the structural properties of coordination polymers or metal organic frameworks have exponentially grown during the last decade. This is due to the control over the properties of the resulting structures such as stability, pore size, pore chemistry and surface area for myriad possible applications. Herein, we present a new class of porous materials called Covalent Coordination Frameworks (CCFs) that were designed and effectively synthesized using a two-step reticular chemistry approach...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723901/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-health-and-disease
#11
Paul Hasler, Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes are the first responders of the immune system to threats by invading microorganisms. In the traditional view, they combat the intruders by phagocytosis and externalisation of granules containing lytic and microbicidal factors. A dozen years ago, this concept was expanded by the observation that neutrophils may react to bacteria by extruding their nuclear chromosomal DNA with attached nuclear and cytoplasmic constituents to form extracellular reticular structures. Since they trapped and immobilised the microbes, they were designated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and their ensuing cell death NETosis...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716404/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-resulting-in-a-totally-locked-in-state-communication-stage-v
#12
Kentaro Hayashi, Yoko Mochizuki, Ryoko Takeuchi, Toshio Shimizu, Masahiro Nagao, Kazuhiko Watabe, Nobutaka Arai, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Osamu Onodera, Masaharu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Eiji Isozaki
In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that had progressed to result in a totally locked-in state (communication Stage V), in which all voluntary movements are lost and communication is impossible. In 11 patients, six had phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (pTDP-43)-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), two had fused in sarcoma (FUS)-ir NCI, and three had copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-ir NCI...
September 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715655/thin-section-ct-features-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-correlated-with-micro-ct-and-histologic-analysis
#13
Cindy Mai, Stijn E Verleden, John E McDonough, Stijn Willems, Walter De Wever, Johan Coolen, Adriana Dubbeldam, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Eric K Verbeken, Geert M Verleden, James C Hogg, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim A Wuyts, Johny A Verschakelen
Purpose To elucidate the underlying lung changes responsible for the computed tomographic (CT) features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and to gain insight into the way IPF proceeds through the lungs and progresses over time. Materials and Methods Micro-CT studies of tissue cores obtained from explant lungs were examined and were correlated 1:1 with a CT study obtained immediately before transplantation. Samples for histologic analysis were obtained from selected cores. Results In areas with no or minimal abnormalities on CT images, small areas of increased attenuation located in or near the interlobular septa can be seen on micro-CT studies...
October 6, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663632/the-effects-of-stress-on-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-of-the-reticular-formation-and-its-role-in-the-aetiology-of-disparate-medical-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615117/reticular-chemistry-at-its-best-directed-assembly-of-hexagonal-building-units-into-the-awaited-metal-organic-framework-with-the-intricate-polybenzene-topology-pbz-mof
#15
Dalal Alezi, Ioannis Spanopoulos, Constantinos Tsangarakis, Aleksander Shkurenko, Karim Adil, Youssef Belmabkhout, Michael O Keeffe, Mohamed Eddaoudi, Pantelis N Trikalitis
The ability to direct the assembly of hexagonal building units offers great prospective to construct the awaited and looked-for hypothetical polybenzene (pbz) or "cubic graphite" structure, described 70 years ago. Here, we demonstrate the successful use of reticular chemistry as an appropriate strategy for the design and deliberate construction of a zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with the intricate pbz underlying net topology. The judicious selection of the perquisite hexagonal building units, six connected organic and inorganic building blocks, allowed the formation of the pbz-MOF-1, the first example of a Zr(IV)-based MOF with pbz topology...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589879/thalamic-inhibition-diverse-sources-diverse-scales
#16
REVIEW
Michael M Halassa, László Acsády
The thalamus is the major source of cortical inputs shaping sensation, action, and cognition. Thalamic circuits are targeted by two major inhibitory systems: the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and extrathalamic inhibitory (ETI) inputs. A unifying framework of how these systems operate is currently lacking. Here, we propose that TRN circuits are specialized to exert thalamic control at different spatiotemporal scales. Local inhibition of thalamic spike rates prevails during attentional selection, whereas global inhibition more likely prevails during sleep...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580704/generation-of-3d-collagen-gels-with-controlled-diverse-architectures
#17
Andrew D Doyle
Rat tail collagen solutions have been used as polymerizable in vitro three dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) gels for single and collective cell migration assays as well as spheroid formation. Factors such as ECM concentration, pH, ionic concentration, and temperature can alter collagen polymerization and ECM architecture. This unit describes how to generate 3D collagen gels that have distinct architectures ranging from a highly reticular meshwork of short thin fibrils with small pores to a loose matrix consisting of stiff, parallel-bundled long fibrils by changing collagen polymerization temperature...
2016: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568204/postnatal-changes-in-glutamatergic-inputs-of-jaw-closing-motoneuron-dendrites
#18
Shoko Nagata, Shiro Nakamura, Kiyomi Nakayama, Ayako Mochizuki, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tomio Inoue
Dendrites of masseter (jaw-closing) motoneurons (MMNs) are well developed and ramify extensively throughout the trigeminal motor nucleus and often extend into the adjacent reticular formation. It is possible that the dendrites have active properties, which are altered with the development of the orofacial musculoskeletal system. Thus, we examined the changes in somatic voltage responses evoked by photostimulation of the MMN dendrites by laser photolysis of caged glutamate from postnatal day (P) 2-5 and 9-12 rats...
August 24, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517606/two-principles-of-reticular-chemistry-uncovered-in-a-metal-organic-framework-of-heterotritopic-linkers-and-infinite-secondary-building-units
#19
Noelle R Catarineu, Alexander Schoedel, Philipp Urban, Maureen B Morla, Christopher A Trickett, Omar M Yaghi
Structural diversity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been largely limited to linkers with at most two different types of coordinating groups. MOFs constructed from linkers with three or more nonidentical coordinating groups have not been explored. Here, we report a robust and porous crystalline MOF, Zn3(PBSP)2 or MOF-910, constructed from a novel linker PBSP (phenylyne-1-benzoate, 3-benzosemiquinonate, 5-oxidopyridine) bearing three distinct types of coordinative functionality. The MOF adopts a complex and previously unreported topology termed tto...
August 31, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513087/selective-unidirectional-horizontal-saccadic-paralysis-from-acute-ipsilateral-pontine-stroke
#20
Thong D Pham, Jonathan D Trobe
BACKGROUND: Impairment of unidirectional horizontal saccades with sparing of smooth pursuit has been described in human lesions in the dorsomedial pons. They have been too large to allow localization to the pontine paramedian reticular formation (PPRF). METHODS: Single case report. RESULTS: A patient with impaired rightward saccades but spared rightward pursuit eye movements had a brain MRI showing a discrete area of restricted diffusion in the region corresponding to the PPRF...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
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