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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335516/an-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-pulse-shape-on-grey-and-white-matter-stimulation-in-the-rat-brain
#1
Marjolijn Deprez, Kelly Luyck, Laura Luyten, Tim Tambuyzer, Bart Nuttin, Myles Mc Laughlin
Despite the current success of neuromodulation, standard biphasic, rectangular pulse shapes may not be optimal to achieve symptom alleviation. Here, we compared stimulation efficiency (in terms of charge) between complex and standard pulses in two areas of the rat brain. In motor cortex, Gaussian and interphase gap stimulation (IPG) increased stimulation efficiency in terms of charge per phase compared with a standard pulse. Moreover, IPG stimulation of the deep mesencephalic reticular formation in freely moving rats was more efficient compared to a standard pulse...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304218/selective-vulnerability-of-brainstem-nuclei-in-distinct-tauopathies-a-postmortem-study
#2
Rana A Eser, Alexander J Ehrenberg, Cathrine Petersen, Sara Dunlop, Maria B Mejia, Claudia K Suemoto, Christine M Walsh, Hima Rajana, Jun Oh, Panos Theofilas, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Thomas C Neylan, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg
The brainstem nuclei of the reticular formation (RF) are critical for regulating homeostasis, behavior, and cognition. RF degenerates in tauopathies including Alzheimer disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Although the burden of phopho-tau inclusion is high across these diseases, suggesting a similar vulnerability pattern, a distinct RF-associated clinical phenotype in these diseases indicates the opposite. To compare patterns of RF selective vulnerability to tauopathies, we analyzed 5 RF nuclei in tissue from 14 AD, 14 CBD, 10 PSP, and 3 control cases...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302615/homeostatic-changes-in-gaba-and-acetylcholine-muscarinic-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-following-sleep-deprivation
#3
Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Barbara E Jones
We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282774/adult-moyamoya-disease-associated-with-abundant-phosphorylated-tau-accumulation-in-the-brainstem-report-of-a-case-with-autopsy-findings
#4
Koichi Okamoto, Isao Naito, Toshio Fukuda, Keiji Suzuki, Masamitsu Takatama
We report the case of a 72-year-old Japanese woman with moyamoya disease (MMD). She experienced her first intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at the age of 32 years, and had nine ICHs and/or intraventricular hemorrhages during the following 40 years. Cerebral angiograms and vascular pathologies at autopsy confirmed that the patient suffered from MMD. Macroscopically, there were brown-colored changes in the subarachnoid space, mainly at the base of the brain and around the cerebellar hemispheres. Microscopically, hemosiderin deposits were observed mainly in the old hemorrhagic lesions and on the surface of the brainstem and cerebellum...
December 27, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277012/photoelectrochemical-biosensor-for-hen1-rna-methyltransferase-detection-using-peroxidase-mimics-ptcu-nfs-and-poly-u-polymerase-mediated-rna-extension
#5
Haiyan Wang, Libang Zhu, Junling Duan, Minghui Wang, Huanshun Yin, Po Wang, Shiyun Ai
2'-O-methyl group on the 3' terminal nucleotide in plant microRNAs, as one kind of RNA methylations, is caused by HEN1 RNA methyltransferase (HENMT1), which is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Herein, a simple and label-free PEC biosensing method was proposed for assay of HENMT1 activity and inhibitor screening based on peroxidase mimic PtCu nanoframes (PtCu NFs) catalytic signal amplification. In this work, MoS2@Graphene quantum dots/Phosphorus-doped rodlike carbon nitride (MoS2@GQDs/P-RCN) heterojunction was used as photoactive materials...
December 21, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243534/eight-and-a-half-syndrome-caused-by-a-pontine-hemorrhage-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Nian-Ge Xia, Yan-Yan Chen, Jia Li, Xi Chen, Zu-Sen Ye, Si-Yan Chen, Zhen-Guo Zhu
BACKGROUND: Eight-and-a-half syndrome is caused by a lesion in the dorsal tegmentum of the caudal pons involving parapontine reticular formation (PPRF) and the median longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), as well as the nucleus and/or the fasciculus of the facial nerve. It is characterized by one-and-a-half syndrome and an ipsilateral cranial nerve VII palsy. There are also many variants of eight-and-a-half syndrome has been described, including nine syndrome, thirteen-and-a-half syndrome, and fifteen-and-a-half syndrome...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233540/smear-layer-deproteinizing-improves-bonding-of-one-step-self-etch-adhesives-to-dentin
#7
Ornnicha Thanatvarakorn, Taweesak Prasansuttiporn, Suppason Thittaweerat, Richard M Foxton, Shizuko Ichinose, Junji Tagami, Keiichi Hosaka, Masatoshi Nakajima
OBJECTIVES: Smear layer deproteinizing was proved to reduce the organic phase of smear layer covered on dentin surface. It was shown to eliminate hybridized smear layer and nanoleakage expression in resin-dentin bonding interface of two-step self-etch adhesive. This study aimed to investigate those effects on various one-step self-etch adhesives. METHODS: Four different one-step self-etch adhesives were used in this study; SE One (SE), Scotchbond™ Universal (SU), BeautiBond Multi (BB), and Bond Force (BF)...
December 9, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215862/reticular-chemistry-and-the-discovery-of-a-new-family-of-rare-earth-4-8-connected-metal-organic-frameworks-with-csq-topology-based-on-re4-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-coo-8-clusters
#8
Giasemi K Angeli, Christina Sartsidou, Styliani Vlahaki, Ioannis Spanopoulos, Constantinos Tsangarakis, Andreas Kourtellaris, Emmanouel Klontzas, George E Froudakis, Anastasios J Tasiopoulos, Pantelis N Trikalitis
In recent years, the design and discovery of new MOF platforms with distinct structural features and tunable chemical composition has remarkably enhanced by applying reticular chemistry rules and the molecular building block (MBB) ap-proach. We targeted the synthesis of new RE-MOF platforms based on a rectangular shaped 4-c linker, acting as a rigid organic MBB. Accordingly, we designed and synthesized the organic ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-dimethyl-benzene, H4L, in which the two methyl groups attached to the central phenyl ring, lock the four peripheral carboxyphenyl groups to an orthogonal/vertical position...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209804/efferents-of-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#9
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#10
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#11
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206281/giant-cell-tumours-of-bone-treated-with-denosumab-histologic-immunohistochemical-and-h3f3a-mutation-analyses
#12
Ikuma Kato, Mitsuko Furuya, Kosuke Matsuo, Yusuke Kawabata, Reiko Tanaka, Kenichi Ohashi
AIMS: Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), is a therapeutic agent for giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB). Although some studies reported that denosumab shrinks tumours and induces bone formation, the actual effects of RANKL suppression on GCTB remain unclear. A mutation in the H3 histone family member 3A gene (H3F3A) was recently identified as a genetic signature for GCTB. The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological features and H3F3A mutation status of GCTBs treated with denosumab...
December 5, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187832/isolated-horizontal-gaze-palsy-observations-and-explanations
#13
Renee Ewe, Owen B White, Ailbhe Burke
We present three cases that we suggest require a novel diagnosis and a reconsideration of current understandings of pontine anatomy. In this case series, we highlight a series of patients with monophasic, fully recovering inflammatory lesions in the pontine tegmentum not due to any of the currently recognized causes of this syndrome. We highlight other similar cases in the literature and suggest there may be a particular epitope for an as-yet-undiscovered antibody underlying the tropism for this area. We highlight the potential harm of misdiagnosis with relapsing inflammatory or other serious diagnoses with significant adverse impact on the patient...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163221/the-superficial-dermis-may-initiate-keloid-formation-histological-analysis-of-the-keloid-dermis-at-different-depths
#14
Hu Jiao, Tiran Zhang, Jincai Fan, Ran Xiao
Several studies have reported on certain aspects of the characteristics of different sites within a keloid lesion, but detailed studies on the keloid dermis at different depths within a keloid lesion are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the histology of the keloid dermis at different depths. This study included 19 keloid tissue samples that were collected from 19 patients and 19 normal skin samples, which were harvested from subjects without keloids or hypertrophic scar. Samples were studied by light microscopy using routine hematoxylin and eosin histochemical staining, and immunohistochemistry to detect CD20-positive B-lymphocytes and CD3-positive T-lymphocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163071/systematic-morphometry-of-catecholamine-nuclei-in-the-brainstem
#15
Domenico Bucci, Carla L Busceti, Maria T Calierno, Paola Di Pietro, Michele Madonna, Francesca Biagioni, Larisa Ryskalin, Fiona Limanaqi, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Francesco Fornai
Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF) play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA)-, norepinephrine (NE)-, and epinephrine (E)-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161694/immunohistochemical-localization-of-darpp-32-in-the-brain-of-two-lungfishes-further-assessment-of-its-relationship-with-the-dopaminergic-system
#16
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The distribution of DARPP-32 (a phosphoprotein related to the dopamine D1 receptor) has been widely used as a means to clarify the brain regions with dopaminoceptive cells, primarily in representative species of tetrapods. The relationship between dopaminergic and dopaminoceptive elements is frequently analyzed using the catecholamine marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In the present study, by means of combined immunohistochemistry, we have analyzed these relationships in lungfishes, the only group of sarcopterygian fishes represented by 6 extant species that are the phylogenetically closest living relatives of tetrapods...
November 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138697/following-spinal-cord-injury-transected-reticulospinal-tract-axons-develop-new-collateral-inputs-to-spinal-interneurons-in-parallel-with-locomotor-recovery
#17
Zacnicte May, Keith K Fenrich, Julia Dahlby, Nicholas J Batty, Abel Torres-Espín, Karim Fouad
The reticulospinal tract (RtST) descends from the reticular formation and terminates in the spinal cord. The RtST drives the initiation of locomotion and postural control. RtST axons form new contacts with propriospinal interneurons (PrINs) after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, it is unclear if injured or uninjured axons make these connections. We completely transected all traced RtST axons in rats using a staggered model, where a hemisection SCI at vertebra T10 is followed by a contralateral hemisection at vertebra T7...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#18
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089350/unspliced-xbp1-confers-vsmc-homeostasis-and-prevents-aortic-aneurysm-formation-via-foxo4-interaction
#19
Guizhen Zhao, Yi Fu, Zeyu Cai, Fang Yu, Ze Gong, Rongbo Dai, Yanhua Hu, Lingfang Zeng, Qingbo Xu, Wei Kong
RATIONALE: Although not fully understood, the phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells exhibits at the early onset of the pathology of aortic aneurysms. Exploring the key regulators that are responsible for maintaining the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may confer vascular homeostasis and prevent aneurysmal disease. XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1), which exists in a transcriptionally inactive unspliced form (XBP1u) and a spliced active form (XBP1s), is a key component in response to endoplasmic reticular stress...
December 8, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075513/morphology-of-brood-pouch-formation-in-the-pot-bellied-seahorse-hippocampus-abdominalis
#20
Mari Kawaguchi, Ryohei Okubo, Akari Harada, Kazuki Miyasaka, Kensuke Takada, Junya Hiroi, Shigeki Yasumasu
BACKGROUND: The reproductive strategies of vertebrates are diverse. Seahorses (Pisces: Syngnathidae) possess the unique characteristic of male pregnancy; i.e., males, not females, incubate embryos in a specialized structure called a 'brood pouch'. The brood pouch is formed along the ventral midline of the tail. The lumen of the brood pouch is surrounded by loose connective tissue, called pseudoplacenta, and dermis. RESULTS: We visualized and evaluated the morphology of brood pouch formation in Hippocampus abdominalis to gain generalizable insights into this process in seahorses...
2017: Zoological Letters
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