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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#1
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180922/effect-of-btxa-on-inhibiting-hypertrophic-scar-formation-in-a-rabbit-ear-model
#2
Dong-Qing Liu, Xiao-Jing Li, Xiao-Juan Weng
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a refractory skin disease caused by major physical damage or other inflammation. Some reports found that botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) could be an alternative treatment of the HS. Therefore, the authors studied the effects of BTXA on the treatment of HS and the dose response of BTXA. METHODS: Hypertrophic scars were harvested from the ears of 18 young adult New Zealand big-eared rabbits and treated with BTXA or triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) in vivo experiment...
February 8, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176244/cytotoxic-effects-of-the-cardenolide-convallatoxin-and-its-na-k-atpase-regulation
#3
Naira Fernanda Zanchett Schneider, Izabella Thais Silva, Lara Persich, Annelise de Carvalho, Sayonarah C Rocha, Lucas Marostica, Ana Carolina Pacheco Ramos, Alex G Taranto, Rodrigo M Pádua, Wolfgang Kreis, Leandro A Barbosa, Fernão C Braga, Cláudia M O Simões
Cardenolides are cardiac glycosides, mostly obtained from natural sources. They are well known for their inhibitory action on the Na,K-ATPase, an effect that regulates cardiovascular alterations such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmias. In recent years, they have also sparked new interest in their anticancer potential. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of the natural cardenolide convallatoxin (CON) were evaluated on non-small cell lung cancer (A549 cells). It was found that CON induced cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in A549 cells, showing essentially apoptotic cell death, as detected by annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining, as well as changes in cell form...
February 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168364/effects-of-aging-on-formula-see-text-formula-see-text-and-qsm-mri-values-in-the-subcortex
#4
M C Keuken, P-L Bazin, K Backhouse, S Beekhuizen, L Himmer, A Kandola, J J Lafeber, L Prochazkova, A Trutti, A Schäfer, R Turner, B U Forstmann
The aging brain undergoes several anatomical changes that can be measured with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Early studies using lower field strengths have assessed changes in tissue properties mainly qualitatively, using [Formula: see text]- or [Formula: see text]- weighted images to provide image contrast. With the development of higher field strengths (7 T and above) and more advanced MRI contrasts, quantitative measures can be acquired even of small subcortical structures. This study investigates volumetric, spatial, and quantitative MRI parameter changes associated with healthy aging in a range of subcortical nuclei, including the basal ganglia, red nucleus, and the periaqueductal grey...
February 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167939/transgenic-eimeria-magna-p%C3%A3-rard-1925-displays-similar-parasitological-properties-to-the-wild-type-strain-and-induces-an-exogenous-protein-specific-immune-response-in-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-l
#5
Geru Tao, Tuanyuan Shi, Xinming Tang, Donald W Duszynski, Yunzhou Wang, Chao Li, Jingxia Suo, Xiuling Tian, Xianyong Liu, Xun Suo
Rabbit coccidiosis causes great economic losses to world rabbitries. Little work has been done considering genetic manipulation on the etiological agents, rabbit Eimeria spp. In this study, we constructed a transgenic line of Eimeria magna (EmagER) expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) using regulatory sequences of Eimeria tenella and Toxoplasma gondii. We observed the life cycle of EmagER and confirmed that the transgenic parasites express exogenous proteins targeted to different cellular compartments throughout the entire life cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132810/an-early-branching-freshwater-cyanobacterium-at-the-origin-of-plastids
#6
Rafael I Ponce-Toledo, Philippe Deschamps, Purificación López-García, Yvan Zivanovic, Karim Benzerara, David Moreira
Photosynthesis evolved in eukaryotes by the endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium, the future plastid, within a heterotrophic host. This primary endosymbiosis occurred in the ancestor of Archaeplastida, a eukaryotic supergroup that includes glaucophytes, red algae, green algae, and land plants [1-4]. However, although the endosymbiotic origin of plastids from a single cyanobacterial ancestor is firmly established, the nature of that ancestor remains controversial: plastids have been proposed to derive from either early- or late-branching cyanobacterial lineages [5-11]...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130138/synthetic-food-additive-dye-tartrazine-triggers-amorphous-aggregation-in-cationic-myoglobin
#7
Nasser Abdulatif Al-Shabib, Javed Masood Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Mohd Sajid Ali, Abdulrahman M Al-Senaidy, Mohammad A Alsenaidy, Fohad Mabood Husain, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
Protein aggregation, a characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases, displays vast conformational diversity from amorphous to amyloid-like aggregates. In this study, we have explored the interaction of tartrazine with myoglobin protein at two different pHs (7.4 and 2.0). We have utilized various spectroscopic techniques (turbidity, Rayleigh light scattering (RLS), intrinsic fluorescence, Congo Red and far-UV CD) along with microscopy techniques i.e. atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the tartrazine-induced aggregation in myoglobin...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124402/knock-in-strategy-at-3-end-of-crx-gene-by-crispr-cas9-system-shows-the-gene-expression-profiles-during-human-photoreceptor-differentiation
#8
Kohei Homma, Sumiko Usui, Makoto Kaneda
Fluorescent reporter gene knock-in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines have been used to evaluate the efficiency of differentiation into specific cell lineages. Here, we report a knock-in strategy for the generation of human iPSC reporter lines in which a 2A peptide sequence and a red fluorescent protein (E2-Crimson) gene were inserted at the termination codon of the cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene, a photoreceptor-specific transcriptional factor gene. The knock-in iPSC lines were differentiated into fluorescence-expressing cells in 3D retinal differentiation culture, and the fluorescent cells also expressed Crx specifically in the nucleus...
January 26, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123513/wilson-s-disease-patient-with-iron-metabolism-discharge-barriers-a-case-report
#9
Guoen Cai, Xinming Huang, Qinyong Ye, Wenting Xiong, Qing Duan
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disease. In the present study, the patient was a 35-year-old woman who exhibited drinking bucking (bulbar paralysis) and dysphagia for a period of nine years. Genetic analysis of the patient identified the Thr935Met and Pro992Leu mutations, which lead to copper metabolism discharge barriers. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) hyperintense area in the bilateral substantia nigra and lenticular nuclei. These SWI observations indicated that 'mineral deposits' were present...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#10
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101174/protective-effects-of-resveratrol-on-autologous-nucleus-pulposus-model-of-radiculopathy
#11
Bin Lin, Hui Yu, Yongzhi He, Yang Xu, Wenbin Zhang, Chengwu Lu, Qingfang Ao
Nucleus pulposus (NP) has been suggested to trigger an autoimmune response if exposed to the immune system, which plays a key role in neuropathic pain. Therefore, appropriate suppression of inflammation is a key factor for treating the radiculopathy caused by intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration. Resveratrol, a key component of red wine, has been suggested to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of resveratrol on NP-mediated pain in vivo have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resveratrol may be useful in treating NP-mediated pain in an autologous NP model of radiculopathy...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095611/hypothesis-gene-rich-plastid-genomes-in-red-algae-may-be-an-outcome-of-nuclear-genome-reduction
#12
Huan Qiu, Jun Mo Lee, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya
Red algae (Rhodophyta) putatively diverged from the eukaryote tree of life >1.2 billion years ago and are the source of plastids in the ecologically important diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates. In general, red algae contain the largest plastid gene inventory among all such organelles derived from primary, secondary, or additional rounds of endosymbiosis. In contrast, their nuclear gene inventory is reduced when compared to their putative sister lineage, the Viridiplantae, and other photosynthetic lineages...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095473/the-asymmetric-cell-division-regulators-par3-scribble-and-pins-gpsm2-are-not-essential-for-erythroid-development-or-enucleation
#13
Christina B Wölwer, Nathan Gödde, Luke B Pase, Imogen A Elsum, Krystle Y B Lim, Faruk Sacirbegovic, Carl R Walkley, Sarah Ellis, Shigeo Ohno, Fumio Matsuzaki, Sarah M Russell, Patrick O Humbert
Erythroid enucleation is the process by which the future red blood cell disposes of its nucleus prior to entering the blood stream. This key event during red blood cell development has been likened to an asymmetric cell division (ACD), by which the enucleating erythroblast divides into two very different daughter cells of alternate molecular composition, a nucleated cell that will be removed by associated macrophages, and the reticulocyte that will mature to the definitive erythrocyte. Here we investigated gene expression of members of the Par, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 asymmetric cell division complexes in erythroid cells, and functionally tested their role in erythroid enucleation in vivo and ex vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069760/axotomized-corticospinal-neurons-increase-supra-lesional-innervation-and-remain-crucial-for-skilled-reaching-after-bilateral-pyramidotomy
#14
Alice C Mosberger, Jenifer C Miehlbradt, Nadja Bjelopoljak, Marc P Schneider, Anna-Sophia Wahl, Benjamin V Ineichen, Miriam Gullo, Martin E Schwab
Skilled upper limb function heavily depends on the corticospinal tract. After bilateral lesions to this tract, motor control is disrupted but can be partially substituted by other motor systems to allow functional recovery. However, the remaining roles of motor cortex and especially of axotomized corticospinal neurons (CSNs) are not well understood. Using the single pellet retrieval task in adult rats, we induced significant recovery of skilled reaching after bilateral pyramidotomy by rehabilitative reaching training, and show that reach-related motor cortex activity, recorded in layer V, topographically reappeared shortly after axotomy...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065850/deep-grey-matter-iron-accumulation-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#15
Michal Juhás, Hongfu Sun, Matthew R G Brown, Marnie B MacKay, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Alan H Wilman, Serdar M Dursun, Andrew J Greenshaw
PURPOSE: Evaluate brain iron accumulation in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients compared to controls using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: QSM was performed retrospectively by using phase images from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 male AUD patients and 15 matched healthy controls were examined. Susceptibility values were manually traced in deep grey matter regions including caudate nucleus, combined putamen and globus pallidus, combined substantia nigra and red nucleus, dentate nucleus, and a reference white matter region in the internal capsule...
January 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062994/some-remarks-on-the-distribution-and-dispersion-of-coccidia-from-icterid-birds-in-south-america-isospora-guaxi-n-sp-and-isospora-bellicosa-upton-stamper-whitaker-1995-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-from-the-red-rumped-cacique-cacicus-haemorrhous-l-passeriformes-icteridae
#16
Lidiane Maria da Silva, Mariana Borges Rodrigues, Irlane Faria de Pinho, Bruno do Bomfim Lopes, Hermes Ribeiro Luz, Ildemar Ferreira, Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes, Bruno Pereira Berto
A new species of coccidian, Isospora guaxi n. sp., and Isospora bellicosa Upton, Stamper & Whitaker, 1995 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are recorded from red-rumped caciques Cacicus haemorrhous (L.) in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil. Isospora guaxi n. sp. has sub-spheroidal oöcysts, measuring on average 30.9 × 29.0 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.9 μm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 19...
January 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057129/-effect-of-rab11-gene-expression-on-the-invasion-and-migration-of-cervical-cancer-cell-line-siha-in-hypoxia
#17
H Xu, Y Yuan, J Y Ji, Q Jiang, L J Niu, N L Liu, L Z Zhang, X Wang
Objective: To explore the expression of Ras-related protein 11 (Rab11) in hypoxia, the effect of Rab11 on the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cell line SiHa and its possible mechanism. Methods: SiHa cells were divided into 4 groups, the normoxic blank group (normal culture in normoxia), the hypoxic blank group (normal culture in hypoxia), the negative control group [transfection of negative control small interfering RNA (siRNA) in hypoxia], the Rab11-siRNA group (transfection of Rab11 siRNA in hypoxia)...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052645/double-labeling-of-vagal-preganglionic-and-sympathetic-postganglionic-fibers-in-celiac-ganglion-superior-mesenteric-arteries-and-myenteric-plexus
#18
Shi-Jane Ting, Chih-Kuan Kao, Feng-Bin Wang
Sympathetic efferents regulate the “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic and vagal fibers have been suggested to retrogradely and centrally spread pathogens associated with Parkinson’s disease. To examine the arrangement of the vagal and sympathetic motor fibers in the celiac ganglion (CG), gastrointestinal tract, and along the superior mesenteric artery and its sub-branches, we double-labeled the vagal efferents by injecting Dextran-Texas Red into the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the sympathetic postganglionics with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18)...
28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049150/fosl1-inhibits-type-i-interferon-responses-to-malaria-and-viral-infections-by-blocking-tbk1-and-traf3-trif-interactions
#19
Baowei Cai, Jian Wu, Xiao Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Rong-Fu Wang
: Innate immune response plays a critical role in controlling invading pathogens, but such an immune response must be tightly regulated. Insufficient or overactivated immune responses may lead to harmful or even fatal consequences. To dissect the complex host-parasite interactions and the molecular mechanisms underlying innate immune responses to infections, here we investigate the role of FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1) in regulating the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response to malaria parasite and viral infections...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048306/we-fg-bra-04-a-portable-confocal-microscope-to-image-live-cell-damage-response-induced-by-therapeutic-radiation
#20
C McFadden, D Flint, D Sadetaporn, A Asaithamby, D Grosshans, G Sawakuchi
PURPOSE: To construct a custom and portable fluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscope (FCLSM) that can be placed in the path of therapeutic radiation beams to study real-time radiation-induced damage response in live cells. METHODS: We designed and constructed a portable FCLSM with three laser diodes for excitation (405, 488, and 635 nm). An objective lens focuses the excitation light and collects fluorescence from the sample. A pair of galvanometer mirrors scans/collects the laser beam/fluorescence along the focal plane (x/y-directions)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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