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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742327/amphiphilic-peptide-nanorods-based-on-oligo-phenylalanine-as-a-biocompatible-drug-carrier
#1
Su Jeong Song, Seulgi Lee, Kyoung-Seok Ryu, Joon Sig Choi
Peptide nanostructure has been widely explored for drug delivery systems in recent studies. Peptides possess comparatively lower cytotoxicity and are more efficient than polymeric carriers. Here, we propose a peptide nanorod system, composed of an amphiphilic oligo-peptide RH3F8 (Arg-His3-Phe8) as a drug delivery carrier. Arginine is an essential amino acid in typical cell penetration peptides, and histidine induces endo/lysosomal escape because of its proton sponge effect. Phenylalanine is introduced to provide rich hydrophobicity for stable self-assembly and drug encapsulation...
July 25, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740270/the-significance-of-brain-transcranial-sonography-in-burning-mouth-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#2
Iris Zavoreo, Vanja Vučićević, Boras, Dijana Zadravec, Vanja Bašić, Kes, Dubravka Ciliga, Dragana Gabrić
OBJECTIVE: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder which is affecting mostly postmenopausal women and is characterized by burning symptoms in the oral cavity on the clinically healthy oral mucosa. Also, the results of previous studies suggested a possible role of peripheral and/or central neurological disturbances in these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze patients with burning mouth syndrome using transcranial sonography. METHODS: By use of transcranial sonography of the brain parenchyma, substantia nigra, midbrain raphe and brain nucleus were evaluated in 20 patients with BMS (64...
March 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737365/vim-thalamotomy-in-the-treatment-of-holmes-tremor-secondary-to-hiv-associated-midbrain-lesion-a-case-report
#3
José O Oliveira, Soraya A Jorge Cecilio, Matheus Fernandes Oliveira, Leonardo R Takahashi, Alexandro R Galassi, Vanessa M Holanda, José M Rotta
Holmes' tremor (rubral tremor, cerebellar outflow tremor) is characterized by rest, intention and postural tremor, often localized to one upper extremity, associated with ipsilateral dysmetria and dysdiadochokinesia. We describe a case of successful treatment of Holmes' tremor with unilateral nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM) thalamotomy. The subject is a 43-year-old woman with unremarkable previous medical history. She presented with complete left hemiparesis in the context of human immunodeficiency syndrome and the magnetic resonance image disclosed a contrast-enhancing lesion in right brain peduncle, in topography of red nucleus...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729432/tropomodulin1-controls-erythroblast-enucleation-via-regulation-of-f-actin-in-the-enucleosome
#4
Roberta B Nowak, Julien Papoin, David S Gokhin, Carla Casu, Stefano Rivella, Jeffrey M Lipton, Lionel Blanc, Velia M Fowler
Biogenesis of mammalian red blood cells requires nuclear expulsion by orthochromatic erythoblasts late in terminal differentiation (enucleation), but the mechanism is largely unexplained. Here, we employed high resolution confocal microscopy to analyze nuclear morphology and F-actin rearrangements during the initiation, progression and completion of mouse and human erythroblast enucleation in vivo Mouse erythroblast nuclei acquire a dumbbell-shaped morphology during enucleation, while human bone marrow erythroblast nuclei unexpectedly retain their spherical morphology...
July 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706475/focal-stroke-in-the-developing-rat-motor-cortex-induces-age-and-experience-dependent-maladaptive-plasticity-of-corticospinal-system
#5
Mariangela Gennaro, Alessandro Mattiello, Raffaele Mazziotti, Camilla Antonelli, Lisa Gherardini, Andrea Guzzetta, Nicoletta Berardi, Giovanni Cioni, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694839/gene-expression-profiling-of-whole-blood-cells-supports-a-more-efficient-mitochondrial-respiration-in-hypoxia-challenged-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#6
Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Acclimation to abiotic challenges, including decreases in O2 availability, requires physiological and anatomical phenotyping to accommodate the organism to the environmental conditions. The retention of a nucleus and functional mitochondria in mature fish red blood cells makes blood a promising tissue to analyse the transcriptome and metabolic responses of hypoxia-challenged fish in an integrative and non-invasive manner. METHODS: Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were reared at 20-21 °C under normoxic conditions (> 85% O2 saturation) followed by exposure to a gradual decrease in water O2 concentration to 3...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668516/effect-of-monochromatic-light-on-circadian-rhythmic-expression-of-clock-genes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-chick
#7
Nan Jiang, Zixu Wang, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
To clarify the effect of monochromatic light on circadian clock gene expression in chick hypothalamus, a total 240 newly hatched chickens were reared under blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL) and white light (WL), respectively. On the post-hatched day 14, 24-h profiles of seven core clock genes (cClock, cBmal1, cBmal2, cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) were measured at six time points (CT 0, CT 4, CT 8, CT 12, CT 16, CT 20, circadian time). We found all these clock genes expressed with a significant rhythmicity in different light wavelength groups...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668294/aclarubicin-an-anthracycline-anti-cancer-drug-fluorescently-contrasts-mitochondria-and-reduces-the-oxygen-consumption-rate-in-living-human-cells
#8
Haruka Iihoshi, Takaya Ishihara, Shogo Kuroda, Naotada Ishihara, Hisato Saitoh
Aclarubicin (Acla), an effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent for hematologic cancers and solid tumors, is documented to perturb chromatin function via histone eviction and DNA topoisomerase inhibition in the nucleus, but much less attention has been paid to cytotoxic function in the cytoplasm. Here, we showed that Acla emitted fluorescence and that human cervical cancer HeLa cells exposed to Acla exhibited bright fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm when fluorescence microscopy was performed using the red filter (excitation 530-550nm/emission 575nm)...
June 28, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659970/effects-of-genotype-by-environment-interaction-on-genetic-gain-and-genetic-parameter-estimates-in-red-tilapia-oreochromis-spp
#9
Nguyen H Nguyen, Azhar Hamzah, Ngo P Thoa
The extent to which genetic gain achieved from selection programs under strictly controlled environments in the nucleus that can be expressed in commercial production systems is not well-documented in aquaculture species. The main aim of this paper was to assess the effects of genotype by environment interaction on genetic response and genetic parameters for four body traits (harvest weight, standard length, body depth, body width) and survival in Red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). The growth and survival data were recorded on 19,916 individual fish from a pedigreed population undergoing three generations of selection for increased harvest weight in earthen ponds from 2010 to 2012 at the Aquaculture Extension Center, Department of Fisheries, Jitra in Kedah, Malaysia...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655825/a-plastid-protein-that-evolved-from-ubiquitin-and-is-required-for-apicoplast-protein-import-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Justin D Fellows, Michael J Cipriano, Swati Agrawal, Boris Striepen
Apicomplexan parasites cause a variety of important infectious diseases, including malaria, toxoplasma encephalitis, and severe diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium Most apicomplexans depend on an organelle called the apicoplast which is derived from a red algal endosymbiont. The apicoplast is essential for the parasite as the compartment of fatty acid, heme, and isoprenoid biosynthesis. The majority of the approximate 500 apicoplast proteins are nucleus encoded and have to be imported across the four membranes that surround the apicoplast...
June 27, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649492/relationship-between-brainstem-neurodegeneration-and-clinical-impairment-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Patrick Grabher, Claudia Blaiotta, John Ashburner, Patrick Freund
BACKGROUND: Brainstem networks are pivotal in sensory and motor function and in recovery following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To quantify neurodegeneration and its relation to clinical impairment in major brainstem pathways and nuclei in traumatic SCI. METHODS: Quantitative MRI data of 30 chronic traumatic SCI patients (15 with tetraplegia and 15 with paraplegia) and 23 controls were acquired. Patients underwent a full neurological examination...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642483/masking-of-a-circadian-behavior-in-larval-zebrafish-involves-the-thalamo-habenula-pathway
#12
Qian Lin, Suresh Jesuthasan
Changes in illumination can rapidly influence behavior that is normally controlled by the circadian clock. This effect is termed masking. In mice, masking requires melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that detect blue light and project to the thalamus. It is not known whether masking is wavelength-dependent in other vertebrates, nor is it known whether the thalamus is also involved or how it influences masking. Here, we address these questions in zebrafish. We find that diel vertical migration, a circadian behavior in larval zebrafish, is effectively triggered by blue, but not by red light...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640098/the-characteristics-of-stem-cells-in-human-degenerative-intervertebral-disc
#13
Lin Liang, Xuefeng Li, Dapeng Li, Weimin Jiang, Heng Wang, Jie Chen, Zhiyong Sun, Niannian Zhang, Yangyi Zhu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify which possessed the best stem-cell-like characteristics in 3 kinds of cell in human degenerative intervertebral disc: NPSCs (nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells), AFSCs (annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells), or CESCs (cartilage endplate-derived stem cells). METHODS: We separated the disc samples obtained from 15 surgically treated patients with disc degenerative diseases into nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, and cartilage endplate...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634010/lamp-1-chimeric-dna-vaccines-enhance-the-antibody-response-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#14
Iang Rondón-Barragán, Reiko Nozaki, Ikuo Hirono, Hidehiro Kondo
DNA vaccination is one method to protect farmed fish from viral and bacterial diseases. Chimeric antigens encoded by DNA vaccines have been shown to increase the resistance to viral diseases. Here, we sequenced the gene encoding lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, (JfLAMP-1) and assessed its use in a chimeric DNA vaccine fused with the major capsule protein (MCP) from red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). JfLAMP-1 cDNA has a length of 1248 bp encoding 415 aa, which contains transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622016/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-involved-in-nucleus-pulposus-degeneration-and-attenuates-low-ph-induced-apoptosis-of-rat-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#15
Zhi-Yang Xie, Lu Chen, Feng Wang, Lei Liu, Cong Zhang, Kun Wang, Feng Cai, Arjun Sinkemanni, Xin Hong, Xiao-Tao Wu
The microenvironment of degenerative intervertebral disk (IVD) is characteristic of a high concentration of lactic acid and low pH levels, whereas the underlying mechanism has not been clearly defined. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the hub of interactions between environmental signals and cellular biological functions, the malfunction of which is closely involved in the pathogenesis of multiple disorders, including IVD degeneration (IVDD). This research mainly aims at exploring what role ER stress plays in the natural process of IVDD and pH-induced apoptosis of rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells (NPCs)...
June 16, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602813/automated-segmentation-of-midbrain-structures-with-high-iron-content
#16
REVIEW
Benjamín Garzón, Rouslan Sitnikov, Lars Bäckman, Grégoria Kalpouzos
The substantia nigra (SN), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the red nucleus (RN) are midbrain structures of ample interest in many neuroimaging studies, which may benefit from the availability of automated segmentation methods. The high iron content of these structures awards them high contrast in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) images. We present a novel segmentation method that leverages the information of these images to produce automated segmentations of the SN, STN, and RN. The algorithm builds a map of spatial priors for the structures by non-linearly registering a set of manually-traced training labels to the midbrain...
June 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592555/genetic-dissection-of-morphometric-traits-reveals-that-phytochrome-b-affects-nucleus-size-and-heterochromatin-organization-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Basten L Snoek, Penka Pavlova, Federico Tessadori, Anton J M Peeters, Clara Bourbousse, Fredy Barneche, J Hans de Jong, Paul F Fransz, Martijn van Zanten
Microscopically visible chromatin is partitioned into two major components in Arabidopsis thaliana nuclei. Chromocenters on one hand are conspicuous foci of highly condensed 'heterochromatic' domains that contain mostly repeated sequences. On the other hand, less condensed and gene-rich 'euchromatin' emanates from these chromocenters. This differentiation, together with the dynamic nature of chromatin compaction in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, makes Arabidopsis a powerful system for studying chromatin organization and dynamics...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579433/taxifolin-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-partially-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#18
Yun-Jia Wang, Hong-Qi Zhang, Hai-Long Han, Yong-Yi Zou, Qi-Le Gao, Guan-Teng Yang
Taxifolin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to stimulate osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts. The present study investigated whether taxifolin affects the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and the molecular mechanisms involved. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in the presence of taxifolin were examined by CCK-8 assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, ALP staining and Alizarin red staining. The expression of osteogenic differentiation markers were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analysis and western blot assay...
June 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565751/application-of-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Peng-Fei Qiao, Feng Shi, Ming-Fang Jiang, Yang Gao, Guang-Ming Niu
The present study aimed to observe the structural changes of the extracorticospinal tract in Parkinson's disease (PD) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) magnetic resonance (MR) scans. The association of DTI parameters and brain-iron accumulation with PD was examined and imaging signs useful in the diagnosis of PD were explored. The study included 30 patients with PD and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls who underwent routine MR, SWI and DTI scans. The corrected phase (CP) values of the substantia nigra (SN), red nucleus (RN), globus pallidus (GP) and putamen (PUT) were measured, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were obtained...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539635/regulation-of-chloroplast-and-nucleomorph-replication-by-the-cell-cycle-in-the-cryptophyte-guillardia-theta
#20
Ryo Onuma, Neha Mishra, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
The chloroplasts of cryptophytes arose through a secondary endosymbiotic event in which a red algal endosymbiont was integrated into a previously nonphotosynthetic eukaryote. The cryptophytes retain a remnant of the endosymbiont nucleus (nucleomorph) that is replicated once in the cell cycle along with the chloroplast. To understand how the chloroplast, nucleomorph and host cell divide in a coordinated manner, we examined the expression of genes/proteins that are related to nucleomorph replication and chloroplast division as well as the timing of nuclear and nucleomorph DNA synthesis in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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