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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326454/quercetin-and-ascorbic-acid-suppress-fructose-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-blocking-intracellular-shuttling-of-txnip-in-human-macrophage-cell-lines
#1
Jung-Yoon Choe, Seong-Kyu Kim
The aim of this study was to identify the role of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and its interaction with antioxidants in the activation of the fructose-induced NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages. The study was performed with U937 and THP-1 macrophage cell lines. Total reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, NLRP3, TXNIP, and caspase-1 protein expression was detected using western blotting. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 gene expression...
March 22, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325844/the-sole-lsm-complex-in-cyanidioschyzon-merolae-associates-with-pre-mrna-splicing-and-mrna-degradation-factors
#2
Kirsten A Reimer, Martha R Stark, Lisbeth Carolina Aguilar, Sierra R Stark, Robert D Burke, Jack Moore, Richard P Fahlman, Calvin K Yip, Haruko Kuroiwa, Marlene Oeffinger, Stephen D Rader
Proteins of the Sm and Sm-like (LSm) families, referred to collectively as (L)Sm proteins, are found in all three domains of life, and are known to promote a variety of RNA processes such as base-pair formation, unwinding, RNA degradation, and RNA stabilization. In eukaryotes, (L)Sm proteins have been studied, inter alia, for their role in pre-mRNA splicing. In many organisms, the LSm proteins form two distinct complexes, one consisting of LSm1-7 that is involved in mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm, and the other consisting of LSm2-8 that binds spliceosomal U6 snRNA in the nucleus...
March 21, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316289/post-stapedectomy-granuloma-a-devastating-complication
#3
E Watts, H R F Powell, S R Saeed, R M Irving
OBJECTIVES: This paper reports three cases of severe post-stapedectomy granuloma, emphasising the variable presentation of this devastating complication and the challenges of its management. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of three cases of post-stapedectomy granuloma requiring surgical debulking between 2010 and 2015. Clinical symptoms, serial imaging, histopathology and post-operative outcomes were considered. RESULTS: Intra-operatively, extensive granulation tissue with erosion of the otic capsule was found...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303377/the-differences-of-the-precommissural-and-postcommissural-fornix-in-the-hippocampal-location-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#4
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo
PURPOSE: The precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix have different connections to the basal forebrain and septal region, and mammillary body, respectively. However, little is known about the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we investigated the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. METHODS: We recruited 25 healthy volunteers for this study...
March 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298310/atypical-centrioles-are-present-in-tribolium-sperm
#5
E L Fishman, Kyoung Jo, Andrew Ha, Rachel Royfman, Ashtyn Zinn, Malathi Krishnamurthy, Tomer Avidor-Reiss
Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster, we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295740/green-light-inhibits-gnrh-i-expression-by-stimulating-the-melatonin-gnih-pathway-in-the-chick-brain
#6
Liwei Zhang, Funing Chen, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Zixu Wang, Man Hu, Yaoxing Chen
To study the mechanism by which monochromatic light affects gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression in chicken hypothalamus, a total of 192 newly hatched chicks were divided into intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups and exposed to white (WL), red (RL), green (GL) and blue (BL) lights using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for 2 wk. In the GL intact group, the mRNA and protein levels of GnRH-I in the hypothalamus, the mean cell area and mean cell optical density (OD) of the GnRH-I-ir cells of the nucleus commissurae pallii (nCPa) were decreased by 13...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270752/neuronal-correlates-of-functional-coupling-between-reach-and-grasp-related-components-of-muscle-activity
#7
Shashwati Geed, Martha L McCurdy, Peter L E van Kan
Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand toward a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, Geed and Van Kan (2016) demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266688/the-bmp2-variant-l51p-restores-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-the-presence-of-intervertebral-disc-cells
#8
A Tekari, R D May, D A Frauchiger, S C Chan, L M Benneker, B Gantenbein
Spinal fusion is hampered by the presence of remaining intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue and leads to spinal non-union. While the exact mechanism remains unknown, we hypothesise that factors preventing disc ossification, such as antagonists of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), could be responsible for this process. The objective of this study was to investigate spinal non-union using an in vitro human model with a focus on the BMP signalling components and to identify factors contributing to the incomplete and delayed ossification...
February 23, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263830/repeated-corticosterone-injections-in-adult-mice-alter-stress-hormonal-receptor-expression-in-the-cerebellum-and-motor-coordination-without-affecting-spatial-learning
#9
Guillaume Harlé, Robert Lalonde, Coralie Fonte, Armelle Ropars, Jean-Pol Frippiat, Catherine Strazielle
Receptors for glucocorticoid (GR) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are largely found in brain sensorimotor structures, particularly in cerebellum, underlining a potential role of stress hormones in the regulation of motor function. Since CRH is involved in neuroplasticity, known for its trophic effect on synapses, we investigated how manipulations in corticosterone serum levels can modulate the CRH system in the cerebellum and affect motor coordination. Corticosterone at doses of either 15 or 30mg/kg was injected in mice and the status of hormonal expression evaluated in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus in undisturbed housing conditions or after different behavioral tests...
March 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263454/neuroplasticity-of-supraspinal-structures-associated-with-pathological-pain
#10
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Judit Homs, Francisco Reina, Anna Carrera, Enrique Verdú
Peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries, along with other painful syndromes such as fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapeutic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome, cause several neuroplasticity changes in the nervous system along its entire axis affecting the different neuronal nuclei. This paper reviews these changes, focusing on the supraspinal structures that are involved in the modulation and processing of pain, including the periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, locus coeruleus, rostral ventromedial medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, habenula, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, septum, amygdala, cingulated and prefrontal cortex...
March 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263079/%C3%AF-expansive-heteroleptic-ruthenium-ii-complexes-as-reverse-saturable-absorbers-and-photosensitizers-for-photodynamic-therapy
#11
Li Wang, Huimin Yin, Mohammed A Jabed, Marc Hetu, Chengzhe Wang, Susan Monro, Xiaolin Zhu, Svetlana Kilina, Sherri A McFarland, Wenfang Sun
Five heteroleptic tris-diimine ruthenium(II) complexes [RuL(N^N)2](PF6)2 (where L is 3,8-di(benzothiazolylfluorenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline and N^N is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (2), 1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene (tatp) (3), dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) (4), or benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppn) (5), respectively) were synthesized. The influence of π-conjugation of the ancillary ligands (N^N) on the photophysical properties of the complexes was investigated by spectroscopic methods and simulated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT...
March 6, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262730/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-the-ick-gene-family-in-maize
#12
Qianlin Xiao, Chunxia Zhang, Hui Li, Bin Wei, Yongbin Wang, Huanhuan Huang, Yangping Li, Guowu Yu, Hanmei Liu, Junjie Zhang, Yinghong Liu, Yufeng Hu, Yubi Huang
Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (ICKs) are key regulators of cyclin-dependent kinase activities and cell division. Herein, we identified eight ICKs in maize, which we named Zeama;ICKs (ZmICKs). Primary sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were used to divide the ZmICK family into two classes: group B and group C. Subcellular localization analysis of ZmICK:enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion constructs in tobacco leaf cells indicated that ZmICKs are principally nuclear. Co-localization analysis of the ZmICKs and maize A-type cyclin-dependent kinase (ZmCDKA) was also performed using enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion constructs...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261888/endurance-performance-in-well-trained-mice-is-enhanced-by-short-duration-intermittent-hypoxia-via-improved-muscle-fatty-acid-metabolism
#13
Junichi Suzuki
The author previously reported that short-duration intermittent hypoxia had additive effects on improvements in endurance capacity by enhancing fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of short-duration intermittent hypoxia on endurance capacity in well-trained mice. Mice in the training group were housed in a cage with a wheel activity device for 7 weeks from 5 weeks old. Voluntary running markedly increased maximal exercise capacity (by 5.9-fold). Trained mice were then subjected to either normoxic treadmill training (Tr) or training with short-duration intermittent hypoxia (12% O2 for 15 min, 20...
March 5, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258655/use-of-highly-specific-molecular-markers-reveals-positive-correlation-between-abundances-of-mesodinium-cf-major-and-its-preferred-prey-teleaulax-amphioxeia-during-red-water-blooms-in-the-columbia-river-estuary
#14
Lydie Herfort, Katie Maxey, Ian Vorhees, Holly M Simon, Kolette Grobler, Tawnya D Peterson, Peter Zuber
In a previous study, Teleaulax amphioxeia-the preferred prey of Mesodinium in the Columbia River estuary-were undetectable within intense annual blooms, suggesting blooms are prey-limited or prey are acquired outside of bloom patches. We used a novel molecular approach specifically targeting the prey (i.e. Unique Sequence Element [USE] within the ribosomal RNA 28S D2 regions of Teleaulax amphioxeia nucleus and nucleomorph) in estuarine water samples acquired autonomously with an Environmental Sample Processor integrated within a monitoring network (ESP-SATURN)...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247932/the-dentato-rubro-olivary-pathway-revisited-new-mr-imaging-observations-regarding-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration
#15
Gitte Smets, Julie Lambert, Maud Tijsen, Cindy Mai, Thomas Decramer, Wim Vandenberghe, Johannes van Loon, Philippe Demaerel
INTRODUCTION: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) following a lesion of the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway (DROP) is a well-known imaging finding and has extensively been described in the recent literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed our patients with HOD as a result of a lesion of the DROP in order to analyze the disruption of the DROP and the resulting HOD in comparison with the literature. RESULTS: We observed unusual imaging findings in 4 patients...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242435/liposomal-delivery-of-ferrous-chlorophyllin-a-novel-third-generation-photosensitizer-for-in-vitro-pdt-of-melanoma
#16
Iman Gomaa, Aya Sebak, Nagia Afifi, Mahmoud Abdel-Kader
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) has substantially increased among Caucasian populations in the past few decades. This increased the number of CM deaths throughout the world. Pigmentation of melanoma reduces the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Third generation photosensitizers (PSs) are characterized by improved targeting to the diseased tissue and reduced systemic side effects. This study is directed towards synthesis and characterization of liposomes encapsulating sodium ferrous chlorophyllin (Fe-CHL) and assessing its efficacy as a PS in PDT of melanoma...
February 24, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#17
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180922/effect-of-btxa-on-inhibiting-hypertrophic-scar-formation-in-a-rabbit-ear-model
#18
Dong-Qing Liu, Xiao-Jing Li, Xiao-Juan Weng
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a refractory skin disease caused by major physical damage or other inflammation. Some reports found that botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) could be an alternative treatment of the HS. Therefore, the authors studied the effects of BTXA on the treatment of HS and the dose response of BTXA. METHODS: Hypertrophic scars were harvested from the ears of 18 young adult New Zealand big-eared rabbits and treated with BTXA or triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) in vivo experiment...
February 8, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176244/cytotoxic-effects-of-the-cardenolide-convallatoxin-and-its-na-k-atpase-regulation
#19
Naira Fernanda Zanchett Schneider, Izabella Thais Silva, Lara Persich, Annelise de Carvalho, Sayonarah C Rocha, Lucas Marostica, Ana Carolina Pacheco Ramos, Alex G Taranto, Rodrigo M Pádua, Wolfgang Kreis, Leandro A Barbosa, Fernão C Braga, Cláudia M O Simões
Cardenolides are cardiac glycosides, mostly obtained from natural sources. They are well known for their inhibitory action on the Na,K-ATPase, an effect that regulates cardiovascular alterations such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmias. In recent years, they have also sparked new interest in their anticancer potential. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of the natural cardenolide convallatoxin (CON) were evaluated on non-small cell lung cancer (A549 cells). It was found that CON induced cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in A549 cells, showing essentially apoptotic cell death, as detected by annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining, as well as changes in cell form...
February 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168364/effects-of-aging-on-formula-see-text-formula-see-text-and-qsm-mri-values-in-the-subcortex
#20
M C Keuken, P-L Bazin, K Backhouse, S Beekhuizen, L Himmer, A Kandola, J J Lafeber, L Prochazkova, A Trutti, A Schäfer, R Turner, B U Forstmann
The aging brain undergoes several anatomical changes that can be measured with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Early studies using lower field strengths have assessed changes in tissue properties mainly qualitatively, using [Formula: see text]- or [Formula: see text]- weighted images to provide image contrast. With the development of higher field strengths (7 T and above) and more advanced MRI contrasts, quantitative measures can be acquired even of small subcortical structures. This study investigates volumetric, spatial, and quantitative MRI parameter changes associated with healthy aging in a range of subcortical nuclei, including the basal ganglia, red nucleus, and the periaqueductal grey...
February 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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