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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919504/successful-treatment-of-paroxysmal-ataxia-and-dysarthria-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-levetiracetam
#1
Shikha J Goodwin, Adam F Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal ataxia and dysarthria (PAD) is a relatively rare symptom in Multiple Sclerosis patients. PAD involves transient dysfunction in control, coordination and initiation of speech and/or limb movements. OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful use of levetiracetam for the treatment of PAD. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 37-year-old woman with MS developed PAD approximately 3 months after a multifocal MS relapse...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859237/the-tetrapyrrole-synthesis-pathway-as-a-model-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-euglenoids
#2
Bryan Lakey, Richard Triemer
The history of euglenoids may have begun as early as ~2 bya. These early phagotrophs ate cyanobacteria, archaea and eubacteria, and the subsequent appearance of red algae and chromalveolates provided euglenoids with additional food sources. Following the appearance of green algae, euglenoids acquired a chloroplast via a secondary endosymbiotic event with a green algal ancestor. This endosymbiosis also involved a massive transfer of nuclear-encoded genes from the symbiont nucleus to the host. Expecting these genes to have a green algal origin, this research has shown, through the use of DNA-sequences and the analysis of phylogenetic relationships, that many housekeeping genes have a red algal/chromalveolate ancestry...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843765/t2-relaxometry-predicts-outcome-of-dbs-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Tarja Lönnfors-Weitzel, Thilo Weitzel, Johannes Slotboom, Claus Kiefer, Claudio Pollo, Michael Schüpbach, Markus Oertel, Alain Kaelin, Roland Wiest
INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) nowadays is a well-established treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a common target for DBS, because motor improvements have been shown to be superior to best medical therapy, if DBS electrodes have been appropriately positioned. DBS target identification can be assisted by MRI beyond structural imaging by spatially resolved measurement of T2-relaxation times (T2r). AIM: We pose the question, whether T2r of the STN is linked to the severity of the disease and whether outcome of DBS may be correlated to an asymmetric manifestation of the disease...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843044/a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-finding-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-symmetrical-central-tegmental-tract-hyperintensity
#4
Betul Emine Derinkuyu, Evrim Ozmen, Havva Akmaz-Unlu, Namik Kemal Altinbas, Esra Gurkas, Oznur Boyunaga
BACKGROUND: Central tegmental tract is an extrapyramidal tract between red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus which is located in the tegmentum pontis bilaterally and symmetrically. The etiology of the presence of central tegmental tract hyperintensity on MRI is unclear. PURPOSE: In this study our aim is to evaluate the frequency of central tegmental tract lesions in patients with cerebral palsy and control group, as well as to determine whether there is an association between central tegmental tract lesions and cerebral palsy types...
November 11, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837024/chloroplast-division-checkpoint-in-eukaryotic-algae
#5
Nobuko Sumiya, Takayuki Fujiwara, Atsuko Era, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
Chloroplasts evolved from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont. It is believed that the synchronization of endosymbiotic and host cell division, as is commonly seen in existing algae, was a critical step in establishing the permanent organelle. Algal cells typically contain one or only a small number of chloroplasts that divide once per host cell cycle. This division is based partly on the S-phase-specific expression of nucleus-encoded proteins that constitute the chloroplast-division machinery. In this study, using the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we show that cell-cycle progression is arrested at the prophase when chloroplast division is blocked before the formation of the chloroplast-division machinery by the overexpression of Filamenting temperature-sensitive (Fts) Z2-1 (Fts72-1), but the cell cycle progresses when chloroplast division is blocked during division-site constriction by the overexpression of either FtsZ2-1 or a dominant-negative form of dynamin-related protein 5B (DRP5B)...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834044/the-influence-of-acute-hypoxia-on-the-functional-and-morphological-state-of-the-black-scorpionfish-red-blood-cells
#6
Aleksandra Y Andreyeva, Aleksander A Soldatov, Vladimir S Mukhanov
The investigation of the mechanisms of red blood cell steadiness to the oxygen lack in tolerant teleosts is of current scientific interest. Black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus L., is a widespread benthal species in the Black Sea and is highly resistant to hypoxic influence. The morphological state of black scorpionfish red blood cells under acute hypoxia was assessed using DNA-binding dye SYBR Green I and fluorescent microscopy. Changes in membrane potential of mitochondria and functional activity of cells were determined by rhodamine 123 (R123) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) fluorescence...
November 10, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827408/meta-analysis-of-brain-iron-levels-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-determined-by-postmortem-and-mri-measurements
#7
Jian-Yong Wang, Qing-Qing Zhuang, Lan-Bing Zhu, Hui Zhu, Ting Li, Rui Li, Song-Fang Chen, Chen-Ping Huang, Xiong Zhang, Jian-Hong Zhu
Brain iron levels in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD) are usually measured in postmortem samples or by MRI imaging including R2* and SWI. In this study we performed a meta-analysis to understand PD-associated iron changes in various brain regions, and to evaluate the accuracy of MRI detections comparing with postmortem results. Databases including Medline, Web of Science, CENTRAL and Embase were searched up to 19(th) November 2015. Ten brain regions were identified for analysis based on data extracted from thirty-three-articles...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827297/movement-disorders-associated-with-hemochromatosis
#8
Niraj Kumar, Philippe Rizek, Bekim Sadikovic, Paul C Adams, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder causing pathological iron deposition and functional impairment of various organs, predominantly the liver. We assessed patients with HH for the presence of movement disorders. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 616 patients with HH who attended hemochromatosis clinic at London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada, from 1988 to 2015. RESULTS: We found three HH patients with movement disorders, without any other major systemic manifestation...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805752/targeting-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-projections-from-the-oval-nucleus-of-the-bnst-using-cell-type-specific-neuronal-tracing-studies-in-mouse-and-rat-brain
#9
Joanna Dabrowska, Daisy Martinon, Mahsa Moaddab, Donald G Rainnie
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is known to play a critical role in mediating the behavioral and autonomic responses to stressors. The oval nucleus of the BNST (BNSTov) contains cell bodies that synthesize the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Although afferent fibers originating from the BNSTov have been shown to innervate several key structures of the neuroendocrine and central autonomic system, the question remains as to whether, some of these fibers are CRF-positive. To directly address this question, we injected a "floxed" anterograde tracer (rAAV5/EF1a-DIO-mCherry) into the BNSTov of CRFp3...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791006/cryptophyte-farming-by-symbiotic-ciliate-host-detected-in-situ
#10
Dajun Qiu, Liangmin Huang, Senjie Lin
Protist-alga symbiosis is widespread in the ocean, but its characteristics and function in situ remain largely unexplored. Here we report the symbiosis of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum with cryptophyte cells during a red-tide bloom in Long Island Sound. In contrast to the current notion that Mesodinium retains cryptophyte chloroplasts or organelles, our multiapproach analyses reveal that in this bloom the endosymbiotic Teleaulax amphioxeia cells were intact and expressing genes of membrane transporters, nucleus-to-cytoplasm RNA transporters, and all major metabolic pathways...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773616/compartmentalized-metabolic-engineering-for-artemisinin-biosynthesis-and-effective-malaria-treatment-by-oral-delivery-of-plant-cells
#11
Karan Malhotra, Mayavan Subramaniyan, Khushboo Rawat, Md Kalamuddin, M Irfan Qureshi, Pawan Malhotra, Asif Mohmmed, Katrina Cornish, Henry Daniell, Shashi Kumar
Artemisinin is highly effective against drug-resistant malarial parasites, which affects nearly half of the global population and kills >500 000 people each year. The primary cost of artemisinin is the very expensive process used to extract and purify the drug from Artemisia annua. Elimination of this apparently unnecessary step will make this potent antimalarial drug affordable to the global population living in endemic regions. Here we reported the oral delivery of a non-protein drug artemisinin biosynthesized (∼0...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761236/utility-of-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-atypical-parkinsonian-disorders
#12
Zhibin Wang, Xiao-Guang Luo, Chao Gao
In the clinic, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) largely depends on clinicians' experience. When the diagnosis is made, approximately 80% of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra (SN) have been lost. Additionally, it is rather challenging to differentiate PD from atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD). Clinially-available 3T conventional MRI contributes little to solve these problems. The pathologic alterations of parkinsonism show abnormal brain iron deposition, and therefore susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), which is sensitive to iron concentration, has been applied to find iron-related lesions for the diagnosis and differentiation of PD in recent decades...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758895/epidermal-phytochrome-b-inhibits-hypocotyl-negative-gravitropism-non-cell-autonomously
#13
Jaewook Kim, Kijong Song, Eunae Park, Keunhwa Kim, Gabyong Bae, Giltsu Choi
Seedling hypocotyls display negative gravitropism in the dark but agravitropism in the light. The Arabidopsis thaliana pif quadruple mutant (pifQ), which lacks four PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs), is agravitropic in the dark. Endodermis-specific expression of PIF1 rescues gravitropism in pifQ mutant seedlings. Since phytochromes induce light responses by inhibiting PIFs and the COP1-SPA ubiquitin E3 ligase complex in the nucleus, we asked whether phyB can cell autonomously inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism in the endodermis...
October 6, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753128/participation-of-the-dentate-rubral-pathway-in-the-kindling-model-of-epilepsy
#14
Miguel Hernández-Cerón, Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Carmen Rubio, Verónica Custodio, Edith González-Guevara, Carlos Castillo-Pérez, Carlos Paz
Lesions of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) reduce the after-discharge duration induced by repetitive kindling stimulation and decrease seizures to a lower rank according to Racine's scale. The DN sends cholinergic and glutamatergic fibers to the red nucleus (RN), which is composed of glutamatergic and GABAergic cells. To test the participation of these neurotransmitters in seizures, we compared the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the RN in a control condition, a kindled stage, and a kindled stage followed by DN lesions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747196/shiga-toxin-mediated-neurologic-changes-in-murine-model-of-disease
#15
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694854/subcellular-and-in-vivo-nano-endoscopy
#16
Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati, John Winskas, Hao Wang, Karthik Konnaiyan, Arseny Zhdanov, Alison Roth, Swamy Rakesh Adapa, Andrew Deonarine, Mark Noble, Tuhin Das, Robert Gatenby, Sandy D Westerheide, Rays H Y Jiang, Anna Pyayt
Analysis of individual cells at the subcellular level is important for understanding diseases and accelerating drug discovery. Nanoscale endoscopes allow minimally invasive probing of individual cell interiors. Several such instruments have been presented previously, but they are either too complex to fabricate or require sophisticated external detectors because of low signal collection efficiency. Here we present a nanoendoscope that can locally excite fluorescence in labelled cell organelles and collect the emitted signal for spectral analysis...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693510/characterization-of-novel-dystonia-musculorum-mutant-mice-implications-for-central-nervous-system-abnormality
#17
Masao Horie, Kazuyuki Mekada, Hiromi Sano, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Satomi Chiken, Takuro Someya, Keisuke Saito, M Ibrahim Hossain, Masaaki Nameta, Kuniya Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Katsuhiko Ono, Atsushi Nambu, Atsushi Yoshiki, Hirohide Takebayashi
We identified a novel spontaneous mutant mouse showing motor symptoms that are similar to those of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mouse. The observations suggested that the mutant mice inherited the mild dt phenotype as an autosomal recessive trait. Linkage analysis showed that the causative gene was located near D1Mit373 and D1Mit410 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1, which are close to the dystonin (Dst) gene locus. To investigate whether Dst is the causative gene of the novel mutant phenotype, we crossed the mutant with Dst gene trap (Dst(Gt)) mice...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690387/quantum-dots-ligand-complex-as-ratiometric-fluorescent-nanoprobe-for-visual-and-specific-detection-of-g-quadruplex
#18
Haojun Jin, Yuqian Liu, Tianshu Xu, Xiaojun Qu, Feika Bian, Qingjiang Sun
By complexing a non-ionic G-quadruplex ligand with hybrid dual-emission quantum dots (QDs), a ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe is developed for G-quadruplex detection in a sensitive and specific manner. The QDs nanohybrid comprised of a green-emission QD (gQD) and multiple red-emission QDs (rQDs) inside and outside of a silica shell, respectively, is utilized as the signal displaying unit. Only the presence of G-quadruplex can displace the ligand from QDs, breaking up the QDs-ligand complexation, and inducing the restoration of the rQDs fluorescence...
October 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689852/hyaluronan-oligosaccharides-stimulate-mmp-and-anabolic-gene-expression-in-vitro-by-intervertebral-disc-cells-and-annular-repair-in-vivo
#19
Emily S Fuller, Cindy Shu, Margaret M Smith, Christopher B Little, James Melrose
The role of hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides in disc cell mediated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and anabolic gene expression in-vitro and annular repair in-vivo were examined in this study. Monolayer and alginate bead cultures of ovine intervertebral disc cells were stimulated with 10-12 mer hyaluronan oligosaccharides (HA-oligos). Annulus fibrosus (AF) monolayers were poorly responsive to the HA-oligos, proMMP-2 levels were marginally elevated and MMP-9 unaffected. ProMMP-2 displayed a strong dose dependant increase in the nucleus pulposus (NP) monolayers...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687150/structural-and-functional-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-from-standard-fmri-studies
#20
H Sun, P Seres, A H Wilman
Standard functional MRI (fMRI), which includes resting-state or paradigm-driven designs, is widely used in studies of brain function, aging, and disease. These fMRI studies typically use two-dimensional gradient echo-planar imaging, which inherently contains phase data that enables quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). This work focuses on the dual value of QSM within fMRI studies, by providing both a localized analysis of functional changes in activated tissue, and iron-sensitive structural maps in deep grey matter (DGM)...
September 30, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
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