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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#1
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213131/nerp-2-regulates-gastric-acid-secretion-and-gastric-emptying-via-the-orexin-pathway
#2
Cherl Namkoong, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Hideyuki Sakoda, Kazuki Sasaki, Yoichi Ueta, Min-Seon Kim, Naoto Minamino, Masamitsu Nakazato
Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213129/cyclic-compressive-stress-induced-scinderin-regulates-progress-of-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip
#3
Cheng-Long Wang, Hui Wang, Fei Xiao, Chuan-Dong Wang, Guo-Li Hu, Jun-Feng Zhu, Chao Shen, Bin Zuo, Yi-Min Cui, De Li, Yuan-Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhang, Xiao-Dong Chen
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by a mismatch between acetabulum and femoral head. Mechanical force plays an important role during the occurrence and development of abnormities in acetabulum and femoral head. In this study, we established a mechanical force model named cyclic compressive stress (Ccs). To analyze the effect of Ccs on DDH, we detected special genes in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Results showed that Ccs downregulated chondrogenesis of ADTC5 in a concentration-dependent manner...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212941/injections-of-the-of-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonist-prazosin-into-the-median-raphe-nucleus-increase-food-intake-and-fos-expression-in-orexin-neurons-of-free-feeding-rats
#4
Eduardo Simão da Silva, Rafael Appel Flores, Anderson Savaris Ribas, Ana Paula Taschetto, Moacir Serralvo Faria, Leandro Bueno Lima, Martin Metzger, José Donato, Marta Aparecida Paschoalini
Previously, we showed that the blockade of α1-adrenoreceptors in the median raphe nucleus (MnR) increased food intake in free-feeding rats, indicating that adrenergic mechanisms in the MnR participate in the regulation of food intake. However, the impact of such a pharmacological manipulation on other neural circuits related to food intake remains unknown. In the current study, we sought to identify forebrain regions which are responsive to α1-adrenergic receptor blockade and presumably involved in the modulation of the feeding response...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209487/lipoxin-a4-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-in-raw264-7-cells-and-prevents-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss
#5
Changyu Liu, Hanfeng Guan, Cong Cai, Feng Li, Jun Xiao
Lipoxin A4 (LXA4; 5S, 6R, 15Strihydroxy- 7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid under the action of lipoxidase. This lipid molecule plays important roles in several biological functions, especially inflammatory processes. In vivo, LXA4 regulates the inflammatory response through several signaling pathways. Its mechanism suggests that it might have an effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, it was here observed that LXA4 could significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts and these effects could be blocked by Boc-2, the specific inhibitor of FPR2/ALX (the receptor of LXA4)...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204822/melittin-inhibits-osteoclast-formation-through-the-downregulation-of-the-rankl-rank-signaling-pathway-and-the-inhibition-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-murine-macrophages
#6
Jung-Yoon Choe, Seong-Kyu Kim
Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201924/conditioned-effects-of-ethanol-on-the-immune-system
#7
Anny Gano, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Terrence Deak
Several studies indicate that the immune system can be subjected to classical conditioning. Acute ethanol intoxication significantly modulates several pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukins-1 and 6 [IL-1β and IL-6, respectively] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα])) in several brain areas, including amygdala (AMG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and hippocampus (HPC). It is unknown, however, whether cues associated with ethanol can elicit conditioned alterations in cytokine expression. The present study analyzed, in male Sprague-Dawley rats, whether ethanol-induced changes in the central cytokine response may be amenable to conditioning...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197413/mechanism-of-reduced-susceptibility-to-fosfomycin-in-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates
#8
Yasuo Ohkoshi, Toyotaka Sato, Yuuki Suzuki, Soh Yamamoto, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Noriko Ogasawara, Shin-Ichi Yokota
In recent years, multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli has become a serious problem. However, resistance to fosfomycin (FOM) has been low. We screened E. coli clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to FOM and characterized molecular mechanisms of resistance and reduced susceptibility of these strains. Ten strains showing reduced FOM susceptibility (MIC ≥ 8 μg/mL) in 211 clinical isolates were found and examined. Acquisition of genes encoding FOM-modifying enzyme genes (fos genes) and mutations in murA that underlie high resistance to FOM were not observed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196851/inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-bone-resorption-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-cysteine-proteinase-inhibitors
#9
Fredrik Strålberg, Ali Kassem, Franciszek Kasprzykowski, Magnus Abrahamson, Anders Grubb, Catharina Lindholm, Ulf H Lerner
Inflammation-induced bone destruction is a major treatment target in many inflammatory skeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if the cysteine proteinase inhibitors cystatin C, fungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor (E-64), and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-arginyl-leucyl-valyl-glycyl-diazomethane acetate (Z-RLVG-CHN2) can inhibit LPS-induced osteoclast formation. Mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) were isolated and primed with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) for 24 h, followed by stimulation with LPS, with and without inhibitors...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196296/age-related-reduction-of-dermal-fibroblast-size-up-regulates-multiple-matrix-metalloproteinases-as-observed-in-aged-human-skin-in-vivo
#10
Z Qin, R M Balimunkwe, T Quan
BACKGROUND: Fragmentation of collagen fibrils, the major structure protein in skin, is a hallmark of dermal aging. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for fragmentation of collagen fibrils. However, the alteration of all known mammalian MMPs and the mechanism underlying altered expression of MMPs in chronologically aged human skin are less understood. OBJECTIVES: To quantify gene expression of all 23 known mammalian MMPs in sun-protected young and aged human skin in vivo, and investigate the potential mechanism underlying age-related alteration of multiple MMPs...
February 14, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194646/nanoemulsion-thermoreversible-pluronic-f127-based-hydrogel-containing-hyptis-pectinata-lamiaceae-leaf-essential-oil-produced-a-lasting-anti-hyperalgesic-effect-in-chronic-noninflammatory-widespread-pain-in-mice
#11
Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, Renan G Brito, Jullyana S S Quintans, Priscila L Santos, Zaine T Camargo, Péricles A Barreto, Maria F Arrigoni-Blank, Waldecy Lucca-Júnior, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Sandra J Kolker, Kathleen A Sluka
We evaluated if a nanostructured thermoreversible Pluronic F127-based hydrogel incorporated with Hyptis pectinata leaf essential oil (NE-EOH) produces a long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect on chronic muscle pain in an animal model. We induced chronic muscle pain by injecting the gastrocnemius with saline injections. Paw and muscle withdrawal thresholds and motor performance were evaluated after treatment and compared with morphine, diazepam, or vehicle. Naloxone and methysergide administration tested the involvement of opioid and serotonin receptors, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193508/renal-sympathetic-stimulation-and-ablation-affect-ventricular-arrhythmia-by-modulating-autonomic-activity-in-a-cesium-induced-long-qt-canine-model
#12
Lilei Yu, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Songyun Wang, Zhuo Wang, Menglong Wang, Xuefei Li, Liping Zhou, Guannan Meng, Shenxu Yuan, Yuhong Wang, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that renal sympathetic stimulation (RS) may facilitate ischemic ventricular arrhythmia (VA) by increasing left stellate ganglion (LSG) nerve activity, while renal sympathetic ablation (RA) may suppress VA. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether renal sympathetic interventions could also affect VA by modulating LSG activity in a cesium-induced long QT canine model. METHODS: Twenty-four dogs were randomly divided into RS group (n=8), RA group (n=8), and control group (n=8)...
February 10, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193409/a-new-natural-source-for-obtainment-of-inulin-and-fructo-oligosaccharides-from-industrial-waste-of-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni
#13
Sheila Mara Sanches Lopes, Gabriela Krausová, José Walter Pedroza Carneiro, José Eduardo Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves, Arildo José Braz de Oliveira
Fructan-type inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are reserve polysaccharides that offer an interesting combination of nutritional and technological properties for food industry. Stevia rebaudiana is used commercially in the sweetener industry due to the high content of steviol glycosides in its leaves. With the proposal of using industrial waste, the objective of the present study was to isolate, characterize and evaluate the prebiotic activity of inulin and FOS from S. rebaudiana stems. The chemical characterization of the samples by GC-MS, NMR and off-line ESI-MS showed that it was possible to obtain inulin molecules from the S...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188855/auditory-processing-assessment-suggests-that-wistar-audiogenic-rat-neural-networks-are-prone-to-entrainment
#14
Hyorrana Priscila Pereira Pinto, Vinícius Rezende Carvalho, Daniel de Castro Medeiros, Ana Flávia Santos Almeida, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal Mendes, Marcio Flávio Dutra Moraes
Epilepsy is a neurological disease related to the occurrence of pathological oscillatory activity, but the basic physiological mechanisms of seizure remain to be understood. Our working hypothesis is that specific sensory processing circuits may present abnormally enhanced predisposition for coordinated firing in the dysfunctional brain. Such facilitated entrainment could share a similar mechanistic process as those expediting the propagation of epileptiform activity throughout the brain. To test this hypothesis, we employed the Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR) reflex animal model, which is characterized by having seizures triggered reliably by sound...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186389/the-role-of-5-ht2c-receptor-on-corticosterone-mediated-food-intake
#15
Tongtong Ge, Zhuo Zhang, Jiayin Lv, Yunong Song, Jie Fan, Wei Liu, Xuefeng Wang, F Scott Hall, Bingjin Li, Ranji Cui
Corticosterone plays an important role in feeding behavior. However, its mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of corticosterone on feeding behavior. In this study, cumulative food intake was increased by acute corticosterone administration in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of the 5-HT2c receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazin (mCPP) reversed the effect of corticosterone on food intake. The anorectic effects of mCPP were also blocked by the 5-HT2c receptor antagonist RS102221 in corticosterone-treated mice...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185645/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-forebrain-neurons-moderate-motivation-for-heroin-and-palatable-food
#16
Pauline Charbogne, Olivier Gardon, Elena Martín-García, Helen L Keyworth, Aya Matsui, Anna E Mechling, Thomas Bienert, Taufiq Nasseef, Anne Robé, Luc Moquin, Emmanuel Darcq, Sami Ben Hamida, Patricia Robledo, Audrey Matifas, Katia Befort, Claire Gavériaux-Ruff, Laura-Adela Harsan, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jurgen Hennig, Alain Gratton, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey, Veronica A Alvarez, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte L Kieffer
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. METHODS: We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons...
December 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185482/suckling-induced-activation-pattern-in-the-brain-of-rat-pups
#17
János Barna, Eva Renner, Antónia Arszovszki, Melinda Cservenák, Zsolt Kovács, Miklós Palkovits, Arpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the effects of suckling on the brain of the pups by mapping their brain activation pattern in response to suckling. METHODS: The c-fos method was applied to identify activated neurons. Fasted rat pups were returned to their mothers for suckling and sacrificed 2 hours later for Fos immunohistochemistry. Double labeling was also performed to characterize some of the activated neurons. For comparison, another group of fasted pups were given dry food before Fos mapping...
February 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185384/heterochiral-jun-and-fos-bzip-peptides-form-a-coiled-coil-heterodimer-that-is-competent-for-dna-binding
#18
Rui Kamada, Natsumi Nakagawa, Taiji Oyama, Kazuyasu Sakaguchi
Coiled coils, consisting of at least two α-helices, have important roles in the regulation of transcription, cell differentiation, and cell growth. Peptides composed of d-amino acids (d-peptides) have received great attention for their potential in biomedical applications, because they give large diversity for the design of peptidyl drug and are more resistant to proteolytic digestion than l-peptides. However, the interactions between l-peptides/l-protein and d-peptides in the formation of complex are poorly understood...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185243/staphylococcal-protein-a-promotes-osteoclastogenesis-through-mapk-signaling-during-bone-infection
#19
Yuan Wang, Xin Liu, Ce Dou, Zhen Cao, Chuan Liu, Shiwu Dong, Jun Fei
Bone infection is a common and serious complication in the orthopedics field, which often leads to excessive bone destruction and non-union. Osteoclast is the only type of cells which have the function of bone resorption. Its over activation is closely related to excessive bone loss. Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a major pathogen causing bone infection, which can produce a large number of strong pathogenic substances staphylococcal protein A (SPA). However, few studies were reported about the effects of SPA on osteoclastogenesis...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185235/impact-of-a-simulated-gravity-load-for-atmospheric-reentry-10%C3%A2-g-for-2%C3%A2-min-on-conscious-mice
#20
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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