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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102866/the-dna-target-determines-the-dimerization-partner-selected-by-bhlhz-like-hybrid-proteins-ahrjun-and-arntfos
#1
Ichiro Inamoto, Gang Chen, Jumi A Shin
The molecular basis of protein-partner selection and DNA binding of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) superfamilies of dimeric transcription factors is fundamental toward understanding gene regulation. Because these families share structural similarities, we swapped the bHLH and leucine zipper (LZ) modules between families to uncover how individual modules influence protein-partnering and protein:DNA complexation. We previously described ArntFos, a bHLHZ-like hybrid of the bHLH domain from the bHLH/PAS protein Arnt and LZ from the bZIP protein c-Fos, binding to the Arnt E-box site (TCACGTGA) as a homodimer...
January 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102080/n-oleoylglycine-induced-hyperphagia-was-associated-with-the-activation-of-agrp-neuron-by-cb1r
#2
Junguo Wu, Canjun Zhu, Liusong Yang, Zhonggang Wang, Lina Wang, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu, Xiaotong Zhu
N-acyl amino acids (NAAAs) are conjugate products of fatty acids and amino acids, which are available in animal-derived food. We compared the effects of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), N-arachidonoyl serine (NASer), and N-Oleoylglycine (OLGly) on in vivo food intake and in vitro [Ca2+]i of AgRP neurons to identify the role of these compounds in energy homeostasis. The hypothalamic neuropeptide expression and anxiety behavior in response to OLGly were also tested. To further identify the underlying mechanism of OLGly on food intake, we first detected the expression level of potential OLGly receptors...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101317/corticotropin-releasing-factor-overexpression-in-mice-abrogates-sex-differences-in-body-weight-visceral-fat-and-food-intake-response-to-a-fast-and-alters-levels-of-feeding-regulatory-hormones
#3
Lixin Wang, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pu-Qing Yuan, Andreas Stengel, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. METHODS: Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100586/axon-termination-pruning-and-synaptogenesis-in-the-giant-fiber-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-promoted-by-highwire
#4
Melissa Borgen, Kimberly Rowland, Jana Boerner, Brandon Lloyd, Aruna Khan, Rod Murphey
The ubiquitin ligase Highwire has a conserved role in synapse formation. Here we show that Highwire coordinates several facets of central synapse formation in the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system, including axon termination, axon pruning, and synaptic function. Despite the similarities to the fly neuromuscular junction, the role of Highwire and the underlying signaling pathways are distinct in the fly's giant fiber system. During development, branching of the giant fiber presynaptic terminal occurs and, normally, the transient branches are pruned away...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097762/time-delays-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-fabry-disease
#5
Ricardo Reisin, Amandine Perrin, Pablo García-Pavía
BACKGROUND: The high variability in clinical manifestations of Fabry disease can lead to delays between symptom onset and correct diagnosis, and between correct diagnosis and initiation of enzyme replacement therapy. We investigated whether these delays have improved in recent years. METHODS: Data were analysed from the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS; Shire; extracted August 2013) for "index patients", defined as the first patient diagnosed with Fabry disease from a family with several or no additional members registered in FOS...
January 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097489/enhanced-histone-acetylation-in-the-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-fear-extinction
#6
Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjay Singh, Vandana Ranjan, Rajesh Ugale, Sudipta Saha, Anand Prakash
The molecular processes that establish fear memory are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can manifest in humans as a range of fear-related anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In the present study, immunohistochemistry for acetyl H3, H4, c-fos, CBP (CREB-binding protein) in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) and basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), centrolateral amygdala (CeL), centromedial amygdala (CeM) of the amygdala was performed to link region-specific histone acetylation to fear and extinction learning...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#7
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093219/a-mixed-glucocorticoid-mineralocorticoid-receptor-modulator-dampens-endocrine-and-hippocampal-stress-responsivity-in-male-rats
#8
Elizabeth T Nguyen, Joshua Streicher, Sarah Berman, Jody L Caldwell, Valentina Ghisays, Christina M Estrada, Aynara C Wulsin, Matia B Solomon
Aberrant glucocorticoid secretion is implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety). Glucocorticoids exert biological effects via mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors. Previous data from our laboratory indicate that GR antagonism/modulation (i.e., mifepristone, CORT 108297) regulate endocrine, behavioral, and central stress responses. Because of the dynamic interplay between MR and GR on HPA axis regulation and emotionality, compounds targeting both receptors are of interest for stress-related pathology...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092692/smile-seq-identifies-binding-motifs-of-single-and-dimeric-transcription-factors
#9
Alina Isakova, Romain Groux, Michael Imbeault, Pernille Rainer, Daniel Alpern, Riccardo Dainese, Giovanna Ambrosini, Didier Trono, Philipp Bucher, Bart Deplancke
Resolving the DNA-binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs) is of critical value for understanding gene regulation. Here, we present a novel, semiautomated protein-DNA interaction characterization technology, selective microfluidics-based ligand enrichment followed by sequencing (SMiLE-seq). SMiLE-seq is neither limited by DNA bait length nor biased toward strong affinity binders; it probes the DNA-binding properties of TFs over a wide affinity range in a fast and cost-effective fashion. We validated SMiLE-seq by analyzing 58 full-length human, mouse, and Drosophila TFs from distinct structural classes...
January 16, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092166/subchronic-metformin-pretreatment-enhances-novel-object-recognition-memory-task-in-forebrain-ischemia-behavioural-molecular-and-electrophysiological-studies
#10
Ghorbangol Ashabi, Alireza Sarkaki, Fariba Khodagholi, Shima Zareh Shahamati, Mahdi Goudarzvand, Yaghoob Farbood, Mohammad Badavi, Leila Khalaj
Metformin exerts its effect via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key sensor for energy homeostasis that regulates different intracellular pathways. Metformin attenuates oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. In our experiment, rats were divided into 8 groups; some were pretreated with metformin (Met, 200 mg/kg) and (or) the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (CC) for 14 days. On day 14, rats underwent transient forebrain global ischemia. Data indicated that pretreatment of ischemic rats with metformin reduced working memory deficits in a novel object recognition test compared to group with ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) (P < 0...
November 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091707/gastric-distension-causes-changes-in-heart-rate-and-arterial-blood-pressure-by-affecting-the-crosstalk-between-vagal-and-splanchnic-systems-in-anesthetised-rats
#11
Maurizio Sabbatini, Elena Grossini, Claudio Molinari, David A S G Mary, Giovanni Vacca, Mario Cannas
Various hindbrain nuclei have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of the cardiovascular reflexes elicited by both non-noxious and noxious gastric distension, through parasympathetic and sympathetic activation. The different role played by the branches of autonomic nervous system in exerting these effects and their crosstalk in relation to low-/high-pressure distension rate has not been examined yet. Therefore, in the present work, monolateral and bilateral vagotomy and splanchnicotomy were performed in anesthetised rats to analyse the involvement of hindbrain nuclei in haemodynamic changes caused by gastric distension at high (80 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) pressure...
January 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090802/functional-deficits-induced-by-cortical-microinfarcts
#12
Philipp M Summers, David A Hartmann, Edward S Hui, Xingju Nie, Rachael L Deardorff, Emilie T McKinnon, Joseph A Helpern, Jens H Jensen, Andy Y Shih
Clinical studies have revealed a strong link between increased burden of cerebral microinfarcts and risk for cognitive impairment. Since the sum of tissue damage incurred by microinfarcts is a miniscule percentage of total brain volume, we hypothesized that microinfarcts disrupt brain function beyond the injury site visible to histological or radiological examination. We tested this idea using a mouse model of microinfarcts, where single penetrating vessels that supply mouse cortex were occluded by targeted photothrombosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089932/selenizing-hericium-erinaceus-polysaccharides-induces-dendritic-cells-maturation-through-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#13
Tao Qin, Zhe Ren, Yifan Huang, Yulong Song, Dandan Lin, Jian Li, Yufang Ma, Xiuqin Wu, Fuan Qiu, Qi Xiao
In this study, polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus were modified to obtain its nine selenium derivatives, sHEP1-sHEP9. Their structures were identified, yields and selenium contents were determined, the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms were compared taking unmodified HEP as control. The results revealed that the selenylation were successful. sHEP1, sHEP2 and sHEP8 treatment of DCs increased their surface expression of MHC-II and CD86 and indicated that sHEP1, sHEP2 and sHEP8 induced DC maturation...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087833/dysregulation-of-map-kinase-signaling-pathways-including-p38mapk-sapk-jnk-and-erk1-2-in-cultured-rat-cerebellar-astrocytes-exposed-to-diphenylarsinic-acid
#14
Takayuki Negishi, Mami Matsumoto, Yayoi Kobayashi, Mikiya Kojima, Fumika Sakaguchi, Kazuaki Takahata, Tomoko Kanehira, Rina Arakaki, Yohei Aoyama, Hikari Yoshida, Rena Yamada, Nobutaka Sumiyoshi, Tomoko Tashiro, Seishiro Hirano, Kenji Yoshida, Kazunori Yukawa
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a major compound found in the arsenic poisoning incident that occurred in Kamisu, Ibaraki, Japan in 2003. People exposed to DPAA via contaminated well water suffered from several neurological disorders, including cerebellar symptoms. We previously reported that DPAA induces cellular activation in cultured rat cerebellar astrocytes, dose-dependent promotion of cell growth (low DPAA), cell death (high DPAA), and increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (p38MAPK, SAPK/JNK, and ERK1/2)...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#15
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078543/topiramate-confers-neuroprotection-against-methylphenidate-induced-neurodegeneration-in-dentate-gyrus-and-ca1-regions-of-hippocampus-via-creb-bdnf-pathway-in-rats
#16
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mansour Heidari, Zahra Madjd
Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse can cause serious neurological damages. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported already, but its mechanism of action still remains unclear. The current study evaluates in vivo role of CREB/BDNF in TPM protection of the rat hippocampal cells from methylphenidate-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A total of 60 adult male rats were divided into six groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (0.7 ml/rat) and MPH (10 mg/kg) respectively for 14 days...
January 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077707/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#17
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077515/medial-prefrontal-cortex-pontine-nuclei-projections-modulate-suboptimal-cue-induced-associative-motor-learning
#18
Guang-Yan Wu, Shu-Lei Liu, Juan Yao, Lin Sun, Bing Wu, Yi Yang, Xuan Li, Qian-Quan Sun, Hua Feng, Jian-Feng Sui
Diverse and powerful mechanisms have evolved to enable organisms to modulate learning and memory under a variety of survival conditions. Cumulative evidence has shown that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is closely involved in many higher-order cognitive functions. However, when and how the medial PFC (mPFC) modulates associative motor learning remains largely unknown. Here, we show that delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC) with the weak conditioned stimulus (wCS) but not the strong CS (sCS) elicited a significant increase in the levels of c-Fos expression in caudal mPFC...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077500/distinct-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-extraocular-muscle-and-fat-from-patients-with-graves-orbitopathy
#19
Ivana Lopes Romero-Kusabara, José Vital Filho, Nilza Maria Scalissi, Keli Cardoso Melo, Giovanni Demartino, Carlos Alberto Longui, Murilo Rezende Melo, Adriano Namo Cury
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to compare patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) and normal controls with respect to the expression of the GRα, IKK1, IκB, c-Fos (AP-1), NF-kB, and 11β-HSD1 genes in orbital fat (OF) and extraocular muscle (EOM). DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective study design was used to evaluate 34 TED patients and 38 healthy controls. OF was harvested from 33 TED patients and 27 controls. EOM biopsies were obtained from 32 TED patients and 18 controls...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071216/disinhibition-of-the-rat-prelimbic-cortex-promotes-serotonergic-activation-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-and-panicolytic-like-behavioral-effects
#20
Paula Sm Yamashita, Ailton Spiacci, James E Hassel, Christopher A Lowry, Helio Zangrossi
Several studies have shown that serotonin plays a dual role in the modulation of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic. A major source of serotonergic projections to limbic structures responsible for this modulation is the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anatomical studies indicate that the prelimbic (PL) cortex sends dense glutamatergic projections to the DR, leading to stimulation or inhibition of serotonin release in structures innervated by the DR. The objective of the present study was to investigate if GABAergic disinhibition of the PL by means of local administration of picrotoxin (PIC), a chloride channel blocker, can affect serotonergic tone and the expression of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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