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Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Tiejun Chen, Hu Hou, Yan Fan, Shikai Wang, Qianru Chen, Leilei Si, Bafang Li
Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes skin photoaging. This study was undertaken to identify the anti-photoaging mechanisms of gelatin hydrolysate (CH) derived from pacific cod skin. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA assays were used to investigate the effects of CH on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the signaling pathways after UV irradiation by using a mice skin photoaging model. The average molecular weight of CH was 1200Da, and 273/1000 residues were hydrophobic, Gly-Pro and Gly-Leu sequences and Arg at C-terminus appeared frequently in CH...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Lili Zhang, Marianne Gallup, Lorna Zlock, Yu Ting Feeling Chen, Walter E Finkbeiner, Nancy A McNamara
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and 87% of these deaths are directly attributable to smoking. Using three-dimensional cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells, we demonstrated that loss of adherens junction protein, epithelial cadherin, and the aberrant interaction of its adherens junction binding partner, p120-catenin (p120ctn), with the cytoplasmic tail of apical mucin-1 (MUC1-CT) represent initiating steps in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Smoke provoked the rapid nuclear entry of p120ctn in complex with MUC1-CT that was inhibited using the MUC1-CT inhibitory peptides, PMIP and GO-201...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Anastasia Mihailidou, Anthony Ashton
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial infarction (MI) continues to be a major burden of disease, despite rapid reperfusion interventions. Reperfusion of ischemic hearts (reperfusion injury) induces free radical generation, activation of early stress responses and apoptosis, which contributes to ventricular remodeling and dysfunction, which may lead to developing heart failure. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have been shown clinically to reduce blood pressure, particularly in resistant hypertension, and substantially increase survival in heart failure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Richard Wainford, Casey Carmichael, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated a critical role of CNS Gαi2 proteins in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. These studies tested the hypothesis that increased total body sodium activates the afferent renal afferent nerves to evoke sympathoinhibition to facilitate sodium homeostasis and normotension, via a PVN signal transduction pathway involving Gαi2 proteins, in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. DESIGN AND METHOD: Conscious SD rats, having undergone sham or renal afferent nerve denervation (Renal-CAP) underwent an IV volume expansion (VE; 5% BW), HR, MAP, natriuresis and PVN neuronal activation were assessed (N = 5/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nikele Nadur-Andrade, Camila Squarzoni Dale, Victoria Regina da Silva Oliveira, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Regiane Dos Santos Feliciano, José Antonio da Silva, Stella Regina Zamuner
BACKGROUND: Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakebites is characterized by drastic local tissue damage that involves an intense inflammatory reaction and local hyperalgesia which are not neutralized by conventional antivenom treatment. Herein, the effectiveness of photobiomodulation to reduce inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (Bmv), as well as the mechanisms involved was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bmv (1 μg) was injected through the intraplantar route in the right hind paw of mice...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lei You, Xiaoxia Ren, Yongxing Du, Wenjing Zhao, Ming Cui, Ge Chen, Yupei Zhao
Pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is thought to develop through the progression of precursor lesions, known as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN). In the present study, we showed that c-Fos promoted proliferation, cell cycle and migration in pancreatic cancer cells. Caerulein was used to accelerate the pathogenesis of Pdx-cre; KrasG12D mice. During PanIN formation and development of PDAC, the expression of ERK and c-Fos increased concomitantly. When ERK activity was inhibited by U0126, the expression of c-Fos also decreased...
October 13, 2016: Oncology Reports
Dan Xu, Ying Lyu, Xiaowen Chen, Xiaoyu Zhu, Jinqiu Feng, Yajun Xu
Fructus ligustri Lucidi (FLL) is the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait and a traditional Chinese medicine, primarily known for its role in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect and underlying mechanism of action of ethanol extract of FLL on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, and to identify the active compounds within it. RAW264.7 murine monocyte/macrophage cells were stimulated with the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclast differentiation in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
D L McCue, J M Kasper, J D Hommel
BACKGROUND: Motivation for high-fat food is thought to contribute to excess caloric intake in obese individuals. A novel regulator of motivation for food may be Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly-conserved neuropeptide which influences food intake. Although these effects of NMU have primarily been attributed to signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), NMU has also been found in other brain regions involved in both feeding behavior and motivation. We investigate the effects of NMU on motivation for food and food intake, and identify the brain regions mediating these effects...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kuo Zhang, Jingyu Yang, Fang Wang, Xing Pan, Jian Liu, Lijuan Wang, Guanyue Su, Jie Ma, Yinxu Dong, Zhili Xiong, Chufu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often observed in the pathophysiology of depression. Antidepressant therapy can restore hippocampal neurogenesis to rescue the HPA axis regulation defects. Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically in depressive disorders in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated XCHT improved depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat, but the underlying mechanisms of XCHT on hippocampal neurogenesis and the HPA axis were still unclear...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Amanda C Sharko, Jim R Fadel, Kris F Kaigler, Marlene A Wilson
Identifying the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie differential sensitivity to stress is critical for understanding the development and expression of stress-induced disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preclinical studies have suggested that rodents display different phenotypes associated with extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear responses, with some rodent populations being resistant to extinction. An emerging literature also suggests a role for orexins in the consolidation processes associated with fear learning and extinction...
October 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Jacob D Brown, M Cathleen Kovarik, Dennis K Miller, Frank W Booth
The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine 1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), 2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and 3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Sooyeon Song, Sei-Jung Lee, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh, Kye-Taek Lim
Recently, interest in the beneficial role of probiotics in the protection and management of allergic diseases caused by immune disorders has been increasing. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 on induced allergic inflammatory response in bisphenol A-treated rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and mouse splenocytes. We also evaluated the applicability of L. plantarum L67 as a yogurt starter culture. We measured the ability of Lactobacillus strains to induce the production of IL-12 and IFN- γ in cultured splenocytes by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Xiaoting Gu, Chunxiao Lu, Dongxu He, Yangfan Lu, Jian Jin, Dequan Liu, Xin Ma
To define the role of the NOTCH signaling pathway in the development of chemoresistance and the associated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we investigated the effect of Notch3 on adriamycin (ADM)-resistant human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADM cells). We found that Notch3 was downregulated and involved in the chemoresistance of MCF-7/ADM cells, while forced expression of Notch3 reversed the chemoresistance. Furthermore, fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) was negatively regulated by Notch3 and was highly expressed in MCF-7/ADM cells...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Xiaocui Chen, Jing Li, Zuowang Cheng, Yinghua Xu, Xia Wang, Xiaorui Li, Dongmei Xu, Carolyn M Kapron, Ju Liu
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and environmental pollutant. The kidney is the principal target organ of Cd exposure. Previously, we found that low concentration of Cd damages the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, little is known about the effects of Cd on renal mesangial cells, which provide structural support for the glomerular capillary loops and regulate intraglomerular blood flow. In this study, human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) were cultured in the presence of serum and treated with 4 μM Cd...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lei Zhang, Lu Huang, Kangrong Lu, Yutong Liu, Genghong Tu, Mengjuan Zhu, Li Ying, Jinlan Zhao, N Liu, Fukun Guo, Lin Zhang, Lu Zhang
Synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in cocaine addiction. The dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially regulate the cocaine-induced gene expression, structural remodeling and behavioral response. However, how these two receptors coordinately mediate the ultra-structural changes of synapses after cocaine exposure and whether these changes are behaviorally relevant are still not clear. Here, using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that D1 and D3 receptors have distinct roles in regulating cocaine-induced ultra-structural changes of synapses in the nucleus accumbens and caudoputamen...
October 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
Janifer Raj Xavier, Karna Venkata Ramana
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan attract much attention due to a wide range of applications in food technology and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Bacillus licheniformis ANT 179, isolated from Antarctica soil, produced levansucrase and levan in a medium containing sucrose as carbon substrate. In this study, characterization of levansucrase and production of short-chain FOS and levan were investigated. Temperature and pH optimum of the enzyme were found to be 60 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. The optimization of fermentation conditions for levan production using sugarcane juice by response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhimin Ou, Yuxia Sun, Li Lin, Nachun You, Xue Liu, Hongchao Li, Yanchen Ma, Lei Cao, Ying Han, Min Liu, Yaqi Deng, Luming Yao, Q Richard Lu, Ying Chen
: Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are known to result from acute or chronic injury to the myelin sheath and inadequate remyelination; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed genome occupancy analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in oligodendrocytes in response to lysolecithin-induced injury and found that Olig2 and its downstream target Gpr17 are critical factors in regulating oligodendrocyte survival. After injury to oligodendrocytes, Olig2 was significantly upregulated and transcriptionally targeted the Gpr17 locus...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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