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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166615/olfactory-experience-and-developmental-stage-dependent-control-of-cpeb4-regulates-c-fos-mrna-translation-for-granule-cell-survival
#1
Ching-San Tseng, Hsu-Wen Chao, Hsien-Sung Huang, Yi-Shuian Huang
Mammalian olfactory bulbs (OBs) require continuous replenishment of interneurons (mainly granule cells [GCs]) to support local circuits throughout life. Two spatiotemporally distinct waves of postnatal neurogenesis contribute to expanding and maintaining the GC pool. Although neonate-born GCs have a higher survival rate than adult-born GCs, the molecular mechanism underlying this survival remains unclear. Here, we find that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 4 (CPEB4) acts as a survival factor exclusively for early postnatal GCs...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165565/cued-reinstatement-of-cocaine-but-not-sucrose-seeking-is-dependent-upon-dopamine-signaling-in-prelimbic-cortex-and-is-associated-with-recruitment-of-prelimbic-neurons-that-project-to-contralateral-nucleus-accumbens-core
#2
Morgan H James, Ellen M McGlinchey, Asrita Vattikonda, Stephen V Mahler, Gary Aston-Jones
Background: Drug cues recruit prelimbic cortex (PL) neurons that project to ipsilateral nucleus accumbens core (NAcCipsi). However, it is not known if the same is true for PL projections that decussate to innervate contralateral NAcC (NAcCcontra). Further, a role for PL dopamine signaling in cued reinstatement of cocaine seeking has not been shown. Methods: We assessed Fos expression in PL neurons that project to NAcCcontra following cued reinstatement of cocaine or sucrose seeking...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164624/suppression-of-uvb-mediated-matrix-metalloproteinase-generation-by-sorbus-commixta-twig-extract-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#3
Song Hua Xuan, Young Min Park, So Hyun Park, Hyo Jin Jeong, Soo Nam Park
Sorbus commixta is a traditional oriental medicinal plant that grows in East Asian countries such as Korea, Japan, and China. The twig of S. commixta has been considered valuable for centuries to treat diseases including asthma, cough, and other bronchial disorders. However, the effect of S. commixta twig extract on human skin has not been investigated well. The present study aimed at assessing the anti-photoaging effect of S. commixta twig ethanol extract (STE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and its underlying mechanism in human dermal fibroblasts...
November 22, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163085/involvement-of-the-avian-dorsal-thalamic-nuclei-in-homing-pigeon-navigation
#4
Paulo E Jorge, Belmiro V Pinto, Verner P Bingman, John B Phillips
The navigational ability of birds has been a focus of popular and scientific interest for centuries, but relatively little is known about the neuronal networks that support avian navigation. In the brain, regions like the piriform cortex, olfactory bulbs, hippocampal formation, vestibular nuclei, and the wulst, are among the brain regions often discussed as involved in avian navigation. However, despite large literature showing a prominent role of some anterior and dorsal thalamic nuclei in mammalian spatial navigation, little is known about the role of the thalamus in avian navigation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163047/biphasic-regulation-of-caveolin-1-gene-expression-by-fluoxetine-in-astrocytes-opposite-effects-of-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-erk-signaling-pathways-on-c-fos
#5
Baoman Li, Shu Jia, Tingting Yue, Li Yang, Chen Huang, Alexej Verkhratsky, Liang Peng
Previously, we reported that fluoxetine acts on 5-HT2B receptor and induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in astrocytes. Recently, we have found that chronic treatment with fluoxetine regulates Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) signaling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultures of astrocytes with bi-phasic concentration dependence. At low concentrations fluoxetine down-regulates Cav-1 gene expression, decreases membrane content of PTEN, increases PI3K activity and increases phosphorylation of GSK-3β and increases its activity; at high concentrations fluoxetine acts on PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β in an inverse fashion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163022/the-insula-and-taste-learning
#6
REVIEW
Adonis Yiannakas, Kobi Rosenblum
The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC), among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161572/new-%C3%AE-galactosidase-producers-with-potential-for-prebiotic-synthesis
#7
Sara C Silvério, Eugénia A Macedo, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, a screening study was carried out to identify new fungal sources of β-galactosidase. A total of 50 fungi were evaluated using a chromogenic test performed in agar plates. The most promising microorganisms were validated as effective β-galactosidase producers under submerged fermentation conditions. The crude β-galactosidases were characterized regarding their optimal pH (3...
November 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#8
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158920/enhancement-in-tonically-active-glutamatergic-inputs-to-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-induced-high-blood-pressure
#9
Wei Wang, Zui Zou, Xing Tan, Ru-Wen Zhang, Chang-Zhen Ren, Xue-Ya Yao, Cheng-Bao Li, Wei-Zhong Wang, Xue-Yin Shi
Neuropathic pain increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension with the characteristic of sympathetic overactivity. The enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributes to sympathetic overactivity and blood pressure (BP) in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that neuropathic pain enhances tonically active glutamatergic inputs to the RVLM, which contributes to high level of BP and sympathetic outflow. Animal model with the trigeminal neuropathic pain was induced by the infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury (ION-CCI)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157464/characterization-of-coronary-plaque-regions-in-intravascular-ultrasound-images-using-a-hybrid-ensemble-classifier
#10
Yoo Na Hwang, Ju Hwan Lee, Ga Young Kim, Eun Seok Shin, Sung Min Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to propose a hybrid ensemble classifier to characterize coronary plaque regions in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. METHODS: Pixels were allocated to one of four tissues (fibrous tissue (FT), fibro-fatty tissue (FFT), necrotic core (NC), and dense calcium (DC)) through processes of border segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. Grayscale IVUS images and their corresponding virtual histology images were acquired from 11 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease using 20 MHz catheter...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157077/how-does-early-maternal-separation-and-chronic-stress-in-adult-rats-affect-the-immunoreactivity-of-serotonergic-neurons-within-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#11
Antonella Pollano, Verónica Trujillo, Marta M Suárez
Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review...
November 20, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154967/bone-marrow-mechanotransduction-in-porcine-explants-alters-kinase-activation-and-enhances-trabecular-bone-formation-in-the-absence-of-osteocyte-signaling
#12
Kimberly J Curtis, Thomas R Coughlin, Devon E Mason, Joel D Boerckel, Glen L Niebur
Bone is a dynamic tissue that can adapt its architecture in response to mechanical signals under the control of osteocytes, which sense mechanical deformation of the mineralized bone. However, cells in the marrow are also mechanosensitive and may contribute to load-induced bone adaptation, as marrow is subjected to mechanical stress during bone deformation. We investigated the contribution of mechanotransduction in marrow cells to trabecular bone formation by applying low magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) to porcine vertebral trabecular bone explants in an in situ bioreactor...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152735/6%C3%A2-hz-corneal-kindling-in-mice-triggers-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-accompanied-by-relevant-changes-in-c-fos-immunoreactivity-throughout-the-brain
#13
Giulia Albertini, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVE: Besides seizures, patients with epilepsy are affected by a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. The present study provides an in-depth characterization of the behavioral alterations induced by 6 Hz corneal kindling. Furthermore, we correlate these behavioral changes to alterations in c-Fos protein expression throughout the brain following kindling. METHODS: Adolescent male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were kindled via repetitive subconvulsive 6 Hz corneal stimulations until they reached the fully kindled state (defined as 10 consecutive generalized seizures)...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150442/functional-analyses-of-a-human-vascular-tumor-fos-variant-identify-a-novel-degradation-mechanism-and-a-link-to-tumorigenesis
#14
David G P van Ijzendoorn, Zary Forghany, Frauke Liebelt, Alfred C Vertegaal, Aart G Jochemsen, Judith V M G Bovée, Karoly Szuhai, David A Baker
Epithelioid hemangioma is a locally aggressive vascular neoplasm, found in bones and soft tissue, whose cause is currently unknown, but may involve oncogene activation. FOS was one of the earliest viral oncogenes to be characterized and normal cellular FOS forms part of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex which plays a pivotal role in cell growth, differentiation and survival as well as the DNA damage response. Despite this, to date, a causal link between aberrant FOS function and naturally occurring tumors has not been established...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146932/activation-of-endogenous-arginine-vasopressin-neurons-inhibit-food-intake-by-using-a-novel-transgenic-rat-line-with-dreadds-system
#15
Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Haruki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Yuki Nonaka, Yoichi Ueta
Various studies contributed to discover novel mechanisms of central arginine vasopressin (AVP) system responsible for the behaviour albeit endogenous vasopressin activation. We established a novel transgenic rat line which expresses both human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (hM3Dq), of which ligand is clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), and mCherry fluorescence specifically in AVP neurons. The mCherry neurons that indicate the expression of the hM3Dq gene were observed in the suprachiasmatic (SCN), supraoptic (SON), and paraventricular nuclei (PVN)...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145201/dietary-fructo-oligosaccharides-attenuate-early-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-which-produce-both-th1-and-th2-cytokines-in-the-intestinal-lymphoid-tissues-of-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#16
Masato Tsuda, Haruka Arakawa, Narumi Ishii, Chihiro Ubukata, Mana Michimori, Masanari Noda, Kyoko Takahashi, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Akira Hosono
BACKGROUND: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. METHODS: OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation...
November 17, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142097/fast-oscillation-dynamics-during-hypsarrhythmia-as-a-localization-biomarker
#17
Min-Jee Kim, Mi-Sun Yum, Hye-Ryun Yeh, Tae-Sung Ko
Hypsarrhythmia in West syndrome, although hard to define, is characterized by chaotic and disorganized electrical activity of the brain and is often regarded as a generalized EEG pattern without any localization value. Using event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP), we tried to determine the brain dynamics during hypsarrhythmia. Routine 1-h scalp EEGs were retrieved from 31 patients with infantile spasms and 20 age-matched controls. Using the EEGLAB toolbox of MATLAB 2015b, the ERSPs of fast oscillations (FOs; 20-100 Hz) of selected channels were analyzed and compared among groups according to their MRI lesions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141367/-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-neural-stem-cells-induced-by-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-signal-pathway
#18
S Q Chen, M Huang, C L Liu, Y Y Shen, Q Cai, P J Wang
Objective: To investigate the mechanism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoting induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate into neural stem cells (NSCs) via Wnt/β-catenin and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK/MAPK) signal pathways. Methods: iPSCs were cultured and identified. The iPSCs were induced to differentiate into NSCs by BDNF and retinoic acid (RA). Nestin was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry after iPSCs differentiated...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139546/up-regulation-of-pyk2-pkc%C3%AE-dependent-ho-1-by-co-releasing-molecule-corm-2-attenuates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-lung-inflammation
#19
Chih-Chung Lin, Yu-Ching Chiang, Rou-Ling Cho, Wei-Ning Lin, Chien-Chung Yang, Li-Der Hsiao, Chuen-Mao Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) could provide cytoprotection against various inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2)-induced HO-1 expression protecting against TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) remain unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: CORM-2-induced HO-1 protein and mRNA expression, and signaling pathways were determined by Western blot and real-time PCR, coupled using respective pharmacological inhibitors or transfection with siRNAs...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#20
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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