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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#1
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903063/cooperative-regulation-of-gja1-expression-by-members-of-the-ap-1-family-cjun-and-cfos-in-tm3-leydig-and-tm4-sertoli-cells
#2
Firas Ghouili, Luc J Martin
Within the testis, connexin43 encoded by Gja1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication between Leydig cells as well as between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. In the adult male, Leydig cells are the principal producers of testosterone sustaining spermatogenesis, while Sertoli cells nourish, protect and support the differentiating germ cells. It has been shown previously that members of the AP-1 family regulate Gja1 expression in myometrial cells, suggesting that such regulatory mechanism may also be relevant within the testis...
September 10, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890143/transcriptional-interaction-between-cfos-and-the-homeodomain-binding-transcription-factor-vax1-on-the-gnrh-promoter-controls-gnrh1-expression-levels-in-a-gnrh-neuron-maturation-specific-manner
#3
Hanne M Hoffmann, Ping Gong, Anika Tamrazian, Pamela L Mellon
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is required for pubertal onset and reproduction, thus the control of GnRH transcription is tightly regulated during development and adulthood. GnRH neuron development depends on transcription factors of the homeodomain family. For example, Ventral anterior homeobox 1 (Vax1) is necessary to maintain GnRH expression after embryonic day 13 in the mouse. To further our understanding of the mechanisms by which VAX1 regulates GnRH gene expression, we asked whether VAX1 interacts with other transcription factors to modify GnRH expression levels...
September 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883787/investigations-into-hypoxia-and-oxidative-stress-at-the-optic-nerve-head-in-a-rat-model-of-glaucoma
#4
Glyn Chidlow, John P M Wood, Robert J Casson
The vascular hypothesis of glaucoma proposes that retinal ganglion cell axons traversing the optic nerve head (ONH) undergo oxygen and nutrient insufficiency as a result of compromised local blood flow, ultimately leading to their degeneration. To date, evidence for the hypothesis is largely circumstantial. Herein, we made use of an induced rat model of glaucoma that features reproducible and widespread axonal transport disruption at the ONH following chronic elevation of intraocular pressure. If vascular insufficiency plays a role in the observed axonal transport failure, there should exist a physical signature at this time point...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833174/enhanced-motivation-to-alcohol-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-human-%C3%AE-synuclein
#5
Carola Rotermund, Gustavo K Reolon, Sarah Leixner, Cindy Boden, Ainhoa Bilbao, Philipp J Kahle
α-Synuclein (αSYN) is the neuropathological hallmark protein of Parkinson disease (PD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, the gene encoding αSYN (SNCA) is a major genetic contributor to PD. Interestingly, independent genome-wide association studies also identified SNCA as the most important candidate gene for alcoholism. Furthermore, single-nucleotide-polymorphisms have been associated with alcohol craving behavior and alcohol-craving patients showed augmented αSYN expression in blood. To investigate the effect of αSYN on the addictive properties of chronic alcohol use, we examined consumption, motivation and seeking responses induced by environmental stimuli and relapse behavior in transgenic mice expressing the human mutant [A30P]αSYN throughout the brain...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827077/high-potential-defense-mechanisms-of-neocortex-in-a-rat-model-of-transient-asphyxia-induced-cardiac-arrest
#6
Gerburg Keilhoff, Torben Esser, Maximilian Titze, Uwe Ebmeyer, Lorenz Schild
Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common cause of disability and mortality and thus an important risk for human health. Circulatory failure has dramatic consequences for the brain as one of the most oxygen-consuming organs. Hippocampus, striatum and neocortex rate among the most vulnerable brain regions. The neocortex is less sensitive to hypoxia/reperfusion in comparison with the hippocampal CA1 region. That implicates the existence of efficient defense mechanisms in the neocortex against hypoxia/reperfusion injury, which we analyzed in a well-established CA rat model...
August 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814751/comparison-of-chronic-physical-and-emotional-social-defeat-stress-effects-on-mesocorticolimbic-circuit-activation-and-voluntary-consumption-of-morphine
#7
S E Cooper, M Kechner, D Caraballo-Pérez, S Kaska, A J Robison, M S Mazei-Robison
Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is a well-established rodent model of depression that induces persistent social avoidance. CSDS triggers molecular adaptations throughout the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including changes in the activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), that may also influence drug reward. One limitation of traditional, physical CSDS (PS) is that injury complicates the study of opiate drugs like morphine. Thus, we sought to characterize a variation of CSDS, termed emotional CSDS (ES), that eliminates this confound...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811543/4-e-p-tolylimino-methylbenzene-1-2-diol-timbd-suppresses-hiv1-gp120-mediated-production-of-il6-and-il8-but-not-ccl5
#8
Fatma Abdalla, Anantha Nookala, Subhash B Padhye, Anil Kumar, Hari K Bhat
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with inflammatory effects that may potentially result in neurodegenerative changes and a number of newer chemotherapeutic agents are being tested to ameliorate these effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of a novel resveratrol analog 4-(E)-{(p-tolylimino)-methylbenzene-1,2-diol} (TIMBD) against HIV1-gp120 induced neuroinflammation in SVG astrocytes. SVG astrocytic cells were pretreated with TIMBD or resveratrol (RES) and then transfected with a plasmid encoding HIV1-gp120...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802560/traumatic-brain-injuries-during-development-disrupt-dopaminergic-signaling
#9
Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Zachary M Weil
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained during peri-adolescent development produce lasting neuro-behavioral changes that render individuals at an increased risk for developing substance abuse disorders. Experimental and clinical evidence of a prolonged period of hypodopaminergia after TBI have been well documented, but the effect of juvenile TBI on dopaminergic dysfunction and its relationship with substance abuse have not been investigated. In order to determine the effect of juvenile brain injury on dopaminergic signaling, female mice were injured at 21days of age and then beginning seven weeks later were assessed for behavioral sensitization to amphetamine, a drug that increases synaptic dopamine availability...
November 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762073/alterations-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-prolonged-morphine-withdrawal-induced-behavioral-inflexibility-in-rats
#10
Chengji Piao, Tiane Liu, Lian Ma, Xuekun Ding, Xingyue Wang, Xing Chen, Ying Duan, Nan Sui, Jing Liang
RATIONALE: The inability to stop a repetitive maladaptive behavior is a main problem in addictive disorders. Neuroadaptations that are associated with behavioral inflexibility may be involved in compulsive drug use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of behavioral inflexibility during morphine withdrawal and map brain activation that is linked to alterations in flexibility. METHODS: We first analyzed the effects of chronic morphine exposure on reversal learning after 2-week (short-term) and 6-week (prolonged) morphine withdrawal...
July 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745316/elevation-of-adenylate-energy-charge-by-angiopoietin-like-4-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-inducing-14-3-3%C3%AE-expression
#11
Z Teo, M K Sng, J S K Chan, M M K Lim, Y Li, L Li, T Phua, J Y H Lee, Z W Tan, P Zhu, N S Tan
Metastatic cancer cells acquire energy-intensive processes including increased invasiveness and chemoresistance. However, how the energy demand is met and the molecular drivers that coordinate an increase in cellular metabolic activity to drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first step of metastasis, remain unclear. Using different in vitro and in vivo EMT models with clinical patient's samples, we showed that EMT is an energy-demanding process fueled by glucose metabolism-derived adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
July 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712684/cerebellar-perineuronal-nets-in-cocaine-induced-pavlovian-memory-site-matters
#12
Maria Carbo-Gas, Josep Moreno-Rius, Julian Guarque-Chabrera, Dolores Vazquez-Sanroman, Isis Gil-Miravet, Daniela Carulli, Freek Hoebeek, Chris De Zeeuw, Carla Sanchis-Segura, Marta Miquel
One of the key mechanisms for the stabilization of synaptic changes near the end of critical periods for experience-dependent plasticity is the formation of specific lattice extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The formation of drug memories depends on local circuits in the cerebellum, but it is unclear to what extent it may also relate to changes in their PNN. Here, we investigated changes in the PNNs of the cerebellum following cocaine-induced preference conditioning. The formation of cocaine-related preference memories increased expression of PNN-related proteins surrounding Golgi inhibitory interneurons as well as that of cFos in granule cells at the apex of the cerebellar cortex...
July 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636317/downsizing-proto-oncogene-cfos-to-short-helix-constrained-peptides-that-bind-jun
#13
Daniel Baxter, Samuel R Perry, Timothy A Hill, W Mei Kok, Nathan R Zaccai, R Leo Brady, David P Fairlie, Jody M Mason
The oncogenic transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a DNA-binding protein that assembles through dimerization of Fos and Jun protein subunits, their leucine-rich helical sequences entwining into a coiled-coil structure. This study reports on downsizing the proto-oncogene cFos protein (380 residues) to shorter peptides (37-25 residues) modified with helix-inducing constraints to enhance binding to Jun. A crystal structure is reported for a 37-residue Fos-derived peptide (FosW) bound to Jun. This guided iterative downsizing of FosW to shorter peptide sequences that were constrained into stable water-soluble α-helices by connecting amino acid side chains to form cyclic pentapeptide components...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602745/systemic-estradiol-administration-to-ovariectomized-rats-facilitates-thermoregulatory-behavior-in-a-cold-environment
#14
Yuki Uchida, Kei Nagashima, Kazunari Yuri
Rats place their tails underneath their bodies in the cold (tail-hiding behavior), which is a behavioral indicator of thermoregulation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of estradiol (E2) on tail-hiding behavior and neural activity assessed by immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomized rats were implanted with a silastic tube with or without E2 underneath the dorsal skin (E2(-) and E2(+) groups), and exposed to 27°C, 16°C, and 10°C for 2h with continuous body temperature (Tb), tail skin temperature (Ttail), and behavioral measurements...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583411/increased-temporal-discounting-after-chronic-stress-in-chl1-deficient-mice-is-reversed-by-5-ht2c-agonist-ro-60-0175
#15
Mona Buhusi, Kaitlin Olsen, Catalin V Buhusi
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which impaired decision-making and goal-directed behaviors are core features. One of the genes associated with schizophrenia is the Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1); CHL1-deficient mice are considered a model of schizophrenia-like deficits, including sensorimotor gating, interval timing and spatial memory impairments. Here we investigated temporal discounting in CHL1-deficient (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. Although no discounting differences were found under baseline conditions, CHL1-KO mice showed increased impulsive choice following chronic unpredictable stress (fewer % larger-later choices, and reduced area under the discounting curve)...
August 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579251/perinatal-exposure-to-organohalogen-pollutants-decreases-vasopressin-content-and-its-mrna-expression-in-magnocellular-neuroendocrine-cells-activated-by-osmotic-stress-in-adult-rats
#16
Samuel Mucio-Ramírez, Eduardo Sánchez-Islas, Edith Sánchez-Jaramillo, Margarita Currás-Collazo, Victor R Juárez-González, Mhar Y Álvarez-González, L E Orser, Borin Hou, Francisco Pellicer, Prasada Rao S Kodavanti, Martha León-Olea
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental pollutants that produce neurotoxicity and neuroendocrine disruption. They affect the vasopressinergic system but their disruptive mechanisms are not well understood. Our group reported that rats perinatally exposed to Aroclor-1254 (A1254) and DE-71 (commercial mixtures of PCBs and PBDEs) decrease somatodendritic vasopressin (AVP) release while increasing plasma AVP responses to osmotic activation, potentially emptying AVP reserves required for body-water balance...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552607/cfos-sox9-axis-reprograms-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-chondroblastic-osteosarcoma
#17
Yunlong He, Wentao Zhu, Min Hwa Shin, Joy Gary, Chengyu Liu, Wendy Dubois, Shelley B Hoover, Shunlin Jiang, Eryney Marrogi, Beverly Mock, R Mark Simpson, Jing Huang
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are proposed as the cells of origin of several subtypes of osteosarcoma (OS). However, signals that direct BMSCs to form different subtypes of OS are unclear. Here we show that the default tumor type from spontaneously transformed p53 knockout (p53_KO) BMSCs is osteoblastic OS. The development of this default tumor type caused by p53 loss can be overridden by various oncogenic signals: RAS reprograms p53_KO BMSCs into undifferentiated sarcoma, AKT enhances osteoblastic OS, while cFOS promotes chondroblastic OS formation...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512253/infiltrating-myeloid-cells-exert-protumorigenic-actions-via-neutrophil-elastase
#18
Irina Lerman, Maria de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Luis Chiriboga, Chunliu Pan, Kent L Nastiuk, John J Krolewski, Aritro Sen, Stephen R Hammes
Tissue infiltration and elevated peripheral circulation of granulocytic myeloid-derived cells is associated with poor outcomes in prostate cancer and other malignancies. Although myeloid-derived cells have the ability to suppress T-cell function, little is known about the direct impact of these innate cells on prostate tumor growth. Here, it is reported that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are the predominant tumor-infiltrating cells in prostate cancer xenografts established in athymic nude mice...
September 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267150/ablation-of-neuropsin-neuregulin-1-signaling-imbalances-erbb4-inhibitory-networks-and-disrupts-hippocampal-gamma-oscillation
#19
M Kawata, S Morikawa, S Shiosaka, H Tamura
Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons are pivotal for the processing of information in healthy brain, whereas the coordination of these functions is seriously disrupted in diseased brain. How these interneurons in the hippocampus participate in pathological functions remains unclear. We previously reported that neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling, which is actuated by neuropsin, is important for coordinating brain plasticity. Neuropsin cleaves mature NRG1 (bound to extracellular glycosaminoglycans) in response to long-term potentiation or depression, liberating a soluble ligand that activates its receptor, ErbB4...
March 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265687/activation-of-the-thalamic-parafascicular-nucleus-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-vestibular-nerve-in-rats
#20
Nari Kim, Myoung Ae Choi, Ho Koo, Byung Rim Park, Sang Who Han, Chaejoon Cheong, Min Sun Kim
The parafascicular nucleus (PFN) of the thalamus is a primary structure in the feedback circuit of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system, as well as in the neural circuit of the vestibulo-thalamo-striatal pathway. We investigated the characteristics of the functional connectivity between the peripheral vestibular system and the PFN in rats. A single electrical stimulation was applied to the horizontal semicircular canal nerve in the peripheral vestibular end-organs. This resulted in polysynaptic local field potentials (LFPs) in the PFN, which were composed of long-lasting multiple waves...
May 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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