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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#1
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060340/reprogramming-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-with-transcription-factors-to-induce-a-hemogenic-program
#2
Michael G Daniel, Carlos-Filipe Pereira, Jeffrey M Bernitz, Ihor R Lemischka, Kateri Moore
This protocol details the induction of a hemogenic program in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) via overexpression of transcription factors (TFs). We first designed a reporter screen using MEFs from human CD34-tTA/TetO-H2BGFP (34/H2BGFP) double transgenic mice. CD34(+) cells from these mice label H2B histones with GFP, and cease labeling upon addition of doxycycline (DOX). MEFS were transduced with candidate TFs and then observed for the emergence of GFP(+) cells that would indicate the acquisition of a hematopoietic or endothelial cell fate...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053227/a-hypothalamic-circuit-that-controls-body-temperature
#3
Zheng-Dong Zhao, Wen Z Yang, Cuicui Gao, Xin Fu, Wen Zhang, Qian Zhou, Wanpeng Chen, Xinyan Ni, Jun-Kai Lin, Juan Yang, Xiao-Hong Xu, Wei L Shen
The homeostatic control of body temperature is essential for survival in mammals and is known to be regulated in part by temperature-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the specific neural pathways and corresponding neural populations have not been fully elucidated. To identify these pathways, we used cFos staining to identify neurons that are activated by a thermal challenge and found induced expression in subsets of neurons within the ventral part of the lateral preoptic nucleus (vLPO) and the dorsal part of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMD)...
January 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043916/ketamine-accelerates-fear-extinction-via-mtorc1-signaling
#4
Matthew J Girgenti, Sriparna Ghosal, Dora LoPresto, Jane R Taylor, Ronald S Duman
Impaired fear extinction contributes to the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and can be utilized for the study of novel therapeutic agents. Glutamate plays an important role in the formation of traumatic memories, and in the pathophysiology and treatment of PTSD, highlighting several possible drug targets. Recent clinical studies demonstrate that infusion of ketamine, a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, rapidly and significantly reduces symptom severity in PTSD patients. In the present study, we examine the mechanisms underlying the actions of ketamine in a rodent model of fear conditioning, extinction, and renewal...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007961/cjun-dimerization-protein-2-jdp2-is-a-transcriptional-repressor-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-fsh-%C3%AE-and-is-required-for-preventing-premature-reproductive-senescence-in-female-mice
#5
Carrie R Jonak, Nancy M Lainez, Lacey L Roybal, Alexa D Williamson, Djurdjica Coss
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates follicular growth and stimulates estrogen synthesis in the ovaries. FSH is a heterodimer consisting of an α; subunit, also present in luteinizing hormone, and of a unique β; subunit, which is transcriptionally regulated by gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1). Since most FSH is constitutively secreted, tight transcriptional regulation is critical for maintaining FSH levels within a narrow physiological range. Previously, we reported that GNRH induces FSHβ; transcription via induction of the AP1 transcription factor, a heterodimer of cFos and cJun...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984032/sex-and-estrous-cycle-differences-in-immediate-early-gene-activation-in-the-hippocampus-and-the-dorsal-striatum-after-the-cue-competition-task
#6
Shunya Yagi, Dimka Drewczynski, Steven R Wainwright, Cindy K Barha, Olivia Hershorn, Liisa A M Galea
The hippocampus and dorsal striatum are important structures involved in place and response learning strategies respectively. Both sex and estrous cycle phase differences in learning strategy preference exist following cue competition paradigms. Furthermore, significant effects of sex and learning strategy on hippocampal neural plasticity have been reported. However, associations between learning strategy and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum are not completely understood...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981533/triamcinolone-acetonide-reduces-viability-induces-oxidative-stress-and-alters-gene-expressions-of-human-chondrocytes
#7
M Suntiparpluacha, N Tammachote, R Tammachote
OBJECTIVE: Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are sometimes prescribed intra-articular injections of glucocorticoids (GCs), such as triamcinolone acetonide (TA). Whether GCs cause chondrotoxicity is not known. We wished to ascertain if TA induces toxicity by causing oxidative stress and alters expression of P21, growth differentiation factor (GDF)15, and cFos. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Primary chondrocytes isolated from 10 OA patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery were incubated with TA (0, 1, 5, 10 mg/ml), with or without 100 µM vitamin C for 7 and 14 days for viability assays and 48 h for oxidative stress and gene expression analyses...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967217/diet-polyphenol-curcumin-stimulates-hepatic-fgf21-production-and-restores-its-sensitivity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-male-mice
#8
Kejing Zeng, Lili Tian, Rucha Patel, Weijuan Shao, Zhuolun Song, Ling Liu, Justin Manuel, Xuezhong Ma, Ian McGilvray, Carolyn L Cummins, Jianping Weng, Tianru Jin
We found previously that short-term curcumin gavage stimulated mouse hepatic Fgf21 expression. Here we conducted mechanistic exploration and investigated the potential pathophysiological relevance on this regulation. Fgf21 stimulation was observed at mRNA and protein levels in mice with daily-curcumin gavage for 4 or 8 days; and in primary hepatocytes with curcumin treatment. Using PPARα agonist and antagonist, along with luciferase reporter and chromatin immune-precipitation approaches, we determined that curcumin stimulates Fgf21 transcription in a mechanism involving PPARα activation...
December 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956552/cytokine-induced-mmp13-expression-in-human-chondrocytes-is-dependent-on-activating-transcription-factor-3-atf3-regulation
#9
Chun Ming Chan, Christopher D MacDonald, Gary J Litherland, David J Wilkinson, Andrew Skelton, G Nicholas Europe-Finner, Andrew D Rowan
Irreversible breakdown of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) by the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) represents a key event in osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Although inflammation is most commonly associated with inflammatory joint diseases, it also occurs in OA and is thus relevant to the prevalent tissue destruction. Here, inflammation generates a cFOS AP-1 early response which indirectly affects MMP13 gene expression. To ascertain a more a direct effect on prolonged MMP13 production we examined the potential molecular events occurring between the rapid, transient expression of cFOS and the subsequent MMP13 induction...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935608/a-peptide-based-synthetic-transcription-factor-selectively-down-regulates-the-proto-oncogene-cfos-in-tumour-cells-and-inhibits-proliferation
#10
Madhumita Chakraborty, Siddhartha Roy
Selectively regulating genes is an important goal in Chemical Biology. We report the development of a peptide-based synthetic transcription factor which binds the targeted DNA sequence with high affinity and single base-pair discrimination capability. When delivered inside a tumor cell, it regulated targeted genes selectively and inhibited cell proliferation.
December 22, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924874/context-and-auditory-fear-are-differentially-regulated-by-hdac3-activity-in-the-lateral-and-basal-subnuclei-of-the-amygdale
#11
Janine L Kwapis, Yasaman Alaghband, Alberto J López, André O White, Rianne R Campbell, Richard T Dang, Diane Rhee, Ashley V Tran, Allison E Carl, Dina P Matheos, Marcelo A Wood
Histone acetylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism that is dynamically regulated during memory formation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) compete to modulate histone acetylation, allowing for rapid changes in acetylation in response to a learning event. HDACs are known to be powerful negative regulators of memory formation, but it is not clear whether this function depends on HDAC enzymatic activity per se. Here, we tested whether the enzymatic activity of an individual Class I HDAC, HDAC3, plays a role in fear memory formation in subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#12
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895618/cyclooxygenase-1-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-seizure-suppression-evidences-from-zebrafish-pentylenetetrazole-seizure-model
#13
Patrícia Gonçalves Barbalho, Benilton de Sá Carvalho, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Claudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli
Cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2 are isoenzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs). COX-2 and PGs are rapidly increased following seizures and are known to play important roles in the neuroinflammatory process. COX-2 isoform has been predominantly explored as the most suitable target for pharmacological intervention in epilepsy studies, while COX-1 remains poorly investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of selective COX-1 inhibitor or selective COX-2 inhibitor on seizure suppression in the zebrafish pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-seizure model...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888073/early-life-inflammation-with-lps-delays-fear-extinction-in-adult-rodents
#14
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858303/multimodal-treatment-of-craniofacial-osteosarcoma-with-high-grade-histology-a-single-center-experience-over-35%C3%A2-years
#15
Marton König, Terje A Osnes, Ingvild Lobmaier, Bodil Bjerkehagen, Øyvind S Bruland, Kirsten Sundby Hall, Torstein R Meling
High-grade craniofacial osteosarcoma (CFOS) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Our goals were to evaluate treatment outcomes in those treated at a single referral institution over 35 years and to compare our results to the available literature. A retrospective analysis of all 42 patients treated between 1980 and 2015 at Oslo University Hospital, Norway, identified in a prospectively collected database, was conducted. Mean follow-up was 79.6 months. Overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 70...
November 17, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857998/a-parp1-erk2-synergism-is-required-for-stimulation-induced-expression-of-immediate-early-genes
#16
M Cohen-Armon
A PARP1-Erk2 synergism was required to generate synaptic long-term potentiation in the CA3-CA1 hippocampal connections. This molecular mechanism was associated with the recently identified pivotal role of polyADP-ribosylation in learning. High frequency electrical stimulation of cortical and hippocampal neurons induced binding of phosphorylated Erk2 (transported into the nucleus) to the nuclear protein PARP1. PARP1-Erk2 binding induced PARP1 activation and polyADP-ribosylation of its prominent substrate, linker histone H1...
2016: Gene & Translational Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789280/regional-influence-of-cocaine-on-evoked-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-a-role-for-the-caudal-brainstem
#17
Ashlynn I Gerth, Amber L Alhadeff, Harvey J Grill, Mitchell F Roitman
Cocaine increases dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens through competitive binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). However, it also increases the frequency of dopamine release events, a finding that cannot be explained by action at the DAT alone. Rather, this effect may be mediated by cocaine-induced modulation of brain regions that project to dopamine neurons. To explore regional contributions of cocaine to dopamine signaling, we administered cocaine to the lateral or fourth ventricles and compared the effects on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area to that of systemically-delivered cocaine...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763700/early-life-diets-with-prebiotics-and-bioactive-milk-fractions-attenuate-the-impact-of-stress-on-learned-helplessness-behaviours-and-alter-gene-expression-within-neural-circuits-important-for-stress-resistance
#18
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E W Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health-promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviours such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioural and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746261/activation-of-orexin-hypocretin-neurons-is-associated-with-individual-differences-in-cued-fear-extinction
#19
Amanda C Sharko, Jim R Fadel, Kris F Kaigler, Marlene A Wilson
Identifying the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie differential sensitivity to stress is critical for understanding the development and expression of stress-induced disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preclinical studies have suggested that rodents display different phenotypes associated with extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear responses, with some rodent populations being resistant to extinction. An emerging literature also suggests a role for orexins in the consolidation processes associated with fear learning and extinction...
October 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741271/striatal-gdnf-production-is-independent-to-circulating-estradiol-level-despite-pan-neuronal-activation-in-the-female-mouse
#20
Daniel Enterría-Morales, Ivette López-López, José López-Barneo, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny
Gender difference in Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests that female sex steroids may promote dopaminergic neuron survival and protect them from degeneration. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is believed to be dopaminotrophic; thus it is considered as a potential therapeutic target in PD. Additionally, GDNF is endogenously synthetized in the caudate/putamen of humans and striatum in rodents. A neuroprotective role of estrogens on the nigrostriatal pathway via the stimulation of GDNF has been proposed...
2016: PloS One
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