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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770212/adolescent-thc-exposure-does-not-sensitize-conditioned-place-preferences-to-subthreshold-d-amphetamine-in-male-and-female-rats
#1
Robin J Keeley, Cameron Bye, Jan Trow, Robert J McDonald
The acute effects of marijuana consumption on brain physiology and behaviour are well documented, but the long-term effects of its chronic use are less well known. Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is of increased interest, given that the majority of individuals first use marijuana during this developmental stage , and  adolescent marijuana use is thought to increase the susceptibility to abusing other drugs when exposed later in life. It is possible that marijuana use during critical periods in adolescence could lead to increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse later on...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#2
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740282/muscarinic-m4-receptors-on-cholinergic-and-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-have-opposing-functionality-for-positive-reinforcement-and-influence-impulsivity
#3
Anna M Klawonn, Daniel B Wilhelms, Sarah H Lindström, Anand Kumar Singh, Maarit Jaarola, Jürgen Wess, Michael Fritz, David Engblom
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT), during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a "waiting"-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729248/stimulation-dependent-remodeling-of-the-corticospinal-tract-requires-reactivation-of-growth-promoting-developmental-signaling-pathways
#4
Neela Zareen, Shahid Dodson, Kristine Armada, Rahma Awad, Nadia Sultana, Erina Hara, Heather Alexander, John H Martin
The corticospinal tract (CST) can become damaged after spinal cord injury or stroke, resulting in weakness or paralysis. Repair of the damaged CST is limited because mature CST axons fail to regenerate, which is partly because the intrinsic axon growth capacity is downregulated in maturity. Whereas CST axons sprout after injury, this is insufficient to recover lost functions. Chronic motor cortex (MCX) electrical stimulation is a neuromodulatory strategy to promote CST axon sprouting, leading to functional recovery after CST lesion...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717625/remote-changes-in-cortical-excitability-after-experimental-tbi-and-functional-reorganization
#5
Derek R Verley, Daneil Torolira, Brandon Pulido, Boris Gutman, Anatol Bragin, Andrew Mayer, Neil G Harris
Although cognitive and behavioral deficits are well known to occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), motor deficits that occur, even after mild trauma are far less known, yet are equally persistent. This study was aimed at making progress toward determining how the brain reorganizes in response to TBI. We used the adult rat, controlled cortical impact injury model to study the ipsilesional forelimb map evoked by electrical stimulation of the affected limb, as well as the contralesional forelimb map evoked by stimulation of the unaffected limb, both before injury and at 1,2,3 and 4wks after using fMRI...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684463/non-imaged-based-method-for-matching-brains-in-a-common-anatomical-space-for-cellular-imagery
#6
Maëllie Midroit, Marc Thevenet, Arnaud Fournel, Joelle Sacquet, Moustafa Bensafi, Marine Breton, Laura Chalençon, Matthias Cavelius, Anne Didier, Nathalie Mandairon
BACKGROUND: Cellular imagery using histology sections is one of the most common techniques used in Neuroscience. However, this inescapable technique has severe limitations due to the need to delineate regions of interest on each brain, which is time consuming and variable across experimenters. NEW METHOD: We developed algorithms based on a vectors field elastic registration allowing fast, automatic realignment of experimental brain sections and associated labeling in a brain atlas with high accuracy and in a streamlined way...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618987/cholinergic-submucosal-neurons-display-increased-excitability-following-in-vivo-cholera-toxin-exposure-in-mouse-ileum
#7
Candice Fung, Katerina Koussoulas, Petra Unterweger, Andrew M Allen, Joel C Bornstein, Jaime P P Foong
Cholera-induced hypersecretion causes dehydration and death if untreated. Cholera toxin (CT) partly acts via the enteric nervous system (ENS) and induces long-lasting changes to enteric neuronal excitability following initial exposure, but the specific circuitry involved remains unclear. We examined this by first incubating CT or saline (control) in mouse ileal loops in vivo for 3.5 h and then assessed neuronal excitability in vitro using Ca2+ imaging and immunolabeling for the activity-dependent markers cFos and pCREB...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618833/cyperenoic-acid-suppresses-osteoclast-differentiation-and-delays-bone-loss-in-a-senile-osteoporosis-mouse-model-by-inhibiting-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#8
Supatta Chawalitpong, Ratchanaporn Chokchaisiri, Apichart Suksamrarn, Shigeru Katayama, Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Ahmad Ai Athamneh, Patcharee Ritprajak, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Tanapat Palaga
Cyperenoic acid is a terpenoid isolated from the root of a medicinal plant Croton crassifolius with a wide range of biological activities. In this study, the effects of cyperenoic acid on osteoclast differentiation were investigated both in vitro and in vivo using receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced bone marrow-derived osteoclasts and senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6). Cyperenoic acid significantly suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation at the concentrations with no apparent cytotoxicity...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618742/early-life-stress-induces-long-term-changes-in-limbic-areas-of-a-teleost-fish-the-role-of-catecholamine-systems-in-stress-coping
#9
Marco A Vindas, Stefanos Fokos, Michail Pavlidis, Erik Höglund, Sylvia Dionysopoulou, Lars O E Ebbesson, Nikolaos Papandroulakis, Catherine R Dermon
Early life stress (ELS) shapes the way individuals cope with future situations. Animals use cognitive flexibility to cope with their ever-changing environment and this is mainly processed in forebrain areas. We investigated the performance of juvenile gilthead seabream, previously subjected to an ELS regime. ELS fish showed overall higher brain catecholaminergic (CA) signalling and lower brain derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) and higher cfos expression in region-specific areas. All fish showed a normal cortisol and serotonergic response to acute stress...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608944/previous-early-life-stress-modifies-acute-corticosterone-induced-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-rats
#10
Iwona Majcher-Maślanka, Anna Solarz, Krzysztof Wędzony, Agnieszka Chocyk
Stress can either strengthen coping strategies or enhance the risk of depression and anxiety. Synaptic plasticity is one of the key brain functions that can be affected by stress. We have previously shown that early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) impairs functional synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), i.e., long-term potentiation (LTP), in adolescent rats. It has been postulated that a previous experience of prolonged stress can modify the response to a subsequent acute stress challenge and influence coping strategies...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597197/brain-activation-patterns-in-response-to-conspecific-and-heterospecific-social-acoustic-signals-in-female-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus
#11
Robert A Mohr, Yiran Chang, Ashwin A Bhandiwad, Paul M Forlano, Joseph A Sisneros
While the peripheral auditory system of fish has been well studied, less is known about how the fish's brain and central auditory system process complex social acoustic signals. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has become a good species for investigating the neural basis of acoustic communication because the production and reception of acoustic signals is paramount for this species' reproductive success. Nesting males produce long-duration advertisement calls that females detect and localize among the noise in the intertidal zone to successfully find mates and spawn...
March 29, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409860/feeding-the-developing-brain-juvenile-rats-fed-diet-rich-in-prebiotics-and-bioactive-milk-fractions-exhibit-reduced-anxiety-related-behavior-and-modified-gene-expression-in-emotion-circuits
#12
Agnieszka Mika, Michelle Gaffney, Rachel Roller, Abigail Hills, Courtney A Bouchet, Kristina A Hulen, Robert S Thompson, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field...
January 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407458/mechanistic-substrates-of-a-life-history-transition-in-male-prairie-voles-developmental-plasticity-in-affiliation-and-aggression-corresponds-to-nonapeptide-neuronal-function
#13
Aubrey M Kelly, Alexander G Saunders, Alexander G Ophir
Although prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) social behavior is well-characterized in adults, surprisingly little is known about the development of social behavior in voles. Further, the overwhelming majority of studies in prairie voles examine social behavior in a reproductive context. Here, we examine developmental plasticity in affiliation and aggression and their underlying neural correlates. Using sexually naïve males, we characterized interactions with an age-matched, novel, same-sex conspecific in four different age groups that span pre-weaning to adulthood...
March 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352087/subtype-specific-selection-for-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-but-not-to-tetracyclines-is-evident-in-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates-from-beef-cattle-in-confined-feeding-operations-in-southern-alberta-canada
#14
Andrew L Webb, L Brent Selinger, Eduardo N Taboada, G Douglas Inglis
Campylobacter jejuni was longitudinally isolated from beef cattle housed in four confined feeding operations (CFOs) in Southern Alberta, Canada, over 18 months. All of the cattle were administered a variety of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) nontherapeutically and metaphylactically during their time in the CFOs. In total, 7,966 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from cattle. More animals were colonized by the bacterium after >60 days in the CFO (interim) than were individuals upon entry at the CFO (arrival). Subtyping and resistance to seven AMAs were determined for 1,832 (23...
April 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306704/neuroprotective-effect-of-acute-ethanol-intoxication-in-tbi-is-associated-to-the-hierarchical-modulation-of-early-transcriptional-responses
#15
Akila Chandrasekar, Bahar Aksan, Florian Olde Heuvel, Philip Förstner, Daniela Sinske, Rida Rehman, Annette Palmer, Albert Ludolph, Markus Huber-Lang, Tobias Böckers, Daniela Mauceri, Bernd Knöll, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication is a risk factor for traumatic brain injury (TBI) but clinical evidence suggests that it may actually improve the prognosis of intoxicated TBI patients. We have employed a closed, weight-drop TBI model of different severity (2cm or 3cm falling height), preceded (-30min) or followed (+20min) by ethanol administration (5g/Kg). This protocol allows us to study the interaction of binge ethanol intoxication in TBI, monitoring behavioral changes, histological responses and the transcriptional regulation of a series of activity-regulated genes (immediate early genes, IEGs)...
April 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242405/digitalis-like-compounds-restore-hnis-expression-and-iodide-uptake-capacity-in-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#16
Marika H Tesselaar, Thomas Crezee, Imke Schuurmans, Danny Gerrits, James Nagarajah, Otto C Boerman, Ilse van Engen-van Grunsven, Johannes W A Smit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Theo S Plantinga
Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare malignancy that accounts for 1-2% of all thyroid cancers. ATC is one of the most aggressive human cancers, with rapid growth, tumor invasion and development of distant metastases. The median survival is only 5 months and the 1-year survival is less than 20%. Moreover, as a result of severe dedifferentiation including the loss of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) expression, radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy is ineffective. Recently, we have demonstrated beneficial effects of autophagy activating digitalis-like compounds (DLCs) on redifferentiation and concomitant restoration of iodide uptake in RAI-refractory papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235097/activation-of-astrocytic-par1-receptors-in-the-rat-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-regulates-breathing-through-modulation-of-presynaptic-trpv1
#17
Rafiq Huda, Zheng Chang, Jeehaeh Do, Donald R McCrimmon, Marco Martina
KEY POINTS: In the rat nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), activation of astrocytic proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) receptors leads to potentiation of neuronal synaptic activity by two mechanisms, one TRPV1-dependent and one TRPV1-independent. PAR1-dependent activation of presynaptic TRPV1 receptors facilitates glutamate release onto NTS neurons. The TRPV1-dependent mechanism appears to rely on astrocytic release of endovanilloid-like molecules. A subset of NTS neurons excited by PAR1 directly project to the rostral ventral respiratory group...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227584/npas4-deficiency-and-prenatal-stress-interact-to-affect-social-recognition-in-mice
#18
K Heslin, L Coutellier
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between 2 factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193451/retinoic-acid-signaling-regulates-the-proliferative-and-neurogenic-capacity-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-derived-progenitor-cells-in-the-avian-retina
#19
Levi Todd, Lilianna Suarez, Colin Quinn, Andy J Fischer
In the retina, Müller glia have the potential to become progenitor cells with the ability to proliferate and regenerate neurons. However, the ability of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) to proliferate and produce neurons is limited in higher vertebrates. Using the chick model system, we investigate how retinoic acid (RA)-signaling influences the proliferation and the formation of MGPCs. We observed an upregulation of cellular RA binding proteins (CRABP) in the Müller glia of damaged retinas where the formation of MGPCs is known to occur...
March 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183691/regional-differences-of-cfos-immunoreactive-cells-in-the-preoptic-areas-in-hypothalamus-associated-with-heat-and-cold-responses-in-mice
#20
Yuki Uchida, Keisuke Onishi, Ken Tokizawa, Kei Nagashima
cFos expression in the preoptic area (PO), which is thermoregulatory center increased by both heat and cold exposures; however, the regional difference is unknown yet. We aimed to determine if cFos expression in the PO was regionally different between heat and cold exposures. Mice were exposed to 27, 10, or 38°C for 90min, and body temperature (Tb ) was measured. cFos-immunoreactive (cFos-IR) cells in the PO were counted by separating the PO into the ventral and dorsal parts in the rostral (bregma 0.38mm), central (-0...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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