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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107547/camkii%C3%AE-expression-defines-two-functionally-distinct-populations-of-granule-cells-involved-in-different-types-of-odor-behavior
#1
Sarah Malvaut, Simona Gribaudo, Delphine Hardy, Linda Suzanne David, Laura Daroles, Simon Labrecque, Marie-Anne Lebel-Cormier, Zayna Chaker, Daniel Coté, Paul De Koninck, Martin Holzenberger, Alain Trembleau, Isabelle Caille, Armen Saghatelyan
Granule cells (GCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) play an important role in odor information processing. Although they have been classified into various neurochemical subtypes, the functional roles of these subtypes remain unknown. We used in vivo two-photon Ca(2+) imaging combined with cell-type-specific identification of GCs in the mouse OB to examine whether functionally distinct GC subtypes exist in the bulbar network. We showed that half of GCs express Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα(+)) and that these neurons are preferentially activated by olfactory stimulation...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093669/cocaine-and-caffeine-effects-on-the-conditioned-place-preference-test-concomitant-changes-on-early-genes-within-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens
#2
Javier A Muñiz, José P Prieto, Betina González, Máximo H Sosa, Jean L Cadet, Cecilia Scorza, Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno
Caffeine is the world's most popular psychostimulant and is frequently used as an active adulterant in many illicit drugs including cocaine. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can potentiate the stimulant effects of cocaine and cocaine-induced drug seeking behavior. However, little is known about the effects of this drug combination on reward-related learning, a key process in the maintenance of addiction and vulnerability to relapse. The goal of the present study was thus to determine caffeine and cocaine combined effects on the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) test and to determine potential differential mRNA expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of immediate-early genes (IEGs) as well as dopamine and adenosine receptor subunits...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093348/the-role-of-dopaminergic-signaling-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-for-the-expression-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#3
Fumiya Shinohara, Hironori Kamii, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda
The expression phase of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) represents a cocaine-seeking behavior triggered by contextual cues associated with the rewarding effects of cocaine. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the cocaine CPP expression remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of dopaminergic (DAergic) transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for the expression of cocaine CPP. An intra-ventral tegmental area (VTA) injection of a cocktail of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B and GABAA receptor agonists (baclofen and muscimol, respectively) immediately before the posttest inhibited the expression of cocaine CPP...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074701/context-dependent-chemosensory-signaling-aggression-and-neural-activation-patterns-in-gravid-female-african-cichlid-fish
#4
Karen E Field, Karen P Maruska
Social animals must constantly assess their environment to make appropriate behavioral decisions. The use of various sensory modalities is imperative in this process and it is hypothesized that the highly conserved brain nuclei comprising the social decision making network (SDMN) integrates social information with an animal's internal state to elicit behavioral responses. Here, we used the highly social African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to investigate whether reproductively-receptive (gravid) females show contextual chemosensory signaling, social behaviors, and neural activation patterns within the SDMN...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072898/the-epstein-barr-virus-b-zip-protein-zta-recognizes-specific-dna-sequences-containing-5-methylcytosine-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine
#5
Desiree Tillo, Sreejana Ray, Khund-Sayeed Syed, Mary Rose Gaylor, Ximiao He, Jun Wang, Nima Assad, Stewart R Durell, Aleksey Porollo, Matthew T Weirauch, Charles Vinson
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) B-ZIP transcription factor Zta binds to many DNA sequences containing methylated CG dinucleotides. Using protein binding microarrays (PBMs), we analyzed the sequence specific DNA binding of Zta to four kinds of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA): (1) DNA containing cytosine in both strands, (2) DNA with 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in one strand and cytosine in the second strand, (3) DNA with 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in one strand and cytosine in the second strand, and (4) DNA in which both cytosines in all CG dinucleotides contain 5mC...
November 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052842/shear-stress-upregulates-regeneration-related-immediate-early-genes-in-liver-progenitors-in-3d-ecm-like-microenvironments
#6
Kenichiro Nishii, Erik Brodin, Taylor Renshaw, Rachael Weesner, Emma Moran, Shay Soker, Jessica L Sparks
The role of fluid stresses in activating the hepatic stem/progenitor cell regenerative response is not well understood. This study hypothesized that immediate early genes (IEGs) with known links to liver regeneration will be upregulated in liver progenitor cells (LPCs) exposed to in vitro shear stresses on the order of those produced from elevated interstitial flow after partial hepatectomy. The objectives were: (1) to develop a shear flow chamber for application of fluid stress to LPCs in 3D culture; and (2) to determine the effects of fluid stress on IEG expression in LPCs...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037972/sex-differences-in-circuits-activated-by-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-rats
#7
Madeleine Salvatore, Kimberly Wiersielis, Sandra Luz, David Waxler, Seema Bhatnagar, Debra A Bangasser
Women are more likely than men to suffer from psychiatric disorders characterized by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) hypersecretion, suggesting sex differences in CRF sensitivity. In rodents, sex differences in the sensitivity of specific brain regions to CRF have been identified. However, regions do not work in isolation, but rather form circuits to coordinate distinct responses to stress. Here we examined whether CRF activates different circuits in male and female rats. Following central administration of CRF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), neuronal activation in stress-related areas was assessed using cFOS...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990868/prevention-of-recognition-memory-loss-and-moderation-of-mitochondrial-dynamic-tendency-toward-fusion-by-flavone-derivatives-in-a%C3%AE-injected-rats-a-comparison-between-two-flavonoids-with-different-polarity
#8
Farshad Arsalandeh, Fariba Khodagholi, Shahin Ahmadian, Forough Foolad, Hamed Mohammadi Kamsorkh, Mahdi Moridi Farimani, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh
Growing evidence sheds light on the use of flavonoids as the promising alternatives for the treatment of chronic conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of oral intake of two structurally different flavonoids 5-hydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (flavone 1) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (flavone 2) on recognition memory, hippocampal protein level of immediate early gene cFos and mitochondrial dynamic markers in Amyloid β (Aβ)-injected rats...
October 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990606/a-combined-docosahexaenoic-acid-thyroid-hormone-protocol-upregulates-rat-liver-%C3%AE-klotho-expression-and-downstream-components-of-fgf21-signaling-as-a-potential-novel-approach-to-metabolic-stress-conditions
#9
R Vargas, B Riquelme, J Fernández, L A Videla
Liver preconditioning by a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and triiodothyronine (T3) combined protocol underlies peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα)-fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) upregulation, the study of the regulatory mechanisms involved being the aim of this work. Combined DHA (daily doses of 300 mg kg(-1) for 3 days)-T3 (0.05 mg kg(-1) at the fourth day) administration elicited higher levels of liver DHA and serum T3, with enhanced hepatic nuclear/cytosolic PPARα ratios, upregulation of FGF21 and β-Klotho expression, and a small reduction in that of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), compared with the respective controls...
October 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976945/activation-of-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neurons-during-fear-extinction-prevents-the-renewal-of-fear
#10
Courtney A Bouchet, Megan A Miner, Esteban C Loetz, Adam J Rosberg, Holly S Hake, Caroline E Farmer, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Nathan Gray, Benjamin N Greenwood
Manipulations that increase dopamine (DA) signaling can enhance fear extinction, but the circuits involved remain unknown. DA neurons originating in the substantia nigra (SN) projecting to the dorsal striatum (DS) are traditionally viewed in the context of motor behavior, but growing data implicate this nigrostriatal circuit in emotion. Here we investigated the role of nigrostriatal DA in fear extinction. Activation of SN DA neurons with designer Gq-coupled receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (Gq-DREADD) during fear extinction had no effect on fear extinction acquisition, but enhanced fear extinction memory and blocked the renewal of fear in a novel context; a pattern of data paralleled by cFos expression in the central amygdala...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973125/acute-psychosocial-stress-inhibits-lh-pulsatility-and-kiss1-neuronal-activation-in-female-mice
#11
Jennifer A Yang, Christopher I Song, Jessica K Hughes, Michael J Kreisman, Ruby A Parra, Daniel J Haisenleder, Alexander S Kauffman, Kellie M Breen
Psychosocial stress, such as isolation and restraint, disrupts reproductive neuroendocrine activity. Here we investigate the impact of psychosocial stress on luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses and gene expression and neuronal activation within Rfrp and Kiss1 cells in female mice. Mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and handled daily to habituate to the tail-tip blood collection procedure. Blood was collected every 5 minutes for 180 minutes for measurement of LH. After 90 minutes, stress animals were placed into restraint devices and isolated to new cages...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945005/differential-expression-of-myometrial-ap-1-proteins-during-gestation-and-labour
#12
Lubna Nadeem, Tali Farine, Anna Dorogin, Elzbieta Matysiak-Zablocki, Oksana Shynlova, Stephen Lye
Preterm labour (PTL) is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and postnatal morbidity. Contractions of the uterine muscle (myometrium) that determine the onset of labour depend on the expression of contraction-associated proteins (CAPs, i.e. connexin43) regulated by dimeric AP-1 transcription factors. Here, we examined subcellular (by immunoblotting) and tissue expression (by immunohistochemistry) of myometrial AP-1 proteins (cJUN, JUNB, JUND, cFOS, FOSB, FRA1, FRA2) throughout gestation and TL in different species (mouse, rat and human)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#13
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
November 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903063/cooperative-regulation-of-gja1-expression-by-members-of-the-ap-1-family-cjun-and-cfos-in-tm3-leydig-and-tm4-sertoli-cells
#14
Firas Ghouili, Luc J Martin
Within the testis, connexin43 encoded by Gja1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication between Leydig cells as well as between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. In the adult male, Leydig cells are the principal producers of testosterone sustaining spermatogenesis, while Sertoli cells nourish, protect and support the differentiating germ cells. It has been shown previously that members of the AP-1 family regulate Gja1 expression in myometrial cells, suggesting that such regulatory mechanism may also be relevant within the testis...
November 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890143/transcriptional-interaction-between-cfos-and-the-homeodomain-binding-transcription-factor-vax1-on-the-gnrh-promoter-controls-gnrh1-expression-levels-in-a-gnrh-neuron-maturation-specific-manner
#15
Hanne M Hoffmann, Ping Gong, Anika Tamrazian, Pamela L Mellon
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is required for pubertal onset and reproduction, thus the control of GnRH transcription is tightly regulated during development and adulthood. GnRH neuron development depends on transcription factors of the homeodomain family. For example, Ventral anterior homeobox 1 (Vax1) is necessary to maintain GnRH expression after embryonic day 13 in the mouse. To further our understanding of the mechanisms by which VAX1 regulates GnRH gene expression, we asked whether VAX1 interacts with other transcription factors to modify GnRH expression levels...
September 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883787/investigations-into-hypoxia-and-oxidative-stress-at-the-optic-nerve-head-in-a-rat-model-of-glaucoma
#16
Glyn Chidlow, John P M Wood, Robert J Casson
The vascular hypothesis of glaucoma proposes that retinal ganglion cell axons traversing the optic nerve head (ONH) undergo oxygen and nutrient insufficiency as a result of compromised local blood flow, ultimately leading to their degeneration. To date, evidence for the hypothesis is largely circumstantial. Herein, we made use of an induced rat model of glaucoma that features reproducible and widespread axonal transport disruption at the ONH following chronic elevation of intraocular pressure. If vascular insufficiency plays a role in the observed axonal transport failure, there should exist a physical signature at this time point...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833174/enhanced-motivation-to-alcohol-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-human-%C3%AE-synuclein
#17
Carola Rotermund, Gustavo K Reolon, Sarah Leixner, Cindy Boden, Ainhoa Bilbao, Philipp J Kahle
α-Synuclein (αSYN) is the neuropathological hallmark protein of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, the gene encoding αSYN (SNCA) is a major genetic contributor to PD. Interestingly, independent genome-wide association studies also identified SNCA as the most important candidate gene for alcoholism. Furthermore, single-nucleotide-polymorphisms have been associated with alcohol-craving behavior and alcohol-craving patients showed augmented αSYN expression in blood...
November 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827077/high-potential-defense-mechanisms-of-neocortex-in-a-rat-model-of-transient-asphyxia-induced-cardiac-arrest
#18
Gerburg Keilhoff, Torben Esser, Maximilian Titze, Uwe Ebmeyer, Lorenz Schild
Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common cause of disability and mortality and thus an important risk for human health. Circulatory failure has dramatic consequences for the brain as one of the most oxygen-consuming organs. Hippocampus, striatum and neocortex rate among the most vulnerable brain regions. The neocortex is less sensitive to hypoxia/reperfusion in comparison with the hippocampal CA1 region. That implicates the existence of efficient defense mechanisms in the neocortex against hypoxia/reperfusion injury, which we analyzed in a well-established CA rat model...
August 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814751/comparison-of-chronic-physical-and-emotional-social-defeat-stress-effects-on-mesocorticolimbic-circuit-activation-and-voluntary-consumption-of-morphine
#19
S E Cooper, M Kechner, D Caraballo-Pérez, S Kaska, A J Robison, M S Mazei-Robison
Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is a well-established rodent model of depression that induces persistent social avoidance. CSDS triggers molecular adaptations throughout the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including changes in the activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), that may also influence drug reward. One limitation of traditional, physical CSDS (PS) is that injury complicates the study of opiate drugs like morphine. Thus, we sought to characterize a variation of CSDS, termed emotional CSDS (ES), that eliminates this confound...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811543/4-e-p-tolylimino-methylbenzene-1-2-diol-timbd-suppresses-hiv1-gp120-mediated-production-of-il6-and-il8-but-not-ccl5
#20
Fatma Abdalla, Anantha Nookala, Subhash B Padhye, Anil Kumar, Hari K Bhat
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with inflammatory effects that may potentially result in neurodegenerative changes and a number of newer chemotherapeutic agents are being tested to ameliorate these effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of a novel resveratrol analog 4-(E)-{(p-tolylimino)-methylbenzene-1,2-diol} (TIMBD) against HIV1-gp120 induced neuroinflammation in SVG astrocytes. SVG astrocytic cells were pretreated with TIMBD or resveratrol (RES) and then transfected with a plasmid encoding HIV1-gp120...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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