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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906190/robust-high-throughput-kinetic-analysis-of-apoptosis-with-real-time-high-content-live-cell-imaging
#1
Jesse D Gelles, Jerry Edward Chipuk
Quantitative and kinetic analyses of apoptotic cell death are integral components of exploring cell biology, measuring cellular stress responses, and performing high-throughput genomic/RNAi/drug screens. Here, we present a detailed method that integrates robust kinetic real-time high-content imaging with Annexin V labelling to provide a highly sensitive, accurate, simple and zero-handling approach to quantify extrinsic and intrinsic inducers of apoptosis. The sensitivity of this non-toxic method outperforms previous high-throughput methodologies using viability dyes or caspase-activation reporters...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906175/impaired-haematopoietic-stem-cell-differentiation-and-enhanced-skewing-towards-myeloid-progenitors-in-aged-caspase-2-deficient-mice
#2
Swati Dawar, Nur Hezrin Shahrin, Nikolina Sladojevic, Richard J D'Andrea, Loretta Dorstyn, Devendra K Hiwase, Sharad Kumar
The apoptotic cysteine protease caspase-2 has been shown to suppress tumourigenesis in mice and its reduced expression correlates with poor prognosis in some human malignancies. Caspase-2-deficient mice develop normally but show ageing-related traits and, when challenged by oncogenic stimuli or certain stress, show enhanced tumour development, often accompanied by extensive aneuploidy. As stem cells are susceptible to acquiring age-related functional defects because of their self-renewal and proliferative capacity, we examined whether loss of caspase-2 promotes such defects with age...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906144/positive-regulation-of-biochemical-parameters-by-tea-polyphenol-encapsulated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-at-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions
#3
Karikalan Kulandaivelu, Abul Kalam Azad Mandal
Tea polyphenols (TPPs) comprise preventive and therapeutic potentials against cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Chemical instability of TPP which leads to low bioavailability is the major constrain to its use as therapeutic agent. The authors prepared TPP encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (TPP-SLNs) to increase its stability and bioefficacy. Comparison of Fourier transformed infrared spectra of unloaded SLN, free TPP and TPP-SLN indicated encapsulation of TPP. Sustained release of TPP from TP-SLN was observed...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906069/the-beneficial-role-of-proteolysis-in-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-stress-adaptation
#4
REVIEW
Ryan A V Bell, Mohammad Al-Khalaf, Lynn A Megeney
Muscle atrophy derived from excessive proteolysis is a hallmark of numerous disease conditions. Accordingly, the negative consequences of skeletal muscle protein breakdown often overshadow the critical nature of proteolytic systems in maintaining normal cellular function. Here, we discuss the major cellular proteolysis machinery-the ubiquitin/proteosome system, the autophagy/lysosomal system, and caspase-mediated protein cleavage-and the critical role of these protein machines in establishing and preserving muscle health...
April 6, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905816/cementocyte-cell-death-occurs-in-rat-cellular-cementum-during-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#5
Humihiro Matsuzawa, Naoko Toriya, Yuya Nakao, Moe Konno-Nagasaka, Toshiya Arakawa, Miki Okayama, Itaru Mizoguchi
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the mechanism of root resorption during orthodontic treatment, we examined cementocyte cell death and root resorption in the cellular cementum on the pressure side during experimental tooth movement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using 8-week-old male Wistar rats, the right first molar was pushed mesiobuccally with a force of 40 g by a Ni-Ti alloy wire while the contralateral first molar was used as a control. Localization and number of cleaved caspase-3-positive and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) - positive cells were evaluated using dual-label immunohistochemistry with anticleaved caspase-3 and anti-ssDNA antibodies...
December 1, 2016: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905569/shikonin-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-and-enhances-chemotherapeutic-sensitivity-of-gastric-cancer-through-reactive-oxygen-species
#6
Wenquan Liang, Aizhen Cai, Guozhu Chen, Hongqing Xi, Xiaosong Wu, Jianxin Cui, Kecheng Zhang, Xudong Zhao, Jiyun Yu, Bo Wei, Lin Chen
The prognosis of gastric cancer remains poor due to clinical drug resistance. Novel drugs are urgently needed. Shikonin (SHK), a natural naphthoquinone, has been reported to trigger cell death and overcome drug resistance in anti-tumour therapy. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and molecular mechanisms of SHK in treatment with gastric cancer. In vitro, SHK suppresses proliferation and triggers cell death of gastric cancer cells but leads minor damage to gastric epithelial cells. SHK induces the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), depolarizes the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ultimately triggers mitochondria-mediated apoptosis...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905295/desensitization-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-fibroblasts-to-alternaria-alternata-extract-mediated-necrotic-cell-death
#7
Jintaek Im, Kyutae Kim, Ji Young Yhee, Scott M O'Grady, Richard S Nho
Alternaria alternata is an allergenic fungus and known to cause an upper respiratory tract infection and asthma in humans with compromised immunity. Although A. alternata's effect on airway epithelial cells has previously been examined, the potential role of A. alternata on lung fibroblast viability is not understood. Since lung fibroblasts derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) display a distinct phenotype that is resistant to stress and cell death inducing conditions, the investigation of the role of Alternaria on pathological IPF fibroblasts provides a better understanding of the fibrotic process induced by an allergenic fungus...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904697/inhibitory-effect-of-bufalin-on-retinoblastoma-cells-hxo-rb44-via-the-independent-mitochondrial-and-death-receptor-pathway
#8
Qingfeng Meng, Yan Zhao, LiXin An, Xia Li, Ping Liu
Cinobufacini (Huachansu) is a Chinese medicine prepared from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), and has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, the anti-retinoblastoma constituent bufalin obtained from Cinobufacini was investigated. Treatment of human retinoblastoma (HXO-RB44) cells with bufalin induced apoptosis which was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, as well as changes in the expression of cytochrome C...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904667/icaritin-induces-apoptotic-and-autophagic-cell-death-in-human-glioblastoma-cells
#9
Zhaopei Li, Xiangwen Meng, Lin Jin
BACKGROUND: GBM represents the most aggressive type of glioma which is featured by extremely aggressive invasion and destructive malignancy with a high proliferation rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-tumor effect of icaritin in human GBM cell line U87. METHODS: The effect of icaritin on In vitro cell viability was determined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. The inducing effect of icaritin on cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, apoptosis, autophagy and intracellular ROS generation was assessed by flow cytometry...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904666/ad-hgf-improves-the-cardiac-remodeling-of-rat-following-myocardial-infarction-by-upregulating-autophagy-and-necroptosis-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#10
Jiabao Liu, Peng Wu, Yunle Wang, Yingqiang Du, Nan A, Shuiyuan Liu, Yiming Zhang, Ningtian Zhou, Zhihui Xu, Zhijian Yang
Cell death in MI is the most critical determinant of subsequent left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. Besides apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis have been recently found to be another two regulated cell death styles. HGF has been reported to have a protective role in MI, but its impact on the three death styles remains unclear. Thus, our study was performed to investigate the distribution of autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis in cardiac tissues after MI and explore the role and mechanism of Ad-HGF on cardiac remodeling by regulating the three death styles...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904496/adipose-derived-stem-cells-enhance-myogenic-differentiation-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-muscular-dystrophy-via-paracrine-signaling
#11
Ji-Qing Cao, Ying-Yin Liang, Ya-Qin Li, Hui-Li Zhang, Yu-Ling Zhu, Jia Geng, Li-Qing Yang, Shan-Wei Feng, Juan Yang, Jie Kong, Cheng Zhang
Adipose-derived stem cells have been shown to promote peripheral nerve regeneration through the paracrine secretion of neurotrophic factors. However, it is unclear whether these cells can promote myogenic differentiation in muscular dystrophy. Adipose-derived stem cells (6 × 10(6)) were injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice at various sites. Dystrophin expression was found in the muscle fibers. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1 and S6 kinase 1 were increased, and the Akt/mTOR pathway was activated...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904150/regulating-the-balance-between-necroptosis-apoptosis-and-inflammation-by-inhibitors-of-apoptosis-proteins
#12
REVIEW
Lazaros Vasilikos, Lisanne M Spilgies, Janin Knop, WWei-Lynn Wong
Understanding how Inhibitors of APoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate apoptosis and necroptosis has been fast-forwarded by the use of Smac mimetics to deplete or inhibit the IAPs, specifically cIAP1& 2 and XIAP. The loss or inhibition of cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP causes the majority of cells to be sensitized to death receptor induced cell death, particularly tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Mouse genetics shows that there is some functional redundancy and the use of Smac mimetics has allowed us to understand how changing the composition of proteins recruited to TNF receptor 1 upon TNF ligation can alter protein complex formation and activation of apoptosis or necroptosis, particularly when caspases are inhibited...
December 1, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903743/uric-acid-crystals-induce-placental-inflammation-and-alter-trophoblast-function-via-an-il-1-dependent-pathway-implications-for-fetal-growth-restriction
#13
Marie-Eve Brien, Cyntia Duval, Julia Palacios, Ines Boufaied, Andrée-Anne Hudon-Thibeault, Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Cathy Vaillancourt, Colin P Sibley, Vikki M Abrahams, Rebecca L Jones, Sylvie Girard
Excessive placental inflammation is associated with several pathological conditions, including stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Although infection is a known cause of inflammation, a significant proportion of pregnancies have evidence of inflammation without any detectable infection. Inflammation can also be triggered by endogenous mediators, called damage associated molecular patterns or alarmins. One of these damage-associated molecular patterns, uric acid, is increased in the maternal circulation in pathological pregnancies and is a known agonist of the Nlrp3 inflammasome and inducer of inflammation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903586/microrna-125a-5p-alleviates-the-deleterious-effects-of-ox-ldl-on-multiple-functions-of-human-brain-microvessel-endothelial-cells
#14
Qunwen Pan, Xiaorong Liao, Hua Liu, Yan Wang, Yanfang Chen, Bin Zhao, Eric Lazartigues, Yi Yang, Xiaotang Ma
MicroRNA-125a-5p(miR-125a-5p)could participate in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-125a-5p in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced functional changes in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nitric oxide (NO) generation, senescence, apoptosis and functions of HBMEC were analyzed. For mechanism study, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and p-Akt were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902770/mitochondrial-targeted-decyl-triphenylphosphonium-enhances-2-deoxy-d-glucose-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-clonogenic-killing-of-multiple-myeloma-cells
#15
Jeanine Schibler, Ann M Tomanek-Chalkley, Jessica L Reedy, Fenghuang Zhan, Douglas R Spitz, Michael K Schultz, Apollina Goel
Therapeutic advances have markedly prolonged overall survival in multiple myeloma (MM) but the disease currently remains incurable. In a panel of MM cell lines (MM.1S, OPM-2, H929, and U266), using CD138 immunophenotyping, side population staining, and stem cell-related gene expression, we demonstrate the presence of stem-like tumor cells. Hypoxic culture conditions further increased CD138low stem-like cells with upregulated expression of OCT4 and NANOG. Compared to MM cells, these stem-like cells maintained lower steady-state pro-oxidant levels with increased uptake of the fluorescent deoxyglucose analog...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902462/the-synthetic-lethal-killing-of-rad54b-deficient-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-parp1-inhibition-is-enhanced-with-sod1-inhibition
#16
Erin N McAndrew, Chloe C Lepage, Kirk J McManus
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death throughout the world. Despite improved screening efforts, most CRCs are diagnosed at late stages when surgery alone is not curative. Moreover, the low 5-year survival rate (~8-13%) for those living with stage IV CRC highlights the need for better treatment options. Many current chemotherapeutic approaches are non-specific and associated with side effects due to their tendency to target both normal and cancer cells. To address this issue, synthetic lethal (SL) approaches are now being explored in cancer and are defined as the lethal combination of two independently viable mutations/deletions...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902334/the-ns1-protein-of-avian-influenza-virus-h9n2-induces-oxidative-stress-mediated-chicken-oviduct-epithelial-cells-coecs-apoptosis
#17
Xuefeng Qi, Huizhu Zhang, Qiuzhen Wang, Jingyu Wang
The pathogenesis of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus infection (AIV) in the hens is often related to the oviduct tissue damage. The viral nonstructural NS1 protein is thought to play key role in regulating the pathogenicity of AIV, but the exact function to this process remains elusive. In this study, the pro-apoptosis effect of H9N2 NS1 protein was examined on chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COECs) and our data suggested that NS1 induced oxidative stress was a contributing factor for apoptosis. Our data suggest that NS1 protein level was correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in COECs cells transfected with NS1 expression plasmids...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901497/curcumin-carrying-nanoparticles-prevent-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-human-renal-cells
#18
Yong Xu, Ning Hu, Wei Jiang, Hong-Fang Yuan, Dong-Hui Zheng
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in clinical practice. However, despite its frequency, effective preventive/treatment strategies for this condition are scarce. Curcumin possesses antioxidant properties and is a promising potential protective agent against renal IRI, but its poor water solubility restricts its application. In this study, we constructed curcumin-carrying distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles (Cur-NPs), and their effect on HK-2 cells exposed to IRI was examined in vitro...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901471/esculetin-exerts-anti-proliferative-effects-against-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-by-suppressing-specificity-protein-1-in-vitro
#19
Ra H Lee, Young-Joo Jeon, Jin H Cho, Jeong-Yun Jang, Il-Keun Kong, Seok-Ho Kim, MinSeok S Kim, Hak-Jae Chung, Keon B Oh, Seon-Min Park, Jae-Cheon Shin, Jae-Min Seo, Sungho Ko, Jung-Hyun Shim, Jung-Il Chae
Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901113/programmed-necrosis-a-new-mechanism-of-steroidogenic-luteal-cell-death-and-elimination-during-luteolysis-in-cows
#20
Takuo Hojo, Marta J Siemieniuch, Karolina Lukasik, Katarzyna K Piotrowska-Tomala, Agnieszka W Jonczyk, Kiyoshi Okuda, Dariusz J Skarzynski
Programmed necrosis (necroptosis) is an alternative form of programmed cell death that is regulated by receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 and 3-dependent, but is a caspase (CASP)-independent pathway. In the present study, to determine if necroptosis participates in bovine structural luteolysis, we investigated RIPK1 and RIPK3 expression throughout the estrous cycle, during prostaglandin F2α (PGF)-induced luteolysis in the bovine corpus luteum (CL), and in cultured luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) after treatment with selected luteolytic factors...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
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