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Yaxian Wu, Huiqiong He, Yunhe Ding, Sirui Liu, Depeng Zhang, Jun Wang, Hongchao Jiang, Dan Zhang, Lei Sun, Richard D Ye, Feng Qian
MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) plays a critical role in the development of inflammation. However, the modulatory mechanisms in macrophage activation and acute lung injury (ALI) haven't been completely defined. Here, we reported that MK2 deficient mice (MK2-/-) protected against sepsis-induced ALI. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MK2-/- mice and myeloid cell-specific MK2 conditional knockout mice (MK2Lyz2-KO) exhibited attenuated inflammatory response, especially producing fewer amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Anaïs Assouvie, Lisa P Daley-Bauer, Germain Rousselet
Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) are primary macrophages obtained by in vitro differentiation of bone marrow cells in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF1). They are easy to obtain in high yields, can be stored by freezing, and can be obtained from genetically modified mice strains. They are therefore widely used as prototypical macrophages for in vitro studies. In this chapter, we present the method for obtaining BMDMs and freezing them.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guodong Sun, Guangqiang Li, Dehai Li, Wanjun Huang, Renwen Zhang, Hua Zhang, Yuanyuan Duan, Baocheng Wang
The exploration of effective spinal cord injury (SCI) healing still remain a great challenge due to the high morbidity, complex pathology and unclear targets. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC) play an important role in tissue regeneration. However, transplanting stem cells has a potential risk of teratogenicity. Recent studies have suggested that exosomes secreted by stem cells may contribute to tissue injury repair. We hypothesized that the application of hucMSC derived exosomes may be a potential way for SCI treatment...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Eric A Levenson, Craig Martens, Kishore Kanakabandi, Charles V Turner, Kimmo Virtaneva, Monica Paneru, Stacy Ricklefs, Stanislav V Sosnovtsev, Jordan A Johnson, Stephen F Porcella, Kim Y Green
Murine norovirus (NoV) is genetically similar to human NoV and offers both an efficient in vitro cell culture system and an animal model by which to investigate the molecular basis of replication. In this study, we present a detailed global view of host alterations to cellular pathways that occur during the progression of a NoV infection. This was accomplished for both Mus musculus BALB/c-derived RAW264.7 (RAW) cells, an immortalized cell line widely used in in vitro replication studies, and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), representing a permissive in vivo target cell in the host...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Tho X Pham, Minkyung Bae, Yoojin Lee, Young-Ki Park, Ji-Young Lee
Histone deacetylation is one of the posttranslational modifications of histones by which eukaryotic cells alter gene transcription. Although fatty acids are the best known macronutrients that modulate gene expression in inflammatory pathways, it is unclear whether common fatty acids in diets can regulate the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in macrophages. We determined the effects of fatty acids, including palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the expression of HDAC isoforms in RAW 264...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ahmad Firdaus, Nor Badrul Anuar, Mohd Faizal Ab Razak, Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashem, Syafiq Bachok, Arun Kumar Sangaiah
The increasing demand for Android mobile devices and blockchain has motivated malware creators to develop mobile malware to compromise the blockchain. Although the blockchain is secure, attackers have managed to gain access into the blockchain as legal users, thereby comprising important and crucial information. Examples of mobile malware include root exploit, botnets, and Trojans and root exploit is one of the most dangerous malware. It compromises the operating system kernel in order to gain root privileges which are then used by attackers to bypass the security mechanisms, to gain complete control of the operating system, to install other possible types of malware to the devices, and finally, to steal victims' private keys linked to the blockchain...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Lechuang Chen, Shuren Wang, Yu Wang, Weina Zhang, Kai Ma, Chenfei Hu, Hongxia Zhu, Shufang Liang, Mei Liu, Ningzhi Xu
Macrophages play a crucial role in tumorigenesis depending upon the phenotype of macrophages found in tumor microenvironments. To date, how the tumor microenvironment affects the phenotypes of macrophages is not yet fully understood. In this study, we constructed a NIH3T3/Src cell line stably overexpresses the Src protein and found that conditioned medium from this cell line was able to induce polarization towards the M2 phenotype in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and Ana-1 macrophages. Further investigation revealed that IL-6 produced by NIH3T3/Src cells plays a key role in M2 polarization...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
Bianka Wissuwa, Stefan H Heinemann, Michael Bauer, Sina M Coldewey
AIMS: Studies on omega-3 fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reveal diverging results: Their intake is recommended in cardiovascular disease and major surgery, while evidence argues against use in septic patients. DHA mediates its blood-pressure-lowering effect through Slo1 channels that are expressed on cardiovascular and immune cells. We hypothesised that conflicting effects of immunonutrition could be explained by the influence of omega-3 fatty acids on systemic blood pressure or immune effector cells through Slo1...
April 20, 2018: Life Sciences
Jacob E Friedman, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Alexander Fast, Rachel C Janssen, Taylor K Soderborg, Aimee L Anderson, Julie A Reisz, Angelo D'Alessandro, Daniel N Frank, Charles E Robertson, Becky A de la Houssaye, Linda K Johnson, David J Orlicky, Xiaoxin X Wang, Moshe Levi, Eric O Potma, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher
Increasingly, evidence suggests that exposure to maternal obesity creates an inflammatory environment in utero , exerting long-lasting postnatal signatures on the juvenile innate immune system and microbiome that may predispose offspring to development of fatty liver disease. We found that exposure to a maternal Western-style diet (WD) accelerated fibrogenesis in the liver of offspring and was associated with early recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages at 8-12 weeks and microbial dysbiosis as early as 3 weeks of age...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
Jiaqi Gu, Lingchun Luo, Qian Wang, Songfan Yan, Jing Lin, Dan Li, Bingbing Cao, Hongxia Mei, Binyu Ying, Lu Bin, Fang Gao Smith, Sheng-Wei Jin
Inflammation always accompanies infection during sepsis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by mitochondria have been proposed in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Maresins have protective and resolving effects in experimental models of infection. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maresin 1 (MaR1) on mitochondrial function in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and sepsis patients to identify mechanisms underlying maresin 1-mediated stimulation of ROS in mitochondria...
February 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Nanshan Song, Yinquan Fang, Xiyang Sun, Qingling Jiang, Chenghuan Song, Miaomiao Chen, Jianhua Ding, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
β2-Aderenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist, Salmeterol exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. However, the inhibitory effects of Salmeterol on inflammasome activation are elusive and the underlying mechanisms need to be explored. In this study, we established inflammatory model in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57BL/6J mice and β-arrestin2 knockout (β-arrestin2-/- ) mice in vitro. In vivo study by LPS intraperitoneally (i.p.) in C57BL/6J mice was carried out to ascertain its roles in systemic inflammation...
April 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Hossam M H Shalaby
A bidirectional mode-division multiplexer (BMDM) with antireflection gratings is designed, and its performance in terms of S-parameters is presented. A BMDM can (de)multiplex three modes with only two waveguides and a Bragg grating. The impact of return losses on the performance of BMDMs is studied and antireflection gratings are designed to reduce their effects. A theoretical analysis of the proposed (de)multiplexer is developed based on the perturbative coupled-mode theory. Analytical expressions for the coupled-mode equations of the proposed device are obtained, taking into account the effects of return losses...
January 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Jin-Xin Zhao, Yan-Yan Yu, Sha-Sha Wang, Su-Ling Huang, Yu Shen, Xin-Hua Gao, Li Sheng, Jing-Ya Li, Ying Leng, Jia Li, Jian-Min Yue
Hongkonoids A-D (1-4), the first example of ascorbylated terpenoids featuring a unique 5,5,5-fused tricyclic spiroketal butyrolactone moiety and diterpenoid-derived long chain, were isolated from Dysoxylum hongkongense. Their structures were unambiguously assigned by a combination of spectroscopic data, chemical degradation, X-ray crystallography, CD analysis, and total synthesis. The total syntheses of compounds 1-4 were effectively accomplished by a convergent strategy with the longest linear sequences of 12-14 steps and overall yields of 5...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wenbo Li, Wei Liu, Can Chen, Wenhui Fan, He Zhang, Wenjun Liu, Lei Sun
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a member of peptidyl prolylisomerases (PPIase) family. CypA is best known as a ubiquitously distributed intracellular protein. It has also been shown to be secreted by cells in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress. Extracellular CypA (eCypA) interacts with CD147 to initiate inflammatory responses via recruiting leucocytes into inflamed tissue. Recombinant CypA was expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified using Superdex 75™ 16/60. The results of Real-time PCR and ELISA showed that the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, secreted by eCypA stimulated BMDM were significantly up-regulated, indicating that eCypA played an important role in promoting inflammatory responses...
January 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Alyssa J Rolfe, Dale B Bosco, Erynn N Broussard, Yi Ren
Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) are mature leukocytes that serve a critical physiological role as professional phagocytes capable of clearing a variety of particles. Normally, BMDMs are restricted from the central nervous system (CNS), but following an injury, they can readily infiltrate. Once within the injured CNS tissue, BMDMs are the primary cell type responsible for the clearance of injury-derived cellular debris, including large quantities of lipid rich myelin debris. The neuropathological ramifications of BMDM infiltration and myelin debris phagocytosis within the CNS are complex and not well understood...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Flor Torres-Juarez, Lousseine Touqui, Juan Leon-Contreras, Cesar Rivas-Santiago, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Innate immunity is the first line of defense against Mtb and malfunctions in any of its components are associated with the susceptibility to the disease. Epithelial products such as host defense peptides (HDPs) are the first molecules produced to counteract the infection. Although a wide variety of HDPs are produced by epithelial cells only a few of them have been studied during Mtb infection. Here, we assessed the expression and production of the HDPs psoriasin, secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2-IIA) and Ribonuclease (RNase) 7 in airway epithelial cells (NCI-H292), type II pneumocytes (A549 cells) and monocyte-derived macrophages from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and from the human cell line THP1 after Mtb in vitro infection...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Chih-Wei Ko, Daniel Counihan, Jing Wu, Maria Hatzoglou, Michelle A Puchowicz, Colleen M Croniger
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) is a metabolic enzyme that is integral to the gluconeogenic and glyceroneogenic pathways. However, Pck1's role in macrophage metabolism and function is unknown. Using stable isotopomer MS analysis in a mouse model with a myeloid cell-specific Pck1 deletion, we show here that this deletion increases the proinflammatory phenotype in macrophages. Incubation of LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) with [U-13 C]glucose revealed reduced 13 C labeling of citrate and malate and increased 13 C labeling of lactate in Pck1-deleted bone marrow-derived macrophages...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mariela Castelblanco, Jérôme Lugrin, Driss Ehirchiou, Sonia Nasi, Isao Ishii, Alexander So, Fabio Martinon, Nathalie Busso
A variety of stimuli, including monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, and this activation involves several molecular mechanisms including xanthine oxidase (XO) up-regulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Upon oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1 becomes active and cleaves the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β into its active secreted form. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a gasotransmitter mainly produced by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in macrophages, could modulate inflammation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Prashanth Chandramani-Shivalingappa, Mahesh Bhandari, Sarah A Wiechert, Jessica Gilbertie, Douglas E Jones, Brett A Sponseller
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an intracellular macrophage-tropic pathogen with potential for causing fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals between 1 and 6 months of age. In this study, we sought to determine whether infection of macrophages with R. equi could lead to the induction of autophagy. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were infected with R. equi for various time intervals and analyzed for upregulation of autophagy proteins and accumulation of autophagosomes relative to uninfected controls...
2017: Scientifica
Young-Hoon Kim, Jae-Rin Lee, Myong-Joon Hahn
Epithelial-stromal interaction 1 (EPSTI1) was first discovered as a gene induced in breast cancer epithelial cells by co-cultured stromal fibroblasts. There are many reports on the role of Epsti1 in cancer malignancy. Epsti1 is now well known in regulating cancer. Recently, the role of Epsti1 in the immune response has been reported; these reports suggest the role of Epsti1 in immune function, immune privilege, and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, they show that Epsti1 is expressed in various types of immune cells...
February 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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