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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138107/effect-of-low-frequency-electrical-stimulation-on-the-high-k-induced-neuronal-hyperexcitability-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#1
Zahra Ghasemi, Nima Naderi, Amir Shojaei, Mohammad Reza Raoufy, Nooshin Ahmadirad, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh
Low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) is a potential therapeutic method for epilepsy treatment. However, the effect of different LFS characteristics including the number of pulses, intensity and the time of application on its antiepileptic action has not been completely determined. In the present study, epileptiform activity (EA) was induced in hippocampal slices by high-K(+) solution which washed out after 20 min. The changes in the electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons were measured during and 30 min after EA using whole cell patch clamp recording...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136106/cell-type-specific-burst-firing-interacts-with-theta-and-beta-activity-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-attention-states
#2
B Voloh, T Womelsdorf
Population-level theta and beta band activity in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (ACC/PFC) are prominent signatures of self-controlled, adaptive behaviors. But how these rhythmic activities are linked to cell-type specific activity has remained unclear. Here, we suggest such a cell-to-systems level linkage. We found that the rate of burst spiking events is enhanced particularly during attention states and that attention-specific burst spikes have a unique temporal relationship to local theta and beta band population-level activities...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135473/controllable-nanoscale-inverted-pyramids-for-high-efficient-quasi-omnidirectional-crystalline-silicon-solar-cells
#3
Haiyuan Xu, Sihua Zhong, Yufeng Zhuang, Wenzhong Shen
Nanoscale inverted pyramid structures (NIPs) have always been regarded as one of the most paramount light management schemes to achieve the extraordinary performance in various devices, especially in solar cells, due to their outstanding antireflection ability with relative lower surface enhancement ratio. However, the current approaches to fabricating the NIPs are complicated and not cost-effective for the massive cell production in the photovoltaic industry. Here, controllable NIPs are fabricated on crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by Ag catalyzed chemical etching and alkaline modification, which is a preferable all-solution-processed method...
November 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126816/effects-of-spermine-and-the-passive-avoidance-learning-pal-following-cerebral-ischemia-in-chicks-association-with-neuroprotection-of-pyramidal-cells
#4
Suleyman Kaplan, M Emin Onger, B Zuhal Altunkaynak, Ebru Elibol, Omur G Deniz, M Önder Karayiğit, Murat Yarım, Cafer Marangoz, Murat Çetin Ragbetli
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning on hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia in the chicks. The study is composed of the pure control (CG), sham (SG) and experimental groups (n=20). Experimental groups (ischemia group, IG and ischemia-spermine group, ISG) were exposed to ischemia for 20min whereas the SG was exposed to sham operation and CG group was not exposed to any operation. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) was applied to the half number of the subjects in each group...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124504/variable-synaptic-strengths-controls-the-firing-rate-distribution-in-feedforward-neural-networks
#5
Cheng Ly, Gary Marsat
Heterogeneity of firing rate statistics is known to have severe consequences on neural coding. Recent experimental recordings in weakly electric fish indicate that the distribution-width of superficial pyramidal cell firing rates (trial- and time-averaged) in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) depends on the stimulus, and also that network inputs can mediate changes in the firing rate distribution across the population. We previously developed theoretical methods to understand how two attributes (synaptic and intrinsic heterogeneity) interact and alter the firing rate distribution in a population of integrate-and-fire neurons with random recurrent coupling...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121962/direct-interaction-with-14-3-3%C3%AE-promotes-surface-expression-of-best1-channel-in-astrocyte
#6
Soo-Jin Oh, Junsung Woo, Young-Sun Lee, Minhee Cho, Eunju Kim, Nam-Chul Cho, Jae-Yong Park, Ae Nim Pae, C Justin Lee, Eun Mi Hwang
BACKGROUND: Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel (CAAC) that is expressed broadly in mammalian tissues including the brain. We have previously reported that Best1 is expressed in hippocampal astrocytes at the distal peri-synaptic regions, called microdomains, right next to synaptic junctions, and that it disappears from the microdomains in Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although Best1 appears to be dynamically regulated, the mechanism of its regulation and modulation is poorly understood...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121216/fast-inhibitory-decay-facilitates-adult-like-temporal-processing-in-layer-5-of-developing-primary-auditory-cortex
#7
Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Dongqin Cai, Miaomiao Liu, Yin Yue, Yiwei Wang, Kexin Yuan
The protracted maturational process of temporal processing in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1) has been extensively studied. Accumulating evidences show that layer 5 (L5) receives direct thalamic inputs as well. How the temporal responses in L5 may developmentally emerge remains unclear. Using in vivo loose-patch recordings in rat A1, we found that putative pyramidal (Pyr) neurons in developing L5 exhibited adult-like stimulus-following ability but less bursting shortly after hearing onset. L5 Pyr neurons in adult A1 exhibited phase-locking similar to L4 neurons, while L5 fast-spiking (FS) neurons showed greater phase-locking at 7 and 12...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118102/phencyclidine-discoordinates-hippocampal-network-activity-but-not-place-fields
#8
Hsin-Yi Kao, Dino Dvořák, EunHye Park, Jana Kenney, Eduard Kelemen, André A Fenton
We used the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP) to investigate the relationships between cognitive behavior, coordinated neural network function and information processing within the hippocampus place cell system. We report in rats that PCP (5mg/kg i.p.) impairs a well-learned hippocampus-dependent place avoidance behavior in rats that requires cognitive control, even when PCP is injected directly into dorsal hippocampus. PCP increases 60-100 Hz medium gamma oscillations in hippocampus CA1 and these increases correlate with the cognitive impairment caused by systemic PCP administration...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114861/kappa-opioid-receptors-regulate-hippocampal-synaptic-homeostasis-and-epileptogenesis
#9
Bridget N Queenan, Raymond L Dunn, Victor R Santos, Yang Feng, Megan N Huizenga, Robert J Hammack, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli, Daniel T S Pak
OBJECTIVE: Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo. METHODS: We previously developed and validated an in vitro assay to visualize the behavior of DG-CA3 synapses and predict functional changes...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114689/development-of-a-microfluidic-platform-integrating-high-resolution-microstructured-biomaterials-to-study-cell-material-interactions
#10
D Barata, E Provaggi, C van Blitterswijk, P Habibovic
Microfluidic screening platforms offer new possibilities for performing in vitro cell-based assays with higher throughput and in a setting that has the potential to closely mimic the physiological microenvironment. Integrating functional biomaterials into such platforms is a promising approach to obtain a deeper insight into the interactions occurring at the cell-material interface. The success of such an approach is, however, largely dependent on the ability to miniaturize the biomaterials as well as on the choice of the assay used to study the cell-material interactions...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112193/transcriptome-alterations-of-prefrontal-cortical-parvalbumin-neurons-in-schizophrenia
#11
J F Enwright Iii, Z Huo, D Arion, J P Corradi, G Tseng, D A Lewis
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This dysfunction is manifest as cognitive deficits that appear to arise from disturbances in gamma frequency oscillations. These oscillations are generated in DLPFC layer 3 (L3) via reciprocal connections between pyramidal cells (PCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons. The density of cortical PV neurons is not altered in SZ, but expression levels of several transcripts involved in PV cell function, including PV, are lower in the disease...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107249/a-chitin-binding-lectin-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-wsmol-impairs-the-digestive-physiology-of-the-mediterranean-flour-larvae-anagasta-kuehniella
#12
Caio Fernando Ramalho de Oliveira, Maiara Celine de Moura, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo
Biotechnological techniques allow the investigation of alternatives to outdated chemical insecticides for crop protection; some investigations have focused on the identification of molecules tailored from nature for this purpose. We, herein, describe the negative effects of water-soluble lectin from Moringa oleifera seeds (WSMoL) on Anagasta kuehniella development. The chitin-binding lectin, WSMoL, impaired the larval weight gain by 50% and affected the activity of the pest's major digestive enzymes. The commitment of the digestive process became evident after controlled digestion studies, where the capacity of protein digestion was compromised by >90%...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107098/corticosteroid-induced-dendrite-loss-and-behavioral-deficiencies-can-be-blocked-by-activation-of-abl2-arg-kinase
#13
Lauren P Shapiro, Mitchell H Omar, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
Stressor exposure induces neuronal remodeling in specific brain regions. Given the persistence of stress-related illnesses, key next steps in determining the contributions of neural structure to mental health are to identify cell types that fail to recover from stressor exposure and to identify "trigger points" and molecular underpinnings of stress-related neural degeneration. We evaluated dendrite arbor structure on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons before, during, and following prolonged exposure to one key mediator of the stress response - corticosterone (cortisol in humans)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104533/cell-type-specific-mrna-dysregulation-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-fragile-x-syndrome-mouse-model
#14
Laura Ceolin, Nathalie Bouquier, Jihane Vitre-Boubaker, Stéphanie Rialle, Dany Severac, Emmanuel Valjent, Julie Perroy, Emma Puighermanal
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder due to the silencing of the Fmr1 gene, causing intellectual disability, seizures, hyperactivity, and social anxiety. All these symptoms result from the loss of expression of the RNA binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which alters the neurodevelopmental program to abnormal wiring of specific circuits. Aberrant mRNAs translation associated with the loss of Fmr1 product is widely suspected to be in part the cause of FXS. However, precise gene expression changes involved in this disorder have yet to be defined...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100630/stress-promotes-drug-seeking-through-glucocorticoid-dependent-endocannabinoid-mobilization-in-the-prelimbic-cortex
#15
Jayme R McReynolds, Elizabeth M Doncheck, Yan Li, Oliver Vranjkovic, Evan N Graf, Daisuke Ogasawara, Benjamin F Cravatt, David A Baker, Qing-Song Liu, Cecilia J Hillard, John R Mantsch
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports suggest that rather than directly driving cocaine use, stress may create a biological context within which other triggers for drug use become more potent. We hypothesize that stress-induced increases in corticosterone "set the stage" for relapse by promoting endocannabinoid-induced attenuation of inhibitory transmission in the prelimbic cortex (PL). METHODS: We have established a rat model for these stage-setting effects of stress. In this model, neither a stressor (electric footshock) nor stress-level corticosterone treatment alone reinstates cocaine seeking following self-administration and extinction, but each treatment potentiates reinstatement in response to an otherwise subthreshold cocaine priming dose (2...
October 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098531/the-ampa-receptor-subunit-glua1-is-required-for-ca1-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-but-is-not-essential-for-synaptic-transmission
#16
Akira Terashima, Young Ho Suh, John T R Isaac
AMPA receptors mediate the majority of excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the mammalian brain and are heterotetramers composed of GluA1-4 subunits. Despite genetic studies, the roles of the subunits in synaptic transmission and plasticity remain controversial. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of cell-specific removal of GluA1 in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using virally-expressed GluA1 shRNA in organotypic slice culture. We show that this shRNA approach produces a rapid, efficient and selective loss of GluA1, and removed > 80% of surface GluA1 from synapses...
November 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097689/marked-bias-towards-spontaneous-synaptic-inhibition-distinguishes-non-adapting-from-adapting-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-barrel-cortex
#17
Ion R Popescu, Kathy Q Le, Rocío Palenzuela, Rebecca Voglewede, Ricardo Mostany
Pyramidal neuron subtypes differ in intrinsic electrophysiology properties and dendritic morphology. However, do different pyramidal neuron subtypes also receive synaptic inputs that are dissimilar in frequency and in excitation/inhibition balance? Unsupervised clustering of three intrinsic parameters that vary by cell subtype - the slow afterhyperpolarization, the sag, and the spike frequency adaptation - split layer 5 barrel cortex pyramidal neurons into two clusters: one of adapting cells and one of non-adapting cells, corresponding to previously described thin- and thick-tufted pyramidal neurons, respectively...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096318/sulforaphane-attenuates-postnatal-proteasome-inhibition-and-improves-spatial-learning-in-adult-mice
#18
Aditya Sunkaria, Supriya Bhardwaj, Aarti Yadav, Avishek Halder, Rajat Sandhir
Proteasomes are known to degrade proteins involved in various processes like metabolism, signal transduction, cell-cycle regulation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Evidence showed that protein degradation has a strong influence on developing neurons as well as synaptic plasticity. Here, we have shown that sulforaphane (SFN) could prevent the deleterious effects of postnatal proteasomal inhibition on spatial reference and working memory of adult mice. One day old Balb/c mice received intracerebroventricular injections of MG132 and SFN...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093363/prenatal-exposure-to-1-bromopropane-causes-delayed-adverse-effects-on-hippocampal-neuronal-excitability-in-the-ca1-subfield-of-rat-offspring
#19
Yukiko Fueta, Toru Ishidao, Susumu Ueno, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Yasunari Kanda, Hajime Hori
OBJECTIVES: Neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) has been reported in occupational exposure, but whether the chemical exerts developmental neurotoxicity is unknown. We studied the effects of prenatal 1-BP exposure on neuronal excitability in rat offspring. METHODS: We exposed dams to 1-BP (700 ppm, 6 h a day for 20 days) and examined hippocampal slices obtained from the male offspring at 2, 5, 8, and 13 weeks of age. We measured the stimulation/response (S/R) relationship and paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) of the population spike (PS) at the interpulse intervals (IPIs) of 5 and 10 ms in the CA1 subfield...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082100/analysis-of-poration-induced-changes-in-cells-from-laser-activated-plasmonic-substrates
#20
Nabiha Saklayen, Stefan Kalies, Marinna Madrid, Valeria Nuzzo, Marinus Huber, Weilu Shen, Jasmine Sinanan-Singh, Dag Heinemann, Alexander Heisterkamp, Eric Mazur
Laser-exposed plasmonic substrates permeabilize the plasma membrane of cells when in close contact to deliver cell-impermeable cargo. While studies have determined the cargo delivery efficiency and viability of laser-exposed plasmonic substrates, morphological changes in a cell have not been quantified. We porated myoblast C2C12 cells on a plasmonic pyramid array using a 532-nm laser with 850-ps pulse length and time-lapse fluorescence imaging to quantify cellular changes. We obtain a poration efficiency of 80%, viability of 90%, and a pore radius of 20 nm...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
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