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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811534/distinct-projection-patterns-of-different-classes-of-layer-2-principal-neurons-in-the-olfactory-cortex
#1
Camille Mazo, Julien Grimaud, Yasuyuki Shima, Venkatesh N Murthy, C Geoffrey Lau
The broadly-distributed, non-topographic projections to and from the olfactory cortex may suggest a flat, non-hierarchical organization in odor information processing. Layer 2 principal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) can be divided into 2 subtypes: semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (SP) cells. Although it is known that SL and SP cells receive differential inputs from the olfactory bulb (OB), little is known about their projections to other olfactory regions. Here, we examined axonal projections of SL and SP cells using a combination of mouse genetics and retrograde labeling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809843/tuning-in-the-hippocampal-theta-band-in-vitro-methodologies-for-recording-from-the-isolated-rodent-septohippocampal-circuit
#2
Frédéric Manseau, Sylvain Williams
This protocol outlines the procedures for preparing and recording from the isolated whole hippocampus, of WT and transgenic mice, along with recent improvements in methodologies and applications for the study of theta oscillations. A simple characterization of the isolated hippocampal preparation is presented whereby the relationship between internal hippocampal theta oscillators is examined together with the activity of pyramidal cells, and GABAergic interneurons, of the cornu ammonis-1 (CA1) and subiculum (SUB) areas...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807873/neurophysiologically-informed-markers-of-individual-variability-and-pharmacological-manipulation-of-human-cortical-gamma
#3
A D Shaw, R J Moran, S D Muthukumaraswamy, J Brealy, D E Linden, K J Friston, K D Singh
The ability to quantify synaptic function at the level of cortical microcircuits from non-invasive data would be enormously useful in the study of neuronal processing in humans and the pathophysiology that attends many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we provide proof of principle that one can estimate inter-and intra-laminar interactions among specific neuronal populations using induced gamma responses in the visual cortex of human subjects - using dynamic causal modelling based upon the canonical microcircuit (CMC; a simplistic model of a cortical column)...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801086/slowly-progressive-leukodystrophy-in-an-adolescent-male-with-phosphoglycerate-kinase-deficiency
#4
Shimpei Baba, Ayumi Kobayashi, Haruna Yokoyama, Kengo Moriyama, Ayako Kashimada, Jun Oyama, Ayako Owada, Shoichi Oyama, Tomohiro Morio, Masatoshi Takagi
We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency who had slowly progressive leukodystrophy during adolescence. The patient had a history of severe neonatal jaundice, hemolytic crisis with rhabdomyolysis triggered by febrile viral infections, dysarthria, and intellectual disability during early childhood. Clumsiness in walking and writing became obvious at ∼10years of age. Evaluations performed by us on the 18-year-old patient confirmed the presence of pyramidal tract signs, increased muscle tone, and generalized dystonia...
August 8, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792751/transformation-of-structure-electrical-conductivity-and-magnetism-in-aa-fe2o6-%C3%AE-a-sr-ca-and-a-sr
#5
Ram Krishna Hona, Ashfia Huq, Suresh Mulmi, Farshid Ramezanipour
The ability to control electrical properties and magnetism by varying the crystal structure using the effect of the A-site cation in oxygen-deficient perovskites has been studied in AA'Fe2O6-δ, where A = Sr, Ca and A' = Sr. The structure of Sr2Fe2O6-δ, synthesized at 1250 °C in air, contains dimeric units of FeO5 square pyramids separated by FeO6 octahedra. Here we show that this ordering scheme can be transformed by changing the A-site cations from Sr to Ca. This leads to a structure where layers of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra are separated by chains of FeO4 tetrahedra...
August 9, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791395/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-inhibits-the-damage-of-rat-hippocampal-neurons-by-tlr4-myd88-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#6
Keyan Chen, Yingjie Sun, Yugang Diao, Liu Ji, Dandan Song, Tiezheng Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist on the damage of hippocampal neurons and the expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (Myd88)/nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signal pathway‑associated factors in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham operation (Sham); CPB; CPB + α7nAChR agonist PHA568487 (PHA); CPB + α7nAChR inhibitor MLA (MLA); and CPB + PHA568487 + TLR4 antagonist (CPT)...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791333/combining-theory-model-and-experiment-to-explain-how-intrinsic-theta-rhythms-are-generated-in-an-in-vitro-whole-hippocampus-preparation-without-oscillatory-inputs
#7
Katie A Ferguson, Alexandra P Chatzikalymniou, Frances K Skinner
Scientists have observed local field potential theta rhythms (3-12 Hz) in the hippocampus for decades, but understanding the mechanisms underlying their generation is complicated by their diversity in pharmacological and frequency profiles. In addition, interactions with other brain structures and oscillatory drives to the hippocampus during distinct brain states has made it difficult to identify hippocampus-specific properties directly involved in theta generation. To overcome this, we develop cellular-based network models using a whole hippocampus in vitro preparation that spontaneously generates theta rhythms...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790895/brain-metal-distribution-and-neuro-inflammatory-profiles-after-chronic-vanadium-administration-and-withdrawal-in-mice
#8
Oluwabusayo R Folarin, Amanda M Snyder, Douglas G Peters, Funmilayo Olopade, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime. This work was designed to ascertain neurodegenerative consequences of chronic vanadium administration and to investigate the progressive changes in the brain after withdrawal from vanadium treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777576/a-chiral-thiophene-sulfonamide-a-challenge-for-voa-calculations
#9
Joanna E Rode, Jan Cz Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Lyczko, Aleksandra Wasiewicz, Dorota Kaczorek, Robert Kawęcki, Grzegorz Zajac, Malgorzata Baranska
Two enantiomers of 2-methyl-N-(1-thien-2-ylethyl)propane-2-sulfonamide (TSA), were synthesized and their VCD, ROA, IR, and Raman spectra were registered. The solved (S)-TSA X-ray structure shows a disorder connected to the presence of two TSA conformers differing by a slight rotation of the thiophene ring. Two molecules in the units cell of monoclinic P21 crystal form a net of NH∙∙∙OS and C*H∙∙∙OS hydrogen bonds. Out of a series of computational levels tested to interpret the spectra, the B3LYP functional combined with the def2TZVP basis set satisfactorily reproduces the experimental VCD and ROA spectra...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776570/non-canonical-regulation-of-spl-transcription-factors-by-a-human-otub1-like-deubiquitinase-defines-a-new-plant-type-rice-associated-with-higher-grain-yield
#10
Shuansuo Wang, Kun Wu, Qian Qian, Qian Liu, Qi Li, Yajun Pan, Yafeng Ye, Xueying Liu, Jing Wang, Jianqing Zhang, Shan Li, Yuejin Wu, Xiangdong Fu
Achieving increased grain productivity has long been the overriding focus of cereal breeding programs. The ideotype approach has been used to improve rice yield potential at the International Rice Research Institute and in China. However, the genetic basis of yield-related traits in rice remains unclear. Here, we show that a major quantitative trait locus, qNPT1, acts through the determination of a 'new plant type' (NPT) architecture characterized by fewer tillers, sturdier culms and larger panicles, and it encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme with homology to human OTUB1...
August 4, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773094/plasmonic-light-scattering-in-textured-silicon-solar-cells-with-indium-nanoparticles-from-normal-to-non-normal-light-incidence
#11
Wen-Jeng Ho, Jian-Cheng Lin, Jheng-Jie Liu, Chien-Wu Yeh, Hong-Jhang Syu, Ching-Fuh Lin
In this study, we sought to improve the light trapping of textured silicon solar cells using the plasmonic light scattering of indium nanoparticles (In NPs) of various dimensions. The light trapping modes of textured-silicon surfaces with and without In NPs were investigated at an angle of incidence (AOI) ranging from 0° to 75°. The optical reflectance, external quantum efficiency (EQE), and photovoltaic performance were first characterized under an AOI of 0°. We then compared the EQE and photovoltaic current density-voltage (J-V) as a function of AOI in textured silicon solar cells with and without In NPs...
July 1, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772121/cell-type-specific-translation-profiling-reveals-a-novel-strategy-for-treating-fragile-x-syndrome
#12
Sophie R Thomson, Sang S Seo, Stephanie A Barnes, Susana R Louros, Melania Muscas, Owen Dando, Caoimhe Kirby, David J A Wyllie, Giles E Hardingham, Peter C Kind, Emily K Osterweil
Excessive mRNA translation downstream of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) is a core pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome (FX); however, the differentially translating mRNAs that contribute to altered neural function are not known. We used translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) and RNA-seq to identify mistranslating mRNAs in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the FX mouse model (Fmr1(-/y)) hippocampus, which exhibit exaggerated mGlu1/5-induced long-term synaptic depression (LTD). In these neurons, we find that the Chrm4 transcript encoding muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M4) is excessively translated, and synthesis of M4 downstream of mGlu5 activation is mimicked and occluded...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769959/introgression-of-black-rot-resistance-from-brassica-carinata-to-cauliflower-brassica-oleracea-botrytis-group-through-embryo-rescue
#13
Brij B Sharma, Pritam Kalia, Dinesh Singh, Tilak R Sharma
Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10-50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower "Pusa Sharad" and Ethiopian mustard "NPC-9" employing in vitro embryo rescue technique...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766957/immunohistochemical-detection-of-c9orf72-protein-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-motor-neurone-disease-patterns-of-immunostaining-and-an-evaluation-of-commercial-antibodies
#14
Yvonne S Davidson, Andrew C Robinson, Sara Rollinson, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Shangxi Xiao, Janice Robertson, David M A Mann
We have employed as 'gold standards' two in-house, well-characterised and validated polyclonal antibodies, C9-L and C9-S, which detect the longer and shorter forms of C9orf72, and have compared seven other commercially available antibodies with these in order to evaluate the utility of the latter as credible tools for the demonstration of C9orf72. C9-L and C9-S antibodies immunostained cytoplasmic 'speckles', and the nuclear membrane, respectively, in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and in patients with ALS alone...
August 2, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764767/monoamine-oxidase-b-is-elevated-in-alzheimer-disease-neurons-is-associated-with-%C3%AE-secretase-and-regulates-neuronal-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-levels
#15
Sophia Schedin-Weiss, Mitsuhiro Inoue, Lenka Hromadkova, Yasuhiro Teranishi, Natsuko Goto Yamamoto, Birgitta Wiehager, Nenad Bogdanovic, Bengt Winblad, Anna Sandebring-Matton, Susanne Frykman, Lars O Tjernberg
BACKGROUND: Increased levels of the pathogenic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), released from its precursor by the transmembrane protease γ-secretase, are found in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. Interestingly, monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity is also increased in AD brain, but its role in AD pathogenesis is not known. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that the increased MAO-B expression in AD brain starts several years before the onset of the disease. Here, we show a potential connection between MAO-B, γ-secretase and Aβ in neurons...
August 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762469/impairment-of-gabaergic-system-contributes-to-epileptogenesis-in-glutaric-acidemia-type-i
#16
Mayara Vendramin Pasquetti, Letícia Meier, Samanta Loureiro, Marcelo Ganzella, Bernardo Junges, Letícia Barbieri Caus, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, David M Koeller, Stephen Goodman, Michael Woontner, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto
OBJECTIVES: Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) and characterized by increased levels of glutaric, 3-OH-glutaric, and glutaconic acids in the brain parenchyma. The increment of these organic acids inhibits glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and consequently lowers the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis. Untreated patients exhibit severe neurologic deficits during development, including epilepsy, especially following an acute encephalopathy outbreak...
August 1, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760863/acute-increases-in-protein-o-glcnacylation-dampen-epileptiform-activity-in-hippocampus
#17
L T Stewart, A U Khan, K Wang, D Pizarro, S Pati, S C Buckingham, M L Olsen, J C Chatham, L L McMahon
O-GlcNAcylation is a ubiquitous and dynamic posttranslational modification involving the O-linkage of β-N-acetylglucosamine to serine/threonine residues of membrane, cytosolic, and nuclear proteins. This modification is similar to phosphorylation, and regarded as a key regulator of cell survival and homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that phosphorylation of serine residues on synaptic proteins is a major regulator of synaptic strength and long-term plasticity, suggesting O-GlcNAcylation of synaptic proteins is likely as important as phosphorylation; however, few studies have investigated its role in synaptic efficacy...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760861/feedback-inhibition-shapes-emergent-computational-properties-of-cortical-microcircuit-motifs
#18
Zeno Jonke, Robert Legenstein, Stefan Habenschuss, Wolfgang Maass
Cortical microcircuits are very complex networks, but they are composed of a relatively small number of stereotypical motifs. Hence one strategy for throwing light on the computational function of cortical microcircuits is to analyze emergent computational properties of these stereotypical microcircuit motifs. We are addressing here the question how spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) shapes the computational properties of one motif that has frequently been studied experimentally: interconnected populations of pyramidal cells and parvalbumin-positive inhibitory cells in layer 2/3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757051/physiological-and-pharmacological-properties-of-inhibitory-postsynaptic-currents-mediated-by-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-2-gabaa-receptors
#19
Xiumin Chen, Angelo Keramidas, Joseph W Lynch
α5-containing GABAARs are potential therapeutic targets for clinical conditions including age-related dementia, stroke, schizophrenia, Down syndrome, anaesthetic-induced amnesia, anxiety and pain. α5-containing GABAARs are expressed in layer 5 cortical neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons where they mediate both tonic currents and slow inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). A range of drugs has been developed to specifically modulate these receptors. The main α5-containing GABAARs that are likely to exist in vivo are the α5β1γ2, α5β2γ2 and α5β3γ2 isoforms...
July 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756117/synaptic-integration-in-cortical-inhibitory-neuron-dendrites
#20
REVIEW
Hua Hu, Koen Vervaeke
Cortical inhibitory interneurons have a wide range of important functions, including balancing network excitation, enhancing spike-time precision of principal neurons, and synchronizing neural activity within and across brain regions. All these functions critically depend on the integration of synaptic inputs in their dendrites. But the sparse number of inhibitory cells, their small caliber dendrites, and the problem of cell-type identification, have prevented fast progress in analyzing their dendritic properties...
July 26, 2017: Neuroscience
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