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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#1
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636006/copper-ion-interaction-with-the-rnase-catalytic-site-fragment-of-the-angiogenin-protein-an-experimental-and-theoretical-investigation
#2
Antonio Magrì, Giovanni Tabbì, Raffaella Breglia, Luca De Gioia, Piercarlo Fantucci, Maurizio Bruschi, Raffaele P Bonomo, Diego La Mendola
The angiogenin protein (Ang) is a member of the vertebrate-specific secreted ribonucleases and one of the most potent angiogenic factors known. Ang is a normal constituent of human plasma and its concentration increases under some physiological and pathological conditions to promote neovascularization. Ang was originally identified as an angiogenic tumour factor, but its biological activity has been found to extend from inducing angiogenesis to promoting cell survival in different neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631579/opening-of-katp-channel-regulates-tonic-currents-from-pyramidal-neurons-in-rat-brain
#3
Zhongxia Li, Jiangping Wang, Huimin Yu, Kewen Jiang
BACKGROUND: ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels couple metabolic state to cellular excitability. Activation of neuronal and astrocytic mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channels regulates a variety of neuronal functions. However, less is known about the impact of mitoKATP on tonic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition. Tonic GABA inhibition is mediated by the binding of ambient GABA on extrasynaptic GABA A-type receptors (GABAARs) and is involved in regulating neuronal excitability. METHODS: We determined the impact of activation of KATP channels with diazoxide (DIZ) on tonic inhibition and recorded tonic current from rat cortical layer 5 pyramidal cells by patch-clamp recordings...
June 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629847/evidence-for-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulation-of-axon-terminals-and-dendrites-in-the-rodent-basolateral-amygdala-an-ultrastructural-and-electrophysiological-analysis
#4
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629541/stress-and-loss-of-adult-neurogenesis-differentially-reduce-hippocampal-volume
#5
Timothy J Schoenfeld, Hayley C McCausland, H Douglas Morris, Varun Padmanaban, Heather A Cameron
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume loss is a hallmark of clinical depression. Chronic stress produces volume loss in the hippocampus in humans and atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cells and suppression of adult neurogenesis in rodents. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between decreased adult neurogenesis and stress-induced changes in hippocampal structure and volume, we compared the effects of chronic unpredictable restraint stress and inhibition of neurogenesis in a rat pharmacogenetic model...
May 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625609/oxidative-stress-induced-by-cumene-hydroperoxide-produces-synaptic-depression-and-transient-hyperexcitability-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-neurons
#6
R Pardillo-Diaz, L Carrascal, G Barrionuevo, P Nunez-Abades
Pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex are selectively degenerated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms underlying neuronal death in ALS are not well established. In the absence of useful biomarkers, the early increased neuronal excitability seems to be the unique characteristic of ALS. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress has been postulated as one of the possible mechanisms involved in degeneration motor cortex pyramidal neurons. This paper examines the effect of lipid peroxidation on layer V pyramidal neurons induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH) in brain slices from wild type rats...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624616/age-related-plasticity-of-the-axon-initial-segment-of-cortical-pyramidal-cells-in-marmoset-monkeys
#7
Nafiseh Atapour, Marcello G P Rosa
Structural plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS), the site of action potential initiation, is observed as part of the normal early development of the cortex, as well as in association with injury and disease. Here, we show that structural AIS plasticity also occurs with normal aging in adult marmosets. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to reveal the extent of the AIS of layer 2/3A pyramidal cells in 8 neocortical areas. We found that the AIS length varied significantly between areas in young adult (2-3 years old) marmosets, with neurons in frontal area 14C having the longest AIS, and those in the primary visual cortex the shortest...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624573/plasticity-of-intrinsic-firing-response-gain-in-principal-hippocampal-neurons-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#8
Idit Tamir, Moshe Daninos, Yoel Yaari
OBJECTIVE: In experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), brain neurons manifest multiple changes in intrinsic excitability that contribute to neuronal network hyperexcitability. We have investigated whether the intrinsic firing response gain, quantified by the slope of the function relating the number of evoked spikes (Ns) to input excitatory current intensity (I), is modified in principal rat hippocampal neurons in the pilocarpine-status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE. METHODS: Intracellular recordings were made in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and dentate granule cells (GCs) in acute hippocampal slices obtained 7-36 days after pilocarpine-SE...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623920/ketamine-induced-apoptosis-in-the-mouse-cerebral-cortex-follows-similar-characteristic-of-physiological-apoptosis-and-can-be-regulated-by-neuronal-activity
#9
Qi Wang, Feng-Yan Shen, Rong Zou, Jing-Jing Zheng, Xiang Yu, Ying-Wei Wang
The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is important to determine whether anesthesia-induced apoptosis targets the same cell population as physiological apoptosis or different cell types altogether. To provide an adequate plane of surgery, ketamine was co-administered with dexmedetomidine. The apoptotic neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were quantitated by immunohistochemistry...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618650/anti-amnesic-effects-of-ganoderma-species-a-possible-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-mechanism
#10
Ravneet Kaur, Varinder Singh, Richa Shri
Mushrooms are valued for their nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Ganoderma species are used traditionally to treat neurological disorders but scientific evidence for this is insufficient. The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the anti-amnesic effect of selected Ganoderma species i.e. G. mediosinense and G. ramosissimum. Extracts of selected mushroom species were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition using in-vitro assays (DPPH and Ellman tests respectively)...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610336/first-record-of-a-new-epibionts-suctorian-ciliate-tokophrya-huangmeiensis-sp-n-ciliophora-phyllopharyngea-from-redclaw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus-von-martens-1868
#11
Urfa Bin Tahir, Qiong Deng, Sen Li, Yang Liu, Zhe Wang, Zemao Gu
A new suctorian ciliate, Tokophrya huangmeiensis sp. n. was isolated from the carapace of redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, during investigation of fish ciliates diversity in freshwater aquaculture of Hubei, China. The zooids of newly isolated ciliate were found aggregated into colonies on stalks of another ciliate Epistylis. The adults of this newly found species were characterized by an elongated pyramidal shaped and corrugated cell body with two fascicles of tentacles on the apical part of cell body...
May 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608461/epidermal-growth-factor-signals-attenuate-phenotypic-and-functional-development-of-neocortical-gaba-neurons
#12
Hisaaki Namba, Tadasato Nagano, Eiichi Jodo, Satoshi Eifuku, Masao Horie, Hirohide Takebayashi, Yuriko Iwakura, Hidekazu Sotoyama, Nobuyuki Takei, Hiroyuki Nawa
Phenotypic development of neocortical GABA neurons is highly plastic and promoted by various neurotrophic factors such as neuregulin-1. A subpopulation of GABA neurons expresses not only neuregulin receptor (ErbB4) but also epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (ErbB1) during development, but the neurobiological action of EGF on this cell population is less understood than that of neuregulin-1. Here we examined the effects of exogenous EGF on immature GABA neurons both in culture and in vivo and also explored physiological consequences in adults...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607422/morphology-controls-how-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neuron-responds-to-uniform-electric-fields-a-biophysical-modeling-study
#13
Guo-Sheng Yi, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Xi-Le Wei
Responses of different neurons to electric field (EF) are highly variable, which depends on intrinsic properties of cell type. Here we use multi-compartmental biophysical models to investigate how morphologic features affect EF-induced responses in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. We find that the basic morphologies of neuronal elements, including diameter, length, bend, branch, and axon terminals, are all correlated with somatic depolarization through altering the current sources or sinks created by applied field...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603024/functional-research-and-molecular-mechanism-of-kainic-acid-induced-denitrosylation-of-thioredoxin-1-in-rat-hippocampus
#14
Hongning Yang, Ningjun Zhao, Lanxin Lv, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Tie Xu
Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) has long been recognized as a redox regulator, and is implicated in the inhibition of cell apoptosis. Trx1 is essential for the maintenance of the S-nitrosylation of molecules in cells. The S-nitrosylation of Trx1 is essential for the physiological function such as preservation of the redox regulatory activity. The mechanisms underlying Trx1 denitrosylation induced by kainate acid (KA) injection still remain uncharacterized. Our results showed that the S-nitrosylation levels of Trx1 were decreased subsequent to KA injection and that the glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) antagonist NS102 could inhibit the denitrosylation of Trx1...
June 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602612/lineage-reprogramming-of-astroglial-cells-from-different-origins-into-distinct-neuronal-subtypes
#15
Malek Chouchane, Ana Raquel Melo de Farias, Daniela Maria de Sousa Moura, Markus Michael Hilscher, Timm Schroeder, Richardson Naves Leão, Marcos Romualdo Costa
Astroglial cells isolated from the rodent postnatal cerebral cortex are particularly susceptible to lineage reprogramming into neurons. However, it remains unknown whether other astroglial populations retain the same potential. Likewise, little is known about the fate of induced neurons (iNs) in vivo. In this study we addressed these questions using two different astroglial populations isolated from the postnatal brain reprogrammed either with Neurogenin-2 (Neurog2) or Achaete scute homolog-1 (Ascl1). We show that cerebellum (CerebAstro) and cerebral cortex astroglia (CtxAstro) generates iNs with distinctive neurochemical and morphological properties...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599322/monoamine-oxidase-a-upregulated-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-activates-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-neurodegeneration
#16
Chun-Sing Lam, Jing-Jie Li, George Lim Tipoe, Moussa B H Youdim, Man-Lung Fung
Co-morbid depression is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Here we report that monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) plays pathogenic roles in the comorbidity. We found that chronic intermittent hypoxia significantly increased the MAO-A expression in the rat hippocampus and markedly decreased the dendritic length and spine density in the pyramidal neurons with less pre- and post-synaptic proteins. The MAO-A upregulation resulted in increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/serotonin ratio, oxidative stress, leading to NF-κB activation, inflammation and apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597663/enhancement-of-light-absorption-in-photovoltaic-devices-using-textured-polydimethylsiloxane-stickers
#17
Inchan Hwang, Deokjae Choi, Sojeong Lee, Ji Hoon Seo, Ka-Hyun Kim, Ilsun Yoon, Kwanyong Seo
We designed and fabricated a random-size inverted-pyramid-structured polydimethylsiloxane (RSIPS-PDMS) sticker to enhance the light absorption of solar cells and thus increase their efficiency. The fabricated sticker was laminated onto bare glass and crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces; consequently, low solar-weighted reflectance values were obtained for these surfaces (6.88 and 17.2%, respectively). In addition, we found that incident light was refracted at the PDMS-air interface of each RSIPS, which redirected the incident power and significantly increased the optical path length in the RSIPS-PDMS sticker which was 14...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594961/pirb-regulates-asymmetries-in-hippocampal-circuitry
#18
Hikari Ukai, Aiko Kawahara, Keiko Hirayama, Matthew Julian Case, Shotaro Aino, Masahiro Miyabe, Ken Wakita, Ryohei Oogi, Michiyo Kasayuki, Shihomi Kawashima, Shunichi Sugimoto, Kanako Chikamatsu, Noritaka Nitta, Tsuneyuki Koga, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Toshiyuki Takai, Isao Ito
Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain structure; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry remains unclear. We recently identified structural and functional asymmetries in mouse hippocampal circuitry that result from the asymmetrical distribution of two distinct populations of pyramidal cell synapses that differ in the density of the NMDA receptor subunit GluRε2 (also known as NR2B, GRIN2B or GluN2B). By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we previously found that β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which lack cell surface expression of the vast majority of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) proteins, do not exhibit circuit asymmetry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592819/spatial-and-temporal-boundaries-of-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-leading-to-schizophrenia
#19
Kazu Nakazawa, Vivek Jeevakumar, Kazuhito Nakao
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction is one of the most prevalent models of schizophrenia. For example, healthy subjects treated with uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists elicit positive, negative, and cognitive-like symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, which is likely caused by autoantibody-mediated down-regulation of cell surface N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, often experience psychiatric symptoms similar to schizophrenia initially...
February 3, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592691/all-for-one-but-not-one-for-all-excitatory-synaptic-scaling-and-intrinsic-excitability-are-coregulated-by-camkiv-while-inhibitory-synaptic-scaling-is-under-independent-control
#20
Annelise Joseph, Gina G Turrigiano
Neocortical circuits utilize a family of homeostatic plasticity mechanisms to stabilize firing, including excitatory and inhibitory synaptic scaling and homeostatic intrinsic plasticity (Turrigiano and Nelson, 2004). All three mechanisms can be induced in tandem in cultured rat neocortical pyramidal neurons by chronic manipulations of firing, but it is unknown whether they are co-induced by the same activity-sensors and signaling pathways, or whether they are under independent control. CaMKIV is a key sensory/effector in excitatory synaptic scaling that senses perturbations in firing through changes in calcium influx, and translates this into compensatory changes in excitatory quantal amplitude (Goold and Nicoll, 2010; Ibata et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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