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Brain Derived Growth Factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905259/regenerative-pharmacology-recent-developments-and-future-perspectives
#1
James Koudy Williams, Karl-Erik Andersson
This review focuses on the current status of research that utilizes the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize and characterize the development, maturation and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues. These regenerative pharmacologic approaches have been applied to diseases of the urogenital tract, the heart, the brain, the musculoskeletal system and diabetes. Approaches have included the use of growth factors (such as VEGF and chemokines (stromal-derived factor - CXCL12) to mobilize cell to the sights of tissue loss or damage...
December 1, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888226/single-cell-sequencing-maps-gene-expression-to-mutational-phylogenies-in-pdgf-and-egf-driven-gliomas
#2
Sören Müller, Siyuan John Liu, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Martina Malatesta, Alex A Pollen, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Gary Kohanbash, Manish Aghi, Arnold R Kriegstein, Daniel A Lim, Aaron Diaz
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors are frequently amplified and/or possess gain-of-function mutations in GBM However, clinical trials of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors have shown disappointing efficacy, in part due to intra-tumor heterogeneity. To assess the effect of clonal heterogeneity on gene expression, we derived an approach to map single-cell expression profiles to sequentially acquired mutations identified from exome sequencing...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888042/changes-in-neurotrophic-and-inflammatory-factors-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-postherpetic-neuralgia
#3
Wenxing Zhao, Yong Wang, Qiwu Fang, Jianping Wu, Xinyou Gao, Hui Liu, Liu Cao, Jianxiong An
Inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are involved in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but the association of these factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the level of pain is poorly known. The present study aimed to examine the changes in neurotrophic and inflammatory factors in the CSF of patients with PHN and to study the correlation between these factors and the degree of pain. Fifty patients with PHN and 28 patients with hemifacial spasm (as controls) were recruited between May 2015 and March 2016...
November 23, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886020/cranial-electrotherapy-stimulation-affects-mood-state-but-not-levels-of-peripheral-neurotrophic-factors-or-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation
#4
Hee-Tae Roh, Wi-Young So
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is reported to aid in relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety, though the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and levels of neurotrophic factors, as well as changes in mood state, in patients undergoing CES therapy. Fifty healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to either a Sham CES group (n = 25) or an Active CES group (n = 25)...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882487/delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-to-inhibit-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-zebrafish-using-natural-brain-endothelia-cell-secreted-exosome-nanovesicles-for-the-treatment-of-brain-cancer
#5
Tianzhi Yang, Brittany Fogarty, Bret LaForge, Salma Aziz, Thuy Pham, Leanne Lai, Shuhua Bai
Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great therapeutic promise, its delivery to the disease site remains a paramount obstacle. In this study, we tested whether brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in zebrafish. Natural exosomes were isolated from brain endothelial bEND.3 cell culture media and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA was loaded in exosomes with the assistance of a transfection reagent. While fluorescence-activated cell flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining studies indicated that wild-type exosomes significantly increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA in the autologous brain endothelial cells, decreased fluorescence intensity was observed in the cells treated with the tetraspanin CD63 antibody-blocked exosome-delivered formulation (p < 0...
November 23, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877109/npas3-regulates-transcription-and-expression-of-vgf-implications-for-neurogenesis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#6
Dongxue Yang, Wenbo Zhang, Arshad Padhiar, Yao Yue, Yonghui Shi, Tiezheng Zheng, Kaspar Davis, Yu Zhang, Min Huang, Yuyuan Li, Li Sha
Neuronal PAS domain protein 3 (NPAS3) and VGF (VGF Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Inducible) are important for neurogenesis and psychiatric disorders. Previously, we have demonstrated that NPAS3 regulates VGF at the transcriptional level. In this study, VGF (non-acronymic) was found regulated by NPAS3 in neuronal stem cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this regulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of NPAS3 and VGF, and their roles in neural cell proliferation, in the context of psychiatric illnesses...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874848/the-human-bdnf-gene-peripheral-gene-expression-and-protein-levels-as-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
A Cattaneo, N Cattane, V Begni, C M Pariante, M A Riva
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the survival and growth of neurons, and influences synaptic efficiency and plasticity. The human BDNF gene consists of 11 exons, and distinct BDNF transcripts are produced through the use of alternative promoters and splicing events. The majority of the BDNF transcripts can be detected not only in the brain but also in the blood cells, although no study has yet investigated the differential expression of BDNF transcripts at the peripheral level. This review provides a description of the human BDNF gene structure as well as a summary of clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders...
November 22, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867514/hepatitis-c-virus-drives-the-pathogenesis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-immune-evasion-to-carcinogenesis
#8
Miriam Canavese, Danushka Wijesundara, Guy J Maddern, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Ehud Hauben
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary malignancy of the liver with over half a million new cases diagnosed annually worldwide. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor and its activation by environmental chemicals and by its endogenous ligand kynurenine (Kyn) has been implicated in a variety of tumour-promoting processes such as transformation, tumorigenesis and in immunosuppression that enables tumour survival and growth...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866373/involvement-of-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-through-pi3-k-akt-in-cerebral-ischemia-induced-neurogenesis-in-rats
#9
Keishi Kisoh, Hideki Hayashi, Tsuyoshi Itoh, Mayumi Asada, Miho Arai, Bo Yuan, Kouichi Tanonaka, Norio Takagi
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, which is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, regulates various cellular processes including gene expression, cell proliferation, and differentiation. However, involvement of GSK-3β in cerebral ischemia-induced endogenous neurogenesis is not yet fully understood. Appropriate strategies to prevent ischemic cell damage and subsequent severe sequelae are needed. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between pathophysiological alteration of the GSK-3β signaling pathway and cerebral ischemia-induced endogenous neurogenesis in rats...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865962/pharmacologically-active-microcarriers-delivering-bdnf-within-a-hydrogel-novel-strategy-for-human-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-neural-neuronal-differentiation-guidance-and-therapeutic-secretome-enhancement
#10
Saikrishna Kandalam, Laurence Sindji, Gaëtan J-R Delcroix, Fabien Violet, Xavier Garric, Emilie M André, Paul C Schiller, Marie-Claire Venier-Julienne, Anne des Rieux, Jérôme Guicheux, Claudia N Montero-Menei
: Stem cells combined with biodegradable injectable scaffolds releasing growth factors hold great promises in regenerative medicine, particularly in the treatment of neurological disorders. We here integrated human marrow-isolated adult multilineage-inducible (MIAMI) stem cells and pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) into an injectable non-toxic silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel. The goal is to obtain an injectable non-toxic cell and growth factor delivery device...
November 16, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852622/resetting-cancer-stem-cell-regulatory-nodes-upon-myc-inhibition
#11
Silvia Galardi, Mauro Savino, Fiorella Scagnoli, Serena Pellegatta, Federica Pisati, Federico Zambelli, Barbara Illi, Daniela Annibali, Sara Beji, Elisa Orecchini, Maria Adele Alberelli, Clara Apicella, Rosaria Anna Fontanella, Alessandro Michienzi, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Maria Giulia Farace, Giulio Pavesi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè, Sergio Nasi
MYC deregulation is common in human cancer and has a role in sustaining the aggressive cancer stem cell populations. MYC mediates a broad transcriptional response controlling normal biological programmes, but its activity is not clearly understood. We address MYC function in cancer stem cells through the inducible expression of Omomyc-a MYC-derived polypeptide interfering with MYC activity-taking as model the most lethal brain tumour, glioblastoma. Omomyc bridles the key cancer stemlike cell features and affects the tumour microenvironment, inhibiting angiogenesis...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849590/nanoparticle-engineered-trail-overexpressing-adipose-derived-stem-cells-target-and-eradicate-glioblastoma-via-intracranial-delivery
#12
Xinyi Jiang, Sergio Fitch, Christine Wang, Christy Wilson, Jianfeng Li, Gerald A Grant, Fan Yang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most intractable of human cancers, principally because of the highly infiltrative nature of these neoplasms. Tracking and eradicating infiltrating GBM cells and tumor microsatellites is of utmost importance for the treatment of this devastating disease, yet effective strategies remain elusive. Here we report polymeric nanoparticle-engineered human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) overexpressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as drug-delivery vehicles for targeting and eradicating GBM cells in vivo...
November 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846623/paracrine-mechanisms-of-intravenous-bone-marrow-derived-mononuclear-stem-cells-in-chronic-ischemic-stroke
#13
Ashu Bhasin, M V Padma Srivastava, Sujata Mohanty, Sivasubramaniam Vivekanandhan, Sakshi Sharma, Senthil Kumaran, Rohit Bhatia
BACKGROUND: The emerging role of stem cell technology and transplantation has helped scientists to study their potential role in neural repair and regeneration. The fate of stem cells is determined by their niche, consisting of surrounding cells and the secreted trophic growth factors. This interim report evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy (if any) of bone marrow-derived mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNC) in chronic ischemic stroke by studying the release of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF)...
October 19, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842980/establishment-characterization-and-long-term-culture-of-human-endocrine-pancreas-derived-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#14
Valeria Sordi, Anna Ferri, Valentina Ceserani, Emilio Ciusani, Erica Dugnani, Silvia Pellegrini, Rita Nano, Lorenza Pecciarini, Augusto Pessina, Luisa Pascucci, Lorenzo Piemonti, Giulio Alessandri
BACKGROUND: In vitro primary cultures of microvascular endothelial cells from endocrine pancreas are difficult to obtain, but can be a very helpful tool for studies of islet biology, transplantation and regenerative medicine. METHODS: We applied a protocol recently described for the isolation and culture of brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC) on human pancreatic islets. EC obtained were characterized in terms of morphological (light and transmission electron microscopy), phenotypical (by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry) and functional (cord formation assay and protein secretion by multiplex bead-based assay) characteristics...
November 11, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835870/no-role-of-ifitm3-in-brain-tumor-formation-in-vivo
#15
Nevenka Dudvarski Stankovic, Nicola Hoppmann, Marcin Teodorczyk, Ella L Kim, Matthias Bros, Alf Giese, Frauke Zipp, Mirko H H Schmidt
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal solid tumors in adults. Despite aggressive treatment approaches for patients, GBM recurrence is inevitable, in part due to the existence of stem-like brain tumor-propagating cells (BTPCs), which produce factors rendering them resistant to radio- and chemotherapy. Comparative transcriptome analysis of irradiated, patient-derived BTPCs revealed a significant upregulation of the interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), suggesting the protein as a factor mediating radio resistance...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833584/in-vitro-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neuron-like-cells-by-cerebrospinal-fluid-improves-motor-function-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rats
#16
Ying Ye, Yi-Ran Peng, Shu-Qun Hu, Xian-Liang Yan, Juan Chen, Tie Xu
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) represent a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. However, the majority of BMSC transplants only allow for limited recovery of the lost functions. We previously found that human cerebrospinal fluid (hCSF) is more potent than growth factors in differentiating human BMSCs into neuron-like cells in vitro. In this study, we studied the effect of transplantation of rat BMSC-derived neuron-like cells (BMSC-Ns) induced by hCSF into rat brain with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830379/quantification-of-antiangiogenic-treatment-effects-on-tissue-heterogeneity-in-glioma-tumour-xenograft-model-using-a-combination-of-dce-mri-and-3d-ultramicroscopy
#17
Marco Dominietto, Michael Dobosz, Sandra Bürgi, Anja Renner, Gudrun Zahlmann, Werner Scheuer, Markus Rudin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at assessing the effects of an anti-angiogenic treatment, which neutralises vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on tumour heterogeneity. METHODS: Murine glioma cells have been inoculated into the right brain frontal lobe of 16 mice. Anti-VEGF antibody was administered to a first group (n = 8), while a second group (n = 8) received a placebo. Magnetic resonance acquisitions, performed at days 10, 12, 15 and 23 following the implantation, allowed the derivation of a three-dimensional features dataset characterising tumour heterogeneity...
November 9, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821771/regulation-of-embryonic-neurogenesis-by-germinal-zone-vasculature
#18
Mathew Tata, Ivan Wall, Andy Joyce, Joaquim M Vieira, Nicoletta Kessaris, Christiana Ruhrberg
In the adult rodent brain, new neurons are born in two germinal regions that are associated with blood vessels, and blood vessels and vessel-derived factors are thought to regulate the activity of adult neural stem cells. Recently, it has been proposed that a vascular niche also regulates prenatal neurogenesis. Here we identify the mouse embryo hindbrain as a powerful model to study embryonic neurogenesis and define the relationship between neural progenitor cell (NPC) behavior and vessel growth. Using this model, we show that a subventricular vascular plexus (SVP) extends through a hindbrain germinal zone populated by NPCs whose peak mitotic activity follows a surge in SVP growth...
November 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816964/therapeutic-effects-of-umbilical-cord-blood-plasma-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Jongman Yoo, Han-Soo Kim, Jin-Ju Seo, Jang-Hyoun Eom, Seong-Mi Choi, Sanghyun Park, Dong-Wook Kim, Dong-Youn Hwang
Umbilical cord blood plasma (UCB-PL) contains various cytokines, growth factors, and immune modulatory factors that regulate the proliferation and function of immune cells and adult stem cells. Despite its therapeutic potential, the effects of UCB-PL treatment in conditions of ischemic brain injury have yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that both behavioral and structural impairments resulting from ischemic brain injury were significantly prevented/reversed after intravenous administration of UCB-PL relative to the vehicle control...
October 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813254/microrna-107-is-downregulated-and-having-tumor-suppressive-effect-in-breast-cancer-by-negatively-regulating-bdnf
#20
Bo Gao, Shuai Hao, Wuguo Tian, Yan Jiang, Mei Zhang, Lingjie Guo, Jianjie Zhao, Gang Zhang, Jie Yan, Donglin Luo
PURPOSE: We investigated the possible tumor suppressive effect of microRNA-107 (miR-107) in human breast cancer. METHODS: Gene expression of miR-107 in breast cancer cell lines and clinical breast tissues were evaluated by qRT-PCR. MiR-107 was stably overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells through lentiviral transduction. Its role in regulating in vitro cancer proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and in vivo tumor growth was evaluated by MTT, flow-cytometry, transwell and in vivo tumorigenicity assays, respectively...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Gene Medicine
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