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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938520/galangin-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-by-reversing-the-warburg-effect
#1
Yajun Wang, Biyun Lin, Huimin Li, Liubo Lan, Huajun Yu, Shang Wu, Jun Wu, Haitao Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer. The Warburg effect is an important way by which HCC adapts to a hypoxic environment. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how galangin reverses the Warburg effect in HCC cells. We treated three HCC cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 with galangin for 24h, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured with MTT assay. Glucose uptake, lactate production and the oxygen consumption were measured. Pyruvate kinase activities were detected by measuring the consumption of NADH, and glycolytic pathway-related proteins were measured by Western blotting...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935892/bioenergetic-state-regulates-innate-inflammatory-responses-through-the-transcriptional-co-repressor-ctbp
#2
Yiguo Shen, David Kapfhamer, Angela M Minnella, Ji-Eun Kim, Seok Joon Won, Yanting Chen, Yong Huang, Ley Hian Low, Stephen M Massa, Raymond A Swanson
The innate inflammatory response contributes to secondary injury in brain trauma and other disorders. Metabolic factors such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet, and hyperglycemia influence the inflammatory response, but how this occurs is unclear. Here, we show that glucose metabolism regulates pro-inflammatory NF-κB transcriptional activity through effects on the cytosolic NADH:NAD(+) ratio and the NAD(H) sensitive transcriptional co-repressor CtBP. Reduced glucose availability reduces the NADH:NAD(+) ratio, NF-κB transcriptional activity, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in macrophages and microglia...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935609/novel-insights-into-the-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-alkylhydroperoxide-reductase-subunit-f
#3
Yew Kwang Toh, Asha Manikkoth Balakrishna, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Boon Bin Chionh, Ramya Ramaswamy Chettiyan Seetharaman, Frank Eisenhaber, Birgit Eisenhaber, Gerhard Grüber
The ability of the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (V583) to restore redox homeostasis via antioxidant defense mechanism is of importance, and knowledge into this defense is essential to understand its antibiotic-resistance and survival in hosts. The flavoprotein disulfide reductase AhpR, composed of the subunits AhpC and AhpF, represents one such vital part. Circular permutation was found to be a feature of the AhpF protein family. E. faecalis (V583) AhpF (EfAhpF) appears to be a representative of a minor subclass of this family, the typically N-terminal two-fold thioredoxin-like domain (NTD_N/C) is located at the C-terminus, whereas the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain is encoded in the N-terminal part of its sequence...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935372/structural-insights-into-the-dimer-tetramer-transition-of-fabi-from-bacillus-anthracis
#4
Hyun Tae Kim, Sulhee Kim, Byeong Kwan Na, Jiwoung Chung, Eunha Hwang, Kwang Yeon Hwang
Enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR, also known as FabI) has received considerable interest as an anti-bacterial target due to its essentiality in fatty acid synthesis. All the FabI structures reported to date, regardless of the organism, are composed of homo-tetramers, except for two structures: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus FabI (bcFabI and saFabI, respectively), which have been reported as dimers. However, the reason for the existence of the dimeric form in these organisms and the biological meaning of dimeric and tetrameric forms of FabI are ambiguous...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928432/two-nad-linked-redox-shuttles-maintain-the-peroxisomal-redox-balance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Nadal A Al-Saryi, Murtakab Y Al-Hejjaj, Carlo W T van Roermund, Georgia E Hulmes, Lakhan Ekal, Chantell Payton, Ronald J A Wanders, Ewald H Hettema
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisomes are the sole site of fatty acid β-oxidation. During this process, NAD(+) is reduced to NADH. When cells are grown on oleate medium, peroxisomal NADH is reoxidised to NAD(+) by malate dehydrogenase (Mdh3p) and reduction equivalents are transferred to the cytosol by the malate/oxaloacetate shuttle. The ultimate step in lysine biosynthesis, the NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenation of saccharopine to lysine, is another NAD(+)-dependent reaction performed inside peroxisomes...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926917/chemical-enzymatic-conversion-of-corncob-derived-xylose-to-furfuralcohol-by-the-tandem-catalysis-with-so4-2-sno2-kaoline-and-e-coli-cczu-t15-cells-in-toluene-water-media
#6
Yu-Cai He, Chun-Xia Jiang, Gang-Gang Chong, Jun-Hua Di, Yan-Fei Wu, Bing-Qian Wang, Xin-Xia Xue, Cui-Luan Ma
One-pot synthesis of furfuralcohol from corncob-derived xylose was attempted by the tandem catalysis with solid acid SO4(2-)/SnO2-kaoline and recombination Escherichia coli CCZU-T15 whole-cells in the toluene-water media. Using SO4(2-)/SnO2-kaoline (3.5wt%) as catalyst, the furfural yield of 74.3% was obtained from corncob-derived xylose in the toluene-water (1:2, v:v) containing 10mM OP-10 at 170°C for 30min. After furfural liquor was mixed with corncob-hydrolysate from the enzymatic hydrolysis of oxalic acid-pretreated corncob residue, furfural (50...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923557/a-molecular-approach-towards-taxonomic-identification-of-elasmobranch-species-from-maltese-fisheries-landings
#7
Adriana Vella, Noel Vella, Sarah Schembri
The mitochondrial genome, through the application of DNA barcoding, provides a powerful tool for identifying species even when specimens are either incomplete or belong to species that exhibit cryptic diversity. In fisheries management accurate identification of whole or part of the specimens landed is a fundamental requirement for the conservation of species affected directly or indirectly by the fisheries activities. In this study cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) sequences were used to genetically distinguish 36 elasmobranch species collected from Maltese (Central Mediterranean) commercial fisheries landings...
September 8, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922758/the-role-of-arabidopsis-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-genes-in-response-to-high-temperature-and-stress-combinations
#8
Junyi Zhao, Tagnon D Missihoun, Dorothea Bartels
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that are involved in plant metabolism and contribute to aldehyde homeostasis to eliminate toxic aldehydes. The ALDH enzymes produce NADPH and NADH in their enzymatic reactions and thus contribute to balancing redox equivalents. Previous studies showed that Arabidopsis ALDH genes are expressed in response to high salinity, dehydration, oxidative stress, or heavy metals, suggesting important roles in environmental adaptation. However, the role of ALDH genes in high temperature and stress combinations (heat stress combined with dehydration, wounding, or salt stress) is unclear...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919254/palmitic-acid-stimulates-energy-metabolism-and-inhibits-insulin-pi3k-akt-signaling-in-differentiated-human-neuroblastoma-cells-the-role-of-mtor-activation-and-mitochondrial-ros-production
#9
Erika Calvo-Ochoa, Karina Sánchez-Alegría, Cecilia Gómez-Inclán, Patricia Ferrera, Clorinda Arias
The high consumption of saturated lipids has been largely associated with the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. In particular, saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. However, how neurons develop insulin resistance in response to lipid overload is not fully understood. Here, we used cultured rat cortical neurons and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells to demonstrate that PA blocks insulin-induced metabolic activation, inhibits the activation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt pathway and activates mTOR kinase downstream of Akt...
September 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916475/deletion-of-nadh-oxidase-in-listeria-monocytogenes-promotes-the-bacterial-infection-of-brain
#10
Sen Li, Wenwen Yu, Xiao Guan, Zhen Luo, Guowei Chen, Wukang Liu, Jingchen Zhang
NADH oxidase (NOX) plays important roles in respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cells. In this study, we explored the function of NOX in Listeria monocytogenes by gene deletion. From our results, nox mutant strain (∆nox) had lower H2O2 level and showed no significant alteration in bacteria growth activity. But it had enhanced invasiveness during the invasion of glial cells and mice brain compared to wildtype strain. Furthermore, several virulence genes involved in invasion, such as inlA, inlB, vip and sigB, were upregulated in ∆nox, and the alterations could be restored by complementation...
September 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915384/supramolecular-nano-sniffers-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-formaldehyde
#11
Uchangi Satyaprasad Akshath, Praveena Bhatt
Supramolecular nanoparticle hybrids for biosensing of analytes have been a major focus due to their tunable optical and surface properties. Quantum dots-Gold nanoparticle (QDs-GNP) based FRET probes involving turn on/off principles have gained immense interest due to their specificity and sensitivity. Recent focus is on applying these supramolecular hybrids for enzyme operated biosensors that can specifically turn-on fluorescence induced by co-factor or product formed from enzymatic reaction. The present study focuses on locking and unlocking the interaction between QD-GNP pair leading to differential fluorescent properties...
September 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913159/enzymatic-characterization-of-a-recombinant-carbonyl-reductase-from-acetobacter-sp-cctcc-m209061
#12
Ping Wei, Yu-Han Cui, Min-Hua Zong, Pei Xu, Jian Zhou, Wen-Yong Lou
BACKGROUND: Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 could catalyze carbonyl compounds to chiral alcohols following anti-Prelog rule with excellent enantioselectivity. Therefore, the enzymatic characterization of carbonyl reductase (CR) from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 needs to be investigated. RESULTS: A CR from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 (AcCR) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. AcCR was purified and characterized, finding that AcCR as a dual coenzyme-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) was more preferred to NADH for biocatalytic reactions...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912913/paraneoplastic-dermatomyositis-syndrome-presenting-as-dysphagia
#13
Emmanuel Ofori, Daryl Ramai, Mel Ona, Madhavi Reddy
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare autoimmune condition which predominantly affects females in the fifth and sixth decades of life. DM presents acutely or progressively as painless proximal skeletal muscle weakness and can be associated with a heliotropic rash around the eyes, and Gottron's papules on extensor surfaces of the hands. While the pathophysiology of DM is still unclear, abnormal T- and B-cell immune activity has been reported. DM has been associated with malignancy and has been shown to appear before, concurrently with, or after diagnosis of cancer...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912546/phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-maintains-glycolysis-driven-growth-in-drosophila-tumors
#14
Rashid Hussain, Zeeshan Shaukat, Mahwish Khan, Robert Saint, Stephen L Gregory
Tumors frequently fail to pass on all their chromosomes correctly during cell division, and this chromosomal instability (CIN) causes irregular aneuploidy and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Our objective was to test knockdowns of metabolic enzymes in Drosophila to find interventions that could exploit the differences between normal and CIN cells to block CIN tumor growth without harming the host animal. We found that depleting by RNAi or feeding the host inhibitors against phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was able to block the growth of CIN tissue in a brat tumor explant model...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912539/diphenyleneiodonium-chloride-dpic-displays-broad-spectrum-bactericidal-activity
#15
Manitosh Pandey, Alok Kumar Singh, Ritesh Thakare, Sakshi Talwar, Pratiksha Karaulia, Arunava Dasgupta, Sidharth Chopra, Amit Kumar Pandey
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics globally has lead to an increase in emergence of drug-resistant pathogens under both nosocomial, as well as more worryingly, in community setting as well. Further, a decrease in the corporate interest and financial commitment has exerted increasing pressure on a rapidly dwindling antimicrobial drug discovery and developmental program. In this context, we have screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC, Sigma) against Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to identify potent novel antimicrobial molecules amongst non-antibiotic molecules...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912077/electron-receptor-addition-enhances-butanol-synthesis-in-abe-fermentation-by-clostridium-acetobutylicum
#16
Jian Ding, Hongzhen Luo, Fang Xie, Hao Wang, Meng Xu, Zhongping Shi
The techniques for enhancing butanol production in ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum generally focus on adding electron carrier to strengthen NADH synthesis, repressing hydrogenase by aerating CO, supplementing butyrate, etc. However, those methods suffer from the problems of total solvent decrease, high purification cost, using expensive supplemental substances, etc. In this study, we added small amount of electron receptors (Na2SO4/CaSO4, 2g/L) into ABE fermentation broth: to alter electron/proton distributions in the intracellular electron transport shuttle system, directing more electron/proton pairs into NADH synthesis route; to stimulate intracellular accumulation of those amino acids favorable for cells survival/butanol synthesis...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903764/comparative-assessment-of-fermentative-capacity-of-different-xylose-consuming-yeasts
#17
Henrique César Teixeira Veras, Nádia Skorupa Parachin, João Ricardo Moreira Almeida
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of oxygen levels on yeast xylose metabolism would benefit ethanol production. In this work, xylose fermentative capacity of Scheffersomyces stipitis, Spathaspora passalidarum, Spathaspora arborariae and Candida tenuis was systematically compared under aerobic, oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions. RESULTS: Fermentative performances of the four yeasts were greatly influenced by oxygen availability. S. stipitis and S. passalidarum showed the highest ethanol yields (above 0...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899391/mixomics-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis-effect-of-oxygen-availability-on-riboflavin-production
#18
Junlang Hu, Pan Lei, Ali Mohsin, Xiaoyun Liu, Mingzhi Huang, Liang Li, Jianhua Hu, Haifeng Hang, Yingping Zhuang, Meijin Guo
BACKGROUND: Riboflavin, an intermediate of primary metabolism, is one kind of important food additive with high economic value. The microbial cell factory Bacillus subtilis has already been proven to possess significant importance for the food industry and have become one of the most widely used riboflavin-producing strains. In the practical fermentation processes, a sharp decrease in riboflavin production is encountered along with a decrease in the dissolved oxygen (DO) tension. Influence of this oxygen availability on riboflavin biosynthesis through carbon central metabolic pathways in B...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894951/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-mercuric-reductase-from-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-strain-g1
#19
Amit Bafana, Farha Khan, Kaza Suguna
In response to the widespread presence of inorganic Hg in the environment, bacteria have evolved resistance systems with mercuric reductase (MerA) as the key enzyme. MerA enzymes have still not been well characterized from gram positive bacteria. Current study reports physico-chemical, kinetic and structural characterization of MerA from a multiple heavy metal resistant strain of Lysinibacillus sphaericus, and discusses its implications in bioremediation application. The enzyme was homodimeric with subunit molecular weight of about 60 kDa...
September 11, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890689/integration-between-glycolysis-and-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-flux-may-explain-preferential-glycolytic-increase-during-brain-activation-requiring-glutamate
#20
REVIEW
Leif Hertz, Ye Chen
The 1988 observation by Fox et al. (1988) that brief intense brain activation increases glycolysis (pyruvate formation from glucose) much more than oxidative metabolism has been abundantly confirmed. Specifically glycolytic increase was unexpected because the amount of ATP it generates is much smaller than that formed by subsequent oxidative metabolism of pyruvate. The present article shows that preferential glycolysis can be explained by metabolic processes associated with activation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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