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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813209/galangin-a-natural-flavonoid-reduces-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Amal A Aloud, Chinnadurai Veeramani, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to observe the effect of galangin on damaged mitochondria in the liver of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)). Galangin (8 mg kg(-1) BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg kg(-1) BW) was given orally daily once for 45 days to both healthy and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed significant (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812382/can-elevated-lactate-and-ldh-produce-a-false-positive-enzymatic-ethanol-result-in-live-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department
#2
Nicholas Nacca, Michael J Hodgman, Kirselle Lao, Matthew Elkins, Michael G Holland
BACKGROUND: There have been allegations in the courtroom that elevated serum lactic acid in trauma victims can yield a falsely elevated serum ethanol assay. Most hospitals utilize an indirect method of ethanol measurement where a serum sample is added to a mix of alcohol dehydrogenase and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). This allows any ethanol in the patient's serum to be metabolized to acetaldehyde, and in the process results in the reduction of NAD + to NADH. NADH is then measured using spectrophotometry...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810820/quantitative-label-free-evaluation-of-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-through-multiphoton-microscopy
#3
Brian C Syverud, Mary-Ann Mycek, Lisa Marie Larkin
The lack of tools for assessing engineered tissue viability and function in a non-invasive manner is a major regulatory and translational challenge facing tissue engineers. Label-free, nonlinear optical molecular imaging (OMI) has utilized endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence to indicate metabolic activity. Similarly, second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from myosin and collagen can measure overall muscle structural integrity and function...
August 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808714/a-complicated-biocomputing-system-based-on-multi-responsive-p-nipam-co-apba-copolymer-film-electrodes-and-electrocatalysis-of-nadh
#4
Jiying Liang, Xue Yu, Tiangang Yang, Menglu Li, Li Shen, Yue Jin, Hongyun Liu
In this paper, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-3-aminophenylboronic acid) (P(NIPAM-co-APBA)) copolymer films were successfully electropolymerized on the Au electrode surface. The electroactive probe ferrocene carboxylic acid (FCA) in solution showed reversible thermal-, glucose- and pH-responsive on-off cyclic voltammetric (CV) behaviors at the film electrodes. The comparative experiments demonstrated that the thermo-responsive property of the film electrode was ascribed to the PNIPAM component of the films, whereas the glucose- and pH-sensitive behaviors came from the PAPBA constituent...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808132/defining-electron-bifurcation-in-the-electron-transferring-flavoprotein-family
#5
Amaya M Garcia Costas, Saroj Poudel, Anne-Frances Miller, Gerrit J Schut, Rhesa N Ledbetter, Kathryn R Fixen, Lance C Seefeldt, Michael W W Adams, Caroline S Harwood, Eric S Boyd, John W Peters
Electron bifurcation is the coupling of exergonic and endergonic redox reactions to simultaneously generate (or utilize) low and high potential electrons. It is the third recognized form of energy conservation in biology and has recently been described in select electron transferring flavoproteins (Etfs). Etfs are flavin-containing heterodimers best known for donating electrons derived from fatty acid and amino acid oxidation to an electron transfer respiratory chain via ETF quinone oxidoreductase. Canonical examples contain a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that is involved in electron transfer as well as a non-redox active adenosine monophosphate (AMP)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807773/influence-of-oxidative-stress-on-the-antibacterial-activity-of-betulin-betulinic-acid-and-ursolic-acid
#6
H O B Oloyede, H O Ajiboye, M O Salawu, T O Ajiboye
Contribution of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the antibacterial activities of betulin, betulinic acid and ursolic acid against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of betulin, betulinic acid and ursolic acid against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus are 1024-, 256- and 1024-μg/mL; 512-, 256- and 256 μg/mL; 256-, 256- and 64 μg/mL respectively. Cell viability of betulin-, betulinic acid- and ursolic acid-treated bacteria decrease in time dependent manner...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807341/ultrastructural-examination-of-skin-biopsies-may-assist-in-diagnosing-mitochondrial-cytopathy-when-muscle-biopsies-yield-negative-results
#7
John L McAfee, Christine B Warren, Richard A Prayson
Ultrastructural evaluation of skin biopsies has been utilized for diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. This study investigates how frequently skin biopsies reveal mitochondrial abnormalities, correlates skin and muscle biopsy findings, and describes clinical diagnoses rendered following the evaluation. A retrospective review of surgical pathology reports from 1990 to 2015 identified skin biopsies examined by electron microscopy for suspected metabolic disease. A total of 630 biopsies were included from 615 patients...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806285/peritoneal-cavity-lavage-reduces-the-presence-of-mitochondrial-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-in-open-abdomen-patients
#8
Patricia Angellice Martinez-Quinones, Cameron Grant McCarthy, Caleb J Mentzer, Camilla Ferreira Wenceslau, Steven Barry Holsten, R Clinton Webb, Keith O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs), such as mitochondrial DNA and N-formylated peptides, are endogenous molecules released from tissue after traumatic injury. mtDAMPs are potent activators of the innate immune system. They have similarities with bacteria, which allow mtDAMPs to interact with the same pattern recognition receptors and mediate the development of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS). Current recommendations for management of an open abdomen include returning to the operating room every 48 hours for peritoneal cavity lavage until definitive procedure...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805804/a-genetically-encoded-tool-for-manipulation-of-nadp-nadph-in-living-cells
#9
Valentin Cracan, Denis V Titov, Hongying Shen, Zenon Grabarek, Vamsi K Mootha
The redox coenzymes NADH and NADPH are broadly required for energy metabolism, biosynthesis and detoxification. Despite detailed knowledge of specific enzymes and pathways that utilize these coenzymes, a holistic understanding of the regulation and compartmentalization of NADH- and NADPH-dependent pathways is lacking, partly because of a lack of tools with which to investigate these processes in living cells. We have previously reported the use of the naturally occurring Lactobacillus brevis H2O-forming NADH oxidase (LbNOX) as a genetic tool for manipulation of the NAD(+)/NADH ratio in human cells...
August 7, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803211/melatonin-protects-chondrocytes-from-impairment-induced-by-glucocorticoids-via-nad-dependent-sirt1
#10
Wei Yang, Xiaomin Kang, Na Qin, Feng Li, Xinxin Jin, Zhengmin Ma, Zhuang Qian, Shufang Wu
Intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids is used to relieve pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis patients, which is occasionally accompanied with the serious side effects of glucocorticoids in collagen-producing tissue. Melatonin is the major hormone released from the pineal gland and its beneficial effects on cartilage has been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of melatonin on matrix degeneration in chondrocytes induced by dexamethasone (Dex). The chondrocytes isolated from mice knee joint were treated with Dex, melatonin, EX527 and siRNA targeted for SIRT6, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802880/isobutanol-and-2-ketoisovalerate-production-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-via-a-native-pathway
#11
Jinjie Gu, Jidong Zhou, Zhongxi Zhang, Chul Ho Kim, Biao Jiang, Jiping Shi, Jian Hao
Isobutanol is a valuable chemical and is considered a new generation biofuel. Construction of isobutanol synthesis pathways in bacteria is a hot topic in isobutanol production. Here, we show that an isobutanol synthesis pathway exists naturally in Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, this pathway is dormant in the wild-type bacterium. K. pneumoniae is a 2,3-butanediol producer, and the synthesis pathways of 2,3-butanediol, valine and isobutanol all start from condensation of two pyruvate molecules to yield α-acetolactate...
August 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802267/development-of-a-transient-muts-based-hypermutation-system-for-adaptive-evolution-of-lactobacillus-casei-to-low-ph
#12
Tom J Overbeck, Dennis L Welker, Joanne E Hughes, James L Steele, Jeff R Broadbent
This study explored transient inactivation of the gene encoding the DNA mismatch repair enzyme MutS as a tool for adaptive evolution of Lactobacillus casei MutS deletion derivatives of L. casei 12A and ATCC 334 were constructed and subject to a 100-day adaptive evolution process to increase lactic acid resistance at low pH. Wild-type parental strains were also subject to this treatment. At the end of the process, the ΔmutS lesion was repaired in representative L. casei 12A and ATCC 334 ΔmutS isolates. Growth studies in broth at pH 4...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802265/syntrophomonas-wolfei-uses-a-nadh-dependent-ferredoxin-independent-fefe-hydrogenase-to-reoxidize-nadh
#13
Nathaniel A Losey, Florence Mus, John W Peters, Huynh M Le, Michael J McInerney
Syntrophomonas wolfei syntrophically oxidizes short-chain fatty acids (four to eight carbon in length) when grown in coculture with a hydrogen- and/or formate-using methanogen. The oxidation of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, formed during butyrate metabolism, results in the production of NADH. The enzyme systems involved in NADH reoxidation in S. wolfei are not well understood. The genome of S. wolfei contains a multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase that may be a mechanism for NADH reoxidation. The S. wolfei genes for the multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase (hyd1ABC; SWOL_RS05165, SWOL_RS05170, SWOL_RS05175) and [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation proteins (SWOL_RS05180, SWOL_RS05190, SWOL_RS01625) were co-expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant Hyd1ABC was purified and characterized...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801048/the-key-role-of-glutamate-172-in-the-mechanism-of-type-ii-nadh-quinone-oxidoreductase-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Filipe M Sousa, Filipa V Sena, Ana P Batista, Diogo Athayde, José A Brito, Margarida Archer, A Sofia F Oliveira, Cláudio M Soares, Teresa Catarino, Manuela M Pereira
Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane bound enzymes that deliver electrons to the respiratory chain by oxidation of NADH and reduction of quinones. In this way, these enzymes also contribute to the regeneration of NAD(+), allowing several metabolic pathways to proceed. As for the other members of the two-Dinucleotide Binding Domains Flavoprotein (tDBDF) superfamily, the enzymatic mechanism of NDH-2s is still little explored and elusive. In this work we addressed the role of the conserved glutamate 172 (E172) residue in the enzymatic mechanism of NDH-2 from Staphylococcus aureus...
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795176/h2-driven-biocatalytic-hydrogenation-in-continuous-flow-using-enzyme-modified-carbon-nanotube-columns
#15
Ceren Zor, Holly A Reeve, Jonathan Quinson, Lisa A Thompson, Thomas H Lonsdale, Frank Dillon, Nicole Grobert, Kylie A Vincent
We describe the implementation of a system of immobilised enzymes for H2-driven NADH recycling coupled to a selective biotransformation to enable H2-driven biocatalysis in flow. This approach represents a platform that can be optimised for a wide range of hydrogenation steps and is shown here for enantioselective ketone reduction and reductive amination.
August 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793235/-r-r-butane-2-3-diol-dehydrogenase-from-bacillus-clausii-dsm-8716-t-cloning-and-expression-of-the-bdha-gene-and-initial-characterization-of-enzyme
#16
Lukas Muschallik, Denise Molinnus, Johannes Bongaerts, Martina Pohl, Torsten Wagner, Michael J Schöning, Petra Siegert, Thorsten Selmer
The gene encoding a putative (R,R)-butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (bdhA) from Bacillus clausii DSM 8716(T) was isolated, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein is only distantly related to previously studied enzymes (identity 33-43%) and exhibited some uncharted peculiarities. An N-terminally StrepII-tagged enzyme variant was purified and initially characterized. The isolated enzyme catalyzed the (R)-specific oxidation of (R,R)- and meso-butane-2,3-diol to (R)- and (S)-acetoin with specific activities of 12U/mg and 23U/mg, respectively...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783606/photosensitized-oxidation-of-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-by-diethoxyphosphorus-v-tetraphenylporphyrin-and-its-fluorinated-derivative-possibility-of-chain-reaction
#17
Kazutaka Hirakawa, Atsushi Murata
Water-soluble porphyrins, diethoxyphosphorus(V)tetraphenylporphyrin (EtP(V)TPP) and its fluorinated analogue (FEtP(V)TPP), decreased the typical absorption around 340nm of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) under visible light irradiation, indicating oxidative decomposition. A singlet oxygen quencher, sodium azide, and a triplet quencher, potassium iodide, slightly inhibited photosensitized NADH oxidation. However, these inhibitory effects were very small. Furthermore, the fluorescence lifetime of these P(V)porphyrins was decreased by NADH, suggesting the contribution of electron transfer to the singlet excited (S1) state of P(V)porphyrin...
July 31, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780151/genetic-differentiation-of-the-g6-7-cluster-of-echinococcus-canadensis-based-on-mitochondrial-marker-genes
#18
Francis Addy, Marion Wassermann, Dorothy Kagendo, Dennis Ebi, Eberhard Zeyhle, Ibrahim E Elmahdi, Gerald Umhang, Adriano Casulli, Majid F Harandi, Ortwin Aschenborn, Peter Kern, Ute Mackenstedt, Thomas Romig
Among the genotype/species causing cystic echinococcosis, the taxonomic status of Echinococcus canadensis is only partially resolved. Within E. canadensis, four genotypes (G6, G7, G8 and G10) have been described based on short mitochondrial sequences, of which G6 and G7 (the 'camel' and the 'pig' strain, respectively) are closely related and variously regarded as microvariants of a single strain G6/7. Globally, this G6/7 cluster is the second most important agent of human cystic echinococcosis and is the predominant Echinococcus taxon in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa...
August 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772201/effective-immobilization-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-on-carbon-nanoscaffolds-for-ethanol-biofuel-cell
#19
Yogeswaran Umasankar, Bal-Ram Adhikari, Aicheng Chen
An efficient approach for immobilizing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) while enhancing its electron transfer ability has been developed using poly(2-(trimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MADQUAT) cationic polymer and carbon nanoscaffolds. The carbon nanoscaffolds were comprised of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The ADH entrapped within the MADQUAT that was present on the carbon nanoscaffolds exhibited a high electron exchange capability with the electrode through its cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced disodium salt hydrate (NAD(+)/NADH) redox reaction...
July 26, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763556/modifications-in-retinal-mitochondrial-respiration-precede-type-2-diabetes-and-protracted-microvascular-retinopathy
#20
Woo Hyun Han, Jonathan Gotzmann, Sharee Kuny, Hui Huang, Catherine B Chan, Hélène Lemieux, Yves Sauvé
Purpose: To characterize retinal mitochondrial respiration associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression in a cone-rich diurnal rodent, the Nile rat (genus Arvicanthis, species niloticus). Methods: Nile rats were fed a standard rodent diet that resulted in rising glucose levels from 6 months. Age-matched control animals were fed a high-fiber diet that prevented diabetes up to 18 months. The functional status of specific retinal mitochondrial components and mitochondrial outer membrane integrity were studied by using high-resolution respirometry...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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