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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213476/editing-of-mitochondrial-transcripts-nad3-and-cox2-by-dek10-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-function-and-maize-plant-development
#1
Weiwei Qi, Zhongrui Tian, Lei Lu, Xiuzu Chen, Xinze Chen, Wei Zhang, Rentao Song
Respiration, the core of mitochondrial metabolism, depends on the function of five respiratory complexes. Many respiratory chain related proteins are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and their RNAs undergo post-transcriptional modifications by nuclear genome expressed factors, including pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Maize defective kernel 10 (dek10) is a classic mutant with small kernels and delayed development. Through positional cloning we found that Dek10 encodes an E-subgroup PPR protein localized in mitochondria...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211922/applying-phasor-approach-analysis-of-multiphoton-flim-measurements-to-probe-the-metabolic-activity-of-three-dimensional-in-vitro-cell-culture-models
#2
Pirmin H Lakner, Michael G Monaghan, Yvonne Möller, Monilola A Olayioye, Katja Schenke-Layland
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can measure and discriminate endogenous fluorophores present in biological samples. This study seeks to identify FLIM as a suitable method to non-invasively detect a shift in cellular metabolic activity towards glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation in 3D Caco-2 models of colorectal carcinoma. These models were treated with potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide as controls, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a physiologically-relevant influencer of cell metabolic behaviour...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211546/differential-effects-of-hormones-on-cellular-metabolism-in-keratoconus-in-vitro
#3
Tina B McKay, Jesper Hjortdal, Henrik Sejersen, Dimitrios Karamichos
Keratoconus (KC) is a corneal thinning disease with an onset commonly immediately post-puberty and stabilization by 40 to 50 years of age. The role of hormones in regulating corneal tissue structure in homeostatic and pathological conditions is unknown. Our group recently linked altered hormone levels to KC. Our current study sought to investigate and delineate the effects of exogenous hormones, such as androgen, luteotropin, and estrogen, on corneal stroma bioenergetics. We utilized our established 3D in vitro model to characterize the effects of DHEA, prolactin, 17β-estradiol on insulin-growth factor-1 and -2 (IGF-1, -2) signaling and metabolic function in primary corneal fibroblasts from healthy controls (HCFs) and KC patients (HKCs)...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202712/ribeye-b-domain-binds-to-lipid-components-of-synaptic-vesicles-in-an-nad-h-dependent-redox-sensitive-manner
#4
Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
Synaptic ribbons are needed for fast and continuous exocytosis in ribbon synapses. RIBEYE is a main protein component of synaptic ribbons and necessary to build the synaptic ribbon. RIBEYE consists of a unique A-domain and a carboxyterminal B-domain that binds NAD(H). Within the presynaptic terminal, the synaptic ribbons are in physical contact with large numbers of synaptic vesicles. How this physical contact between ribbons and vesicles is established at a molecular level is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the RIBEYE(B)-domain can directly interact with lipid components of synaptic vesicles using two different sedimentation assays with liposomes of defined chemical composition...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199351/physiological-plasticity-related-to-zonation-affects-hsp70-expression-in-the-reef-building-coral-pocillopora-verrucosa
#5
Davide Poli, Elena Fabbri, Stefano Goffredo, Valentina Airi, Silvia Franzellitti
This study investigates for the first time the transcriptional regulation of a stress-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora verrucosa sampled at three locations and two depths (3 m and 12 m) in Bangka Island waters (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Percentage of coral cover indicated reduced habitat suitability with depth and at the Tanjung Husi (TA) site, which also displayed relatively higher seawater temperatures. Expression of the P. verrucosa hsp70 transcript evaluated under field conditions followed a depth-related profile, with relatively higher expression levels in 3-m collected nubbins compared to the 12-m ones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199340/crystal-structure-and-structure-based-mutagenesis-of-actin-specific-adp-ribosylating-toxin-cpile-a-as-novel-enterotoxin
#6
Waraphan Toniti, Toru Yoshida, Toshiharu Tsurumura, Daisuke Irikura, Chie Monma, Yoichi Kamata, Hideaki Tsuge
Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195463/target-elucidation-by-co-crystal-structures-of-nadh-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase-of-plasmodium-falciparum-pfndh2-with-small-molecule-to-eliminate-drug-resistant-malaria
#7
Yiqing Yang, You Yu, Xiaolu Li, Jing Li, Yue Wu, Jie Yu, Jingpeng Ge, Zhenghui Huang, Lubin Jiang, Yu Rao, Maojun Yang
Drug-resistant malarial strains have been continuously emerging recently, which posts a great challenge for the global health. Therefore, new anti-malarial drugs with novel targeting mechanisms are urgently needed for fighting drug-resistant malaria. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfNDH2) represents a viable target for anti-malarial drug development. However, the absence of structural information of PfNDH2 limited rational drug design and further development. Herein, we report high resolution crystal structures of the PfNDH2 protein for the first time in Apo-, NADH- and RYL-552 (a new inhibitor)-bound states...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194149/superoxide-generation-and-its-involvement-in-the-growth-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#8
Amar M Yeware, Ketaki D Shurpali, Meghana C Athalye, Dhiman Sarkar
Superoxide generation is inevitable in aerobic organisms, most of which have developed mechanisms to detoxify superoxides. However, its significance has not been clearly understood in mycobacteria. This study demonstrates that NADH oxidase is the major source of superoxide in Mycobacterium smegmatis and elucidates the involvement of superoxide in M. smegmatis growth. The maximum inhibition of superoxide generation was observed in the presence of diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), an NADH oxidase inhibitor, compared to other standard inhibitors...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194019/il-25-stimulates-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-thereby-promotes-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-and-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissues-against-obesity
#9
Juan Feng, Lingyi Li, Zhiying Ou, Qiao Li, Baoyong Gong, Zhenxian Zhao, Weiwei Qi, Ti Zhou, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Xia Yang, Aiping Zhao, Guoquan Gao, Zhonghan Yang
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially macrophages. Immune molecules, including some cytokines, have a close relationship with metabolism. Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family that can regulate macrophages and alleviate some metabolic dysfunction; however, its role and mechanisms in lipid metabolism remain to be extensively clarified. Human serum and liver biopsy specimens, high-fat diet-induced obesity mice and DB/DB (Lepr-/-) animal models were used to examine IL-25 expression in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192486/ocean-acidification-modulates-expression-of-genes-and-physiological-performance-of-a-marine-diatom
#10
Yahe Li, Shufang Zhuang, Yaping Wu, Honglin Ren, Fangyi Chen, Xin Lin, Kejian Wang, John Beardall, Kunshan Gao
Ocean Acidification (OA) is known to affect various aspects of physiological performances of diatoms, but little is known about the underlining molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we show that in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the expression of key genes associated with photosynthetic light harvesting as well as those encoding Rubisco, carbonic anhydrase, NADH dehydrogenase and nitrite reductase, are modulated by OA (1000 μatm, pHnbs 7.83). Growth and photosynthetic carbon fixation were enhanced by elevated CO2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192238/molecular-networks-related-to-the-immune-system-and-mitochondria-are-targets-for-the-pesticide-dieldrin-in-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-central-nervous-system
#11
Andrew M Cowie, Kathleena I Sarty, Angella Mercer, Jin Koh, Karen A Kidd, Christopher J Martyniuk
: The objectives of this study were to determine the behavioral and molecular responses in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) central nervous system (CNS) following a dietary exposure to the pesticide dieldrin. Zebrafish were fed pellets spiked with 0.03, 0.15, or 1.8μg/g dieldrin for 21days. Behavioral analysis revealed no difference in exploratory behaviors or those related to anxiety. Transcriptional networks for T-cell aggregation and selection were decreased in expression suggesting an immunosuppressive effect of dieldrin, consistent with other studies investigating organochlorine pesticides...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190822/phloridzin-inhibits-high-k-induced-contraction-via-the-inhibition-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-in-rat-ileum
#12
Hidenori Kanda, Takeharu Kaneda, Akira Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Norimoto Urakawa, Kazumasa Shimizu, Hiroetsu Suzuki
Recent studies have shown that phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), strongly decreases high K(+)-induced contraction in phasic muscle, such as tenia coli, but slightly affects tonic muscle, such as trachea . In this study, we examined the inhibitory mechanism of phloridzin on high K(+)-induced muscle contraction in rat ileum, a phasic muscle. Phloridzin inhibited the high K(+)-induced contraction in the ileum and the aorta, and the relaxing effect of phloridzin at 1 mM in the ileum was approximately five-fold more potent than that in the aorta...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188256/mgdg-pg-and-sqdg-regulate-the-activity-of-light-dependent-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase
#13
Michal Gabruk, Beata Myśliwa-Kurdziel, Jerzy Kruk
Light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is a plant enzyme involved in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. POR reduces one of the double bonds of the protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) using NADPH and light. In the present paper, we found out that PG and SQDG are allosteric regulators of the nucleotide binding, which increase the affinity towards NADPH a hundred fold. Moreover, we showed for the first time that NADH can, like NADPH, form active complexes with Pchlide and POR, however at much higher concentrations...
February 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183178/mimicking-horseradish-peroxidase-and-nadh-peroxidase-by-heterogeneous-cu-2-modified-graphene-oxide-nanoparticles
#14
Shan Wang, Rémi Cazelles, Wei-Ching Liao, Margarita Vázquez-González, Amani Zoabi, Raed Abu-Reziq, Itamar Willner
Cu(2+)-ion-modified graphene oxide nanoparticles, Cu(2+)-GO NPs, act as a heterogeneous catalyst mimicking functions of horseradish peroxidase, HRP, and of NADH peroxidase. The Cu(2+)-GO NPs catalyze the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome by H2O2 and catalyze the generation of chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol and H2O2. The Cu(2+)-GO NPs provide an active material for the chemiluminescence detection of H2O2 and allow the probing of the activity of H2O2-generating oxidases and the detection of their substrates...
February 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181562/structural-and-functional-insights-into-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-the-type-ii-nadh-quinone-oxidoreductase-family
#15
Bruno C Marreiros, Filipa V Sena, Filipe M Sousa, A Sofia F Oliveira, Cláudio M Soares, Ana P Batista, Manuela M Pereira
Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane proteins involved in respiratory chains. These proteins contribute indirectly to the establishment of the transmembrane difference of electrochemical potential by catalyzing the reduction of quinone by oxidation of NAD(P)H. NDH-2s are widespread enzymes being present in the three domains of life. In this work, we explored the catalytic mechanism of NDH-2 by investigating the common elements of all NDH-2s, based on the rationale that conservation of such elements reflects their structural/functional importance...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181523/mitochondria-play-an-important-role-in-the-cell-proliferation-suppressing-activity-of-berberine
#16
Xiao-Jin Yan, Xuan Yu, Xin-Pei Wang, Jing-Fei Jiang, Zhi-Yi Yuan, Xi Lu, Fan Lei, Dong-Ming Xing
After being studied for approximately a century, berberine (BBR) has been found to act on various targets and pathways. A great challenge in the pharmacological analysis of BBR at present is to identify which target(s) plays a decisive role. In the study described herein, a rescue experiment was designed to show the important role of mitochondria in BBR activity. A toxic dose of BBR was applied to inhibit cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity, then α-ketobutyrate (AKB), an analogue of pyruvate that serves only as an electron receptor of NADH, was proven to partially restore cell proliferation...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177769/a-deletion-variant-partially-complements-a-porin-less-strain-of-i-neurospora-crassa-i
#17
Fraser G Ferens, Victor Spicer, Oleg V Krokhin, Anna Motnenko, William A T Summers, Deborah A Court
Mitochondrial porin, the voltage-dependent anion channel, plays an important role in metabolism and other cellular functions within eukaryotic cells. To further the understanding of porin structure and function, <i>Neurospora crassa</i> wild-type porin was replaced with a deletion variant lacking residues 238-242 (238porin). 238porin was assembled in the mitochondrial outer membrane, but the steady state levels were only about 3% of those of the wild-type protein. The strain harbouring 238porin displayed cytochrome deficiencies and expressed alternative oxidase...
November 2, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177713/effects-of-exogenous-vitamin-a-c-e-and-nadh-supplementation-on-proliferation-cytokines-release-and-cell-redox-status-of-lymphocytes-from-healthy-aged-subjects
#18
Samia Bouamama, Hafida Merzouk, Amel Medjdoub, Amel Merzouk-Saidi, Sid Ahmed Merzouk
Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared to young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque...
January 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176878/cofactor-recycling-for-co-production-of-1-3-propanediol-and-glutamate-by-metabolically-engineered-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#19
Jinhai Huang, Yao Wu, Wenjun Wu, Ye Zhang, Dehua Liu, Zhen Chen
Production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from glycerol is a promising route toward glycerol biorefinery. However, the yield of 1,3-PDO is limited due to the requirement of NADH regeneration via glycerol oxidation process, which generates large amounts of undesired byproducts. Glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important oxidation process generating excess NADH. In this study, we proposed a novel strategy to couple the process of 1,3-PDO synthesis with glutamate production for cofactor regeneration...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176283/effect-of-nitrogen-availability-on-the-poly-3-d-hydroxybutyrate-accumulation-by-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Diogo J Portugal-Nunes, Sudhanshu S Pawar, Gunnar Lidén, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
Poly-3-D-hydroxybutyrate (or PHB) is a polyester which can be used in the production of biodegradable plastics from renewable resources. It is naturally produced by several bacteria as a response to nutrient starvation in the excess of a carbon source. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be an alternative production host as it offers good inhibitor tolerance towards weak acids and phenolic compounds and does not depolymerize the produced PHB. As nitrogen limitation is known to boost the accumulation of PHB in bacteria, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrogen availability on PHB accumulation in two recombinant S...
December 2017: AMB Express
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