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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431164/low-activity-microstates-during-sleep
#1
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N Billeh, Kamran Diba
Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430602/fluoxetine-attenuates-the-impairment-of-spatial-learning-ability-and-prevents-neuron-loss-in-middle-aged-appswe-psen1de9-double-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#2
Jing Ma, Yuan Gao, Lin Jiang, Feng-Lei Chao, Wei Huang, Chun-Ni Zhou, Wei Tang, Lei Zhang, Chun-Xia Huang, Yi Zhang, Yan-Min Luo, Qian Xiao, Hua-Rong Yu, Rong Jiang, Yong Tang
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported to increase cognitive performance in some clinical studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a lack of evidence supporting the efficacy of SSRIs as cognition enhancers in AD, and the role of SSRIs as a treatment for AD remains largely unclear. Here, we characterized the impact of fluoxetine (FLX), a well-known SSRI, on neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) and in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus of middle-aged (16 to 17 months old) APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD model mice...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429259/early-morphological-and-functional-changes-in-the-gabaergic-system-of-hippocampus-in-the-rat-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#3
V B Karyakin, D S Vasil'ev, I A Zhuravin, A V Zaitsev, L G Magazanik
We studied early alterations in the GABAergic system of the rat hippocampus in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Twenty-four hours after the pilocarpine treatment, a decrease in the number of calretinin-positive interneurons was observed in the CA1 field of the hippocampus, whereas the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons remained unchanged. The decreased levels of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and the membrane GABA transporter GAT1 were revealed using Western blot analysis...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427866/effect-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-in-hyperglycemic-and-hyperinsulinemic-rats-effects-on-phosphorylation-and-o-glcnacylation-of-tau-protein
#4
Liliana Lozano, Jorge Guevara, Tony Lefebvre, Ivan Ramos-Martinez, Daniel Limón, Alfonso Díaz, Eduarda Cerón, Edgar Zenteno
Aggregation of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, which are markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been reported also in diabetes mellitus (DM). One regulator of tau phosphorylation is O-GlcNAcylation, whereas for hyperphosphorylation it could be GSK3beta, which is activated in hyperglycemic conditions. With this in mind, both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of tau protein were evaluated in the brain of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and treated with the Aß25-35 peptide in the hippocampal region CA1...
April 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426965/formation-and-maintenance-of-functional-spines-in-the-absence-of-presynaptic-glutamate-release
#5
Albrecht Sigler, Won Chan Oh, Cordelia Imig, Bekir Altas, Hiroshi Kawabe, Benjamin H Cooper, Hyung-Bae Kwon, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Nils Brose
Dendritic spines are the major transmitter reception compartments of glutamatergic synapses in most principal neurons of the mammalian brain and play a key role in the function of nerve cell circuits. The formation of functional spine synapses is thought to be critically dependent on presynaptic glutamatergic signaling. By analyzing CA1 pyramidal neurons in mutant hippocampal slice cultures that are essentially devoid of presynaptic transmitter release, we demonstrate that the formation and maintenance of dendrites and functional spines are independent of synaptic glutamate release...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#6
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424833/cannabis-related-hippocampal-volumetric-abnormalities-specific-to-subregions-in-dependent-users
#7
Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Lauren den Ouden, Nadia Solowij, Valentina Lorenzetti
RATIONALE: Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence...
April 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422371/effects-of-m1-and-m4-activation-on-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-ca1
#8
Catherine Thorn, Michael Popiolek, Eda Stark, Jeremy Edgerton
Hippocampal networks are particularly susceptible to dysfunction in many neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, and schizophrenia. CA1, a major output region of the hippocampus, receives glutamatergic input from both hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex, via the Schaffer collateral (SC) and temporoammonic (TA) pathways, respectively. SC and TA inputs to CA1 are thought to be differentially involved in the retrieval of previously stored memories versus the encoding of novel information, and switching between these two crucial hippocampal functions is thought to critically depend on acetylcholine (ACh) acting at muscarinic receptors...
April 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421537/satb2-ablation-impairs-hippocampus-based-long-term-spatial-memory-and-short-term-working-memory-and-immediate-early-genes-iegs-mediated-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#9
Ying Li, Qiang-Long You, Sheng-Rong Zhang, Wei-Yuan Huang, Wen-Jun Zou, Wei Jie, Shu-Ji Li, Ji-Hong Liu, Chuang-Ye Lv, Jin Cong, Yu-Ying Hu, Tian-Ming Gao, Jian-Ming Li
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is a protein binding to the matrix attachment regions of DNA and important for gene regulation. Patients with SATB2 mutation usually suffer moderate to severe mental retardation. However, the mechanisms for the defects of intellectual activities in patients with SATB2 mutation are largely unclear. Here we established the heterozygous Satb2 mutant mice and Satb2 conditional knockout mice to mimic the patients with SATB2 mutation and figured out the role of Satb2 in mental activities...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419990/effects-of-estradiol-on-autophagy-and-nrf-2-are-signals-after-cerebral-ischemia
#10
Litao Li, Jinghong Chen, Sujuan Sun, Jingru Zhao, Xiaoli Dong, Jianhua Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Estradiol (EST) reduces the risk of stroke and decreases the incidence and progression of the disease because of its neuroprotective roles in inhibiting cell death that occurs in response to a variety of neuronal stimuli such as inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we determined the role played by autophagy and Nrf2-ARE signal pathways in the hippocampus regions in modulating cerebral ischemia under different EST conditions. METHODS: Western blot analysis and ELISA were used to determine the protein expression of autophagy and Nrf2-ARE pathways; and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and a key marker of oxidative stress...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418030/the-bmp2-nuclear-variant-nbmp2-is-expressed-in-mouse-hippocampus-and-impacts-memory
#11
Ryan D Cordner, Lindsey N Friend, Jaime L Mayo, Corinne Badgley, Andrew Wallmann, Conrad N Stallings, Peter L Young, Darla R Miles, Jeffrey G Edwards, Laura C Bridgewater
The novel nuclear protein nBMP2 is synthesized from the BMP2 gene by translational initiation at an alternative start codon. We generated a targeted mutant mouse, nBmp2NLS(tm), in which the nuclear localization signal (NLS) was inactivated to prevent nuclear translocation of nBMP2 while still allowing the normal synthesis and secretion of the BMP2 growth factor. These mice exhibit abnormal muscle function due to defective Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that neurological function, which also depends on intracellular Ca(2+) transport, could be affected by the loss of nBMP2...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417263/rosuvastatin-attenuates-high-salt-and-cholesterol-diet-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-via-preventing-nuclear-factor-kappab-pathway
#12
Ibraheem Husain, Mohd Akhtar, Divya Vohora, Malik Zainul Abdin, Mohammad Islamuddin, Mohd Jawaid Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Recent attention is focused on the impact of diet on health and mental well-being. High-salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD) is known to be associated with neuroinflammation which is the predominant factor for neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective potential of rosuvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor against HSCD induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Our results demonstrated that HSCD-induced cognitive impairment as determined by Morris water maze (MWM) task...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416809/perisomatic-changes-in-h-channels-regulate-depressive-behaviors-following-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#13
C S Kim, D H Brager, D Johnston
Chronic stress can be a precipitating factor in the onset of depression. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of HCN1 protein expression and reduction of functional Ih produce antidepressant behavior. However, whether h-channels are altered in an animal model of depression is not known. We found that perisomatic HCN1 protein expression and Ih-sensitive physiological measurements were significantly increased in dorsal but not in ventral CA1 region/neurons following chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a widely accepted model for major depressive disorder...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415676/nitrobenzylthioinosine-mimics-adenosine-to-attenuate-the-epileptiform-discharge-of-hippocampal-neurons-from-epileptic-rats
#14
Hao Huang, Jing Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhong Luo, Dongxu Li, Xiaowei Qiu, Yan Peng, Zhongxiang Xu, Ping Xu, Zucai Xu
Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a specific inhibitor of type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter, could regulate the extracellular adenosine concentration and have protective roles in seizures. However, the protection mechanism of NBTI in seizures remains poorly understood. Here, the expression pattern and subcellular distribution of adenosine A1 receptor were detected by Western blot analysis and double-labeling immunofluorescence staining in Lithium Chloride-Pilocarpine induced epileptic rat model. At 24 h after pilocarpine induced rat seizures, hippocampal slices were prepared and the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) amplitude of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus CA1 region was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413831/differential-ability-of-the-dorsal-and-ventral-rat-hippocampus-to-exhibit-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-dependent-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity
#15
Patrick Tidball, Hannah V Burn, Kai Lun Teh, Arturas Volianskis, Graham L Collingridge, Stephen M Fitzjohn
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is critically involved in learning and memory processes. Although once considered a relatively homogenous structure, it is now clear that the hippocampus can be divided along its longitudinal axis into functionally distinct domains, responsible for the encoding of different types of memory or behaviour. Although differences in extrinsic connectivity are likely to contribute to this functional differentiation, emerging evidence now suggests that cellular and molecular differences at the level of local hippocampal circuits may also play a role...
January 2017: Brain Neurosci Adv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411086/early-depletion-of-ca1-neurons-and-late-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-tauopathy-model
#16
Lone Helboe, Jan Egebjerg, Pernille Barkholt, Christiane Volbracht
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tauopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are characterized by formation of neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau. Further neuropathological characteristics include synaptic loss, neurodegeneration and brain atrophy. Here, we explored the association between hyperphosphorylated tau species, brain atrophy, synaptic and neuronal loss in a mouse model (rTg4510) carrying the human tau (hTau) P301L mutation found in a familiar form of FTD. We established that hTau expression during the first 6 postnatal weeks was important for the progression of tauopathy in rTg4510 mice...
April 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410463/vegf-treatment-during-status-epilepticus-attenuates-long-term-seizure-associated-alterations-in-astrocyte-morphology
#17
Janice R Lenzer-Fanara, Thomas Li, Elisa A Salerni, Firmause Payen, Susan D Croll
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) causes sustained preservation of behavioral function in rats in the absence of enduring neuroprotection (Nicoletti et al., 2010), suggesting the possibility that other cells or mechanisms could be involved in the beneficial effects of VEGF during SE. Astrocytes have been reported to contribute to epileptiform discharges in the hippocampus (Tian et al., 2005; Kang et al., 1998) and to express VEGF receptors (Krum & Rosenstein, 2002)...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409560/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-their-upstream-regulators-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
H Y Liu, C J Zhang
To identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their transcription factors (TFs) in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed an integrated analysis of microarray studies. Functional annotation and CRC-specific transcriptional regulatory network construction were performed. Expression of selected DEGs and TFs was verified with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data sets and qRT-PCR. SurvMicro was used to analyze the correlation between the overall survival time of CRC patients and the expression of DEGs and TFs...
April 14, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408940/laser-acupuncture-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-via-regulation-of-creb-bdnf-bcl-2-and-bax-gene-expressions-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Yeong-Chan Yun, Dongyeop Jang, Sun-Bee Yoon, Dohyeong Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, O-Sang Kwon, Yu-Mi Lee, Daehwan Youn
Acupuncture has a positive effect on cognitive deficits. However, the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on cognitive function and its mechanisms of action are unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of LA on middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-) induced cognitive impairment and its mechanisms of action. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was modeled in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by MCAO. After LA or manual-acupuncture (MA) treatment at the GV20 and HT7 for 2 weeks, hippocampal-dependent memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407632/hypothermic-neuronal-rescue-from-infection-sensitised-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury-is-pathogen-dependent
#20
Mari Falck, Damjan Osredkar, Elke Maes, Torun Flatebø, Thomas Ragnar Wood, Hemmen Sabir, Marianne Thoresen
Perinatal infection increases the vulnerability of the neonatal brain to hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury. Hypothermia treatment (HT) does not provide neuroprotection after pre-insult inflammatory sensitisation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a gram-negative bacterial wall constituent. However, early-onset sepsis in term babies is caused by gram-positive species in more than 90% of cases, and neuro-inflammatory responses triggered through the gram-negative route (Toll-like receptor 4, TLR-4) are different from those induced through the gram-positive route via TLR-2...
April 14, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
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