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Cong Lu, Zhe Shi, Xiuping Sun, Ruile Pan, Shanguang Chen, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu, Lihua Sun, Haixia Dang, Lanlan Bu, Lingling Chen, Xinmin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kai Xin San (KXS), a traditional formula of Chinese medicine, has been used to treat dementia. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate its ameliorating effects on Aβ1-40-induced cognitive impairment in rats using a series of novel reward-directed instrumental learning tasks, and to determine its possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were pretreated with KXS aqueous extract (0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Maryam Farahmandfar, Mehdi Kadivar, Sareh Rastipisheh
Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Hee Sun Yim, Dae Won Kim, Hajin Nam, Jun Gyo Suh, Jung Hoon Choi, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Dynamin 1 is a known synaptic protein, which has is key in the presynaptic regulation of endocytosis. The present study investigated the association between age and the observed changes in Morris water maze performance, and immunoreactivity and protein levels of dynamin 1 in the mouse hippocampal formation. In addition, the effects of dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin 1, on the hippocampal dependent memory were determined to elucidate the correlation between dynamin 1 and memory. In the training phase of the Morris water maze task, the mean escape latency of the aged group (24 months old) was significantly longer, compared with that of the adult group (4 months old), although the average swimming speed and the total distance traveled during the probe trial were similar in the two groups...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
B Erol, U Sari, A S Amasyali, S Ozkanli, S Sogut, V Hanci, O Efiloglu, Y O Danacioglu, P Engin, F Yencilek, G Atis, A Yildirim, O A Alkoc, T Caskurlu
We aimed to compare the preventive effects of combined antioxidants (CA1, 2) with a single antioxidant drug (thymoquinone; TQ) on experimental testis Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each: control, testis I/R, testis I/R + CA1, testis I/R + CA2, and testis I/R + TQ. After 1 h of testicular ischemia, reperfusion was achieved by detorsion for 4 h. Antioxidants were intraperitoneally administered for 30 min prior to reperfusion...
October 16, 2016: Andrology
D K Rieger, E Navarro, I Buendia, E Parada, L González-Lafuente, R Leon, A P Costa, I A Heinrich, K S Nascimento, B S Cavada, M G Lopez, J Egea, R B Leal
Lectins are proteins that bind cellular glycans and can modulate various neuronal functions. We have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of ConBr, a lectin purified from the seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis in a model of rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD for 15 min followed by 24 h re-oxygenation significantly increased cell death, caused mitochondrial depolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CA1 region of OHCs. ConBr (0.1 μg/mL) added during the re-oxygenation period counteracted cell death, mitochondrial depolarization and overproduction of ROS induced by OGD...
October 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Sayyed Alireza Talaei, Abolfazl Azami, Mahmoud Salami
OBJECTIVES: There are few reports have demonstrated the effect of a change-in-light experience on the structure and function of hippocampus. A change-in-light experience also affects the circadian pattern of melatonin secretion. This study aimed to investigate developmental effect of exogenous melatonin on synaptic plasticity of hippocampus of light deprived rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 2μg/5μl melatonin was evaluated on the basic and tetanized field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) recorded in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of normal light-reared (LR) and dark-reared (DR) rats at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Nadine Lilla, Jasmin Hartmann, Stefan Koehler, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Thomas Westermaier
A lack of nitric oxide (NO) may be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of an acute decrease of cerebral blood flow (CBF) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was conducted to investigate whether early therapy with an NO-donor can improve CBF and offer neuroprotection after experimental SAH in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH by the endovascular filament model and treated with 1.5μg/kg/min of intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or vehicle (n=10) starting 15min after induction of SAH until 180min thereafter...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Woo Hee Choi, Won Sang Jung, Yoo Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Young Ha Park, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although there is substantial evidence of associations between frontal-striatal circuits and cerebral vascular burden in late-onset depression (LOD), relationships between vascular burden and hippocampal subfields are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between cerebral vascular burden and hippocampal subfield volume in LOD patients. METHODS: Fifty subjects with LOD and 50 group-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Elisabeth Sanchez-Mejias, Victoria Navarro, Sebastian Jimenez, Maria Sanchez-Mico, Raquel Sanchez-Varo, Cristina Nuñez-Diaz, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Jose Carlos Davila, Marisa Vizuete, Antonia Gutierrez, Javier Vitorica
The role of microglial cells in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated the existence of a weak microglial response in human AD hippocampus which is in contrast to the massive microglial activation observed in APP-based models. Most importantly, microglial cells displayed a prominent degenerative profile (dentate gyrus > CA3 > CA1 > parahippocampal gyrus), including fragmented and dystrophic processes with spheroids, a reduced numerical density, and a significant decrease in the area of surveillance ("microglial domain")...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Yasuharu Shinoda, Hideaki Tagashira, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Hideyuki Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kanai, Chen Zhang, Feng Han, Kohji Fukunaga
Cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for depression in humans. We recently proposed that σ1 receptor (σ1R) stimulation rescued cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. Importantly, σ1R stimulation reportedly ameliorates depression-like behaviors in rodents. Thus, we hypothesized that impaired σ1R activity in brain triggers depression-like behaviors in animals with cardiovascular disease. Indeed, here we found that cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by TAC were associated with depression-like behaviors concomitant with downregulation of σ1R expression in brain 6 weeks after surgery...
2016: PloS One
Rocio Saravia, África Flores, Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Antoni Pastor, Rafael de la Torre, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Giovanni Marsicano, Andrés Ozaita, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
BACKGROUND: Tobacco withdrawal is associated with deficits in cognitive function, including attention, working memory, and episodic memory. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects is crucial because cognitive deficits during nicotine withdrawal may predict relapse in humans. METHODS: We investigated in mice the role of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) in memory impairment and spine density changes induced by nicotine withdrawal precipitated by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine...
July 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Alline Cristina de Campos, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Juliana Guimaraes Doria, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Marcio Flavio Dutra Moraes, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The pilocarpine (PILO) experimental model of TLE portrays behavioral and pathophysiological changes in rodents that are very similar to those found in humans with TLE. However, this model is associated with an unfortunate high mortality rate. Studies have shown that intrahippocampal injection of PILO, while having a much smaller mortality rate, induces status epilepticus (SE) that secondarily leads to TLE. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to evaluate the cognitive and histological alterations 72h after intrahippocampal microinjection of PILO in C57BL/6 mice...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Emily White, Cristina Pinar, Crystal Bostrom, Alicia Meconi, Brian Ross Christie
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is becoming recognized as a significant concern in modern society. In particular, juveniles are being increasingly seen as a vulnerable time period for mTBI, as this is the final developmental period for the brain and typically involves robust synaptic reorganization and axonal myelination. Another issue that is being hotly debated is whether mTBI differentially impacts the male and female brain. To examine the impact of mTBI in the juvenile brain, we measured hippocampal synaptic plasticity using a closed-head mTBI model in male and female Long-Evans rats (25-28 days of age) at either one hour, one day, seven days, or 28 days post-injury...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Dong V Wang, Satoshi Ikemoto
: Hippocampal-cortical interaction during sleep promotes transformation of memory for long-term storage in the cortex. In particular, hippocampal sharp-wave ripple-associated neural activation is important for this transformation during slow-wave sleep. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be crucial for expression and likely storage of long-term memory. However, little is known about how ACC activity is influenced by hippocampal ripple activity during sleep. We report here about coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripple activity and ACC neural firings...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Carien S Lansink, Guido T Meijer, Jan V Lankelma, Martin A Vinck, Jadin C Jackson, Cyriel M A Pennartz
: The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bing Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang, Wei-Ping Wang, Rui-Fang Dong, Shuang Tian, Chao Zhang
PURPOSE: Lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that is widely used in clinic. However, the effect of LTG on cognition and neurodegeneration during epilepsy treatment remains controversial. In this study, we compared the cognitive effects of LTG and sodium valproate in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled animal model, and the dose dependency was tested for LTG. METHODS: PTZ-kindled animals were divided into the following treatment groups: control group, treated with 3...
October 12, 2016: Synapse
Lin Cui, Wei Sun, Ming Yu, Nan Li, Li Guo, Huating Gu, Yu Zhou
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1(DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses that share cognitive impairments in common, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Here we report that DISC1 L100P homozygous mutant shows normal anxiety- and depression-like behavior, but impaired object recognition which is prevented by administration of atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine. Ca(2+) image analysis reveals suppression of glutamate-evoked elevation of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] in L100P hippocampal slices...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Brain
Robert John Hatch, Gerhard Leinenga, Jürgen Götz
Scanning ultrasound (SUS) is a noninvasive approach that has recently been shown to ameliorate histopathological changes and restore memory functions in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although no overt neuronal damage was reported, the short- and long-term effects of SUS on neuronal excitability and dendritic tree morphology had not been investigated. To address this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice 2 and 24 hours after a single SUS treatment, and one week and 3 months after six weekly SUS treatments, including sham treatments as controls...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Nasehi, Parastu Morteza-Zadeh, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
In the current study, we examined the effect of bilateral intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) microinjections of GABAA receptor agents on amnesia induced by a β-carboline alkaloid, harmane in mice. We used a single-trial step-down passive avoidance task to assess memory retention and then, open-field test to assess locomotor activity. The results indicated that post-training intra-CA1 injections of bicuculline - a GABAA receptor antagonist - had no significant effect, while muscimol (0.01 and 0.1μg/mouse) - a GABAA receptor agonist - impaired memory consolidation...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience
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