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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924491/sstr4-childhood-adversity-self-efficacy-and-suicide-risk-in-alcoholics
#1
Dominika Berent, Gerard Emilien, Michał Podgórski, Ewa Kusideł, Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala, Bożena Szymańska, Marian Macander, Zofia Pawłowska
BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) are known to develop poor social skills, to report a higher number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and to attempt suicide more frequently than the general population. The background for the association between ACEs and a higher risk of suicide still remains understudied. SSTR4 rs2567608 is a functional polymorphism of the gene for somatostatin receptor subtype 4, predominantly found in the CA1 hippocampus area and involved in memory formation...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924012/inhibition-of-il-1%C3%AE-signaling-normalizes-nmda-dependent-neurotransmission-and-reduces-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-mouse-model-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#2
Ilaria Bertani, Valentina Iori, Massimo Trusel, Mattia Maroso, Claudia Foray, Susanna Mantovani, Raffaella Tonini, Annamaria Vezzani, Roberto Chiesa
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein (PrP) misfolding, clinically recognized by cognitive and motor deficits, electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and seizures. Its neurophysiological bases are not known. To assess the potential involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction, we analyzed NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from Tg(CJD) mice, which model a genetic form of CJD. Because PrP depletion may result in functional upregulation of NMDARs, we also analyzed PrP knockout (KO) mice...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923718/automated-measurement-of-hippocampal-subfields-in-ptsd-evidence-for-smaller-dentate-gyrus-volume
#3
Jasmeet P Hayes, Scott Hayes, Danielle R Miller, Ginette Lafleche, Mark W Logue, Mieke Verfaellie
Smaller hippocampal volume has been consistently observed as a biomarker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, less is known about individual volumes of the subfields composing the hippocampus such as the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis (CA) fields 1-4 in PTSD. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that volume of the dentate gyrus, a region putatively involved in distinctive encoding of similar events, is smaller in individuals with PTSD versus trauma-exposed controls. Ninety-seven recent war veterans underwent structural imaging on a 3T scanner and were assessed for PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923083/prevention-of-c5ar1-signaling-delays-microglial-inflammatory-polarization-favors-clearance-pathways-and-suppresses-cognitive-loss
#4
Michael X Hernandez, Shan Jiang, Tracy A Cole, Shu-Hui Chu, Maria I Fonseca, Melody J Fang, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Maria D Torres, Kim N Green, Rick A Wetsel, Ali Mortazavi, Andrea J Tenner
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic inhibition of C5aR1, a receptor for the complement activation proinflammatory fragment, C5a, suppressed pathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. To validate that the effect of the antagonist was specifically via C5aR1 inhibition, mice lacking C5aR1 were generated and compared in behavior and pathology. In addition, since C5aR1 is primarily expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, and only to a lesser extent on endothelial cells and neurons in brain, gene expression in microglia isolated from adult brain at multiple ages was compared across all genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#5
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921679/maternal-immune-activation-leads-to-increased-nnos-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#6
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key arginine metabolising enzyme in the brain, and nNOS-derived nitric oxide plays an important role in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. Nitric oxide and its related molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and human genetic studies have identified schizophrenia risk genes encoding nNOS. The present study systematically investigated how maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid affected nNOS-immunoreactivity in the brain of the resulting male and female offspring at the age of postnatal day (PND) 2...
September 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#7
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917666/hippocampal-neurophysiology-is-modified-by-a-disease-associated-c-terminal-fragment-of-tau-protein
#8
Francesco Tamagnini, Darren A Walsh, Jon T Brown, Marie K Bondulich, Diane P Hanger, Andrew D Randall
The accumulation of cleaved tau fragments in the brain is associated with several tauopathies. For this reason, we recently developed a transgenic mouse that selectively accumulates a C-Terminal 35 kDa human tau fragment (Tau35). These animals develop progressive motor and spatial memory impairment, paralleled by increased hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity. In this neurophysiological study, we focused on the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory encoding. The accumulation of Tau35 results in a significant increase of short-term facilitation of the synaptic response in the theta frequency range (10 Hz), without affecting basal synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity...
July 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915981/transcutaneous-electrical-acupoint-stimulation-improves-the-outcomes-of-in-vitro-fertilization-a-prospective-randomized-and-controlled-study
#9
Fan Qu, Fang-Fang Wang, Yan Wu, Jue Zhou, Nicola Robinson, Paul J Hardiman, Jie-Xue Pan, Yi-Jing He, Yu-Hang Zhu, Han-Zhi Wang, Xiao-Qun Ye, Ke-Lin He, Long Cui, Hong-Li Zhao, Ying-Hui Ye
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) can improve the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, and controlled study. SETTING: IVF center in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and eighty-one infertile patients with bilateral tubal blockage who were referred for IVF. Patients were randomized into four groups. INTERVENTION: TEAS was administered for 30min, respectively, at 24h before TVOR and two hours before ET...
September 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912711/increased-hippocampal-probdnf-contributes-to-memory-impairments-in-aged-mice
#10
Mona Buhusi, Chris Etheredge, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Catalin V Buhusi
Memory decline during aging or accompanying neurodegenerative diseases, represents a major health problem. Neurotrophins have long been considered relevant to the mechanisms of aging-associated cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Mature Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) can both be secreted in response to neuronal activity and exert opposing effects on neuronal physiology and plasticity. In this study, biochemical analyses revealed that increased levels of proBDNF are present in the aged mouse hippocampus relative to young and that the level of hippocampal proBDNF inversely correlates with the ability to perform in a spatial memory task, the water radial arm maze (WRAM)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#11
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912640/spike-frequency-adaptation-in-neurons-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Go Eun Ha, Eunji Cheong
Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels such as BKCa and SKCa channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these KCa channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911975/selection-shapes-the-patterns-of-codon-usage-in-three-closely-related-species-of-genus-misgurnus
#13
Shaokui Yi, Yanhe Li, Weimin Wang
Neutrality plots revealed that selection probably dominates codon bias, whereas mutation plays only a minor role, in shaping the codon bias in three loaches, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, M. mohoity, and M. bipartitus. These three species also clearly showed similar tendencies in the preferential usage of codons. Nineteen, nine, and 14 preferred codon pairs and 179, 182, and 173 avoided codon pairs were also detected in M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, respectively, and the most frequently avoided type of cP3-cA1 dinucleotide in these species was nnUAnn...
September 11, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911966/fluoxetine-administration-during-adolescence-attenuates-cognitive-and-synaptic-deficits-in-adult-3%C3%A3-tgad-mice
#14
Dong-Sheng Sun, Li-Feng Gao, Li Jin, Hao Wu, Qun Wang, You Zhou, Shuhao Fan, Xia Jiang, Dan Ke, Hao Lei, Jian-Zhi Wang, Gong-Ping Liu
Fluoxetine (FLX) has broad neurobiological functions and neuroprotective effects; however, the preventive effects of FLX on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been reported. Here, we studied whether adolescent administration of fluoxetine can prevent memory deficits in AD transgenic mice that harbour PS1m146v, APPswe and TauP301L mutations (3 × TgAD). FLX was applied through peritoneal injection to the mice at postnatal day 35 (p35) for 15 consecutive days, and the effects of FLX were observed at 6-month...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910337/mouse-repeated-electroconvulsive-seizure-ecs-does-not-reverse-social-stress-effects-but-does-induce-behavioral-and-hippocampal-changes-relevant-to-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-side-effects-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#15
Erin M van Buel, Hannes Sigrist, Erich Seifritz, Lianne Fikse, Fokko J Bosker, Robert A Schoevers, Hans C Klein, Christopher R Pryce, Ulrich Lm Eisel
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902836/hippocampal-ltp-and-contextual-learning-require-surface-diffusion-of-ampa-receptors
#16
A C Penn, C L Zhang, F Georges, L Royer, C Breillat, E Hosy, J D Petersen, Y Humeau, D Choquet
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission has long been considered a cellular correlate for learning and memory. Early LTP (less than 1 h) had initially been explained either by presynaptic increases in glutamate release or by direct modification of postsynaptic AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor function. Compelling models have more recently proposed that synaptic potentiation can occur by the recruitment of additional postsynaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), sourced either from an intracellular reserve pool by exocytosis or from nearby extra-synaptic receptors pre-existing on the neuronal surface...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902674/disruption-of-hippocampal-multisynaptic-networks-by-general-anesthetics
#17
Min-Ching Kuo, L Stan Leung
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that synaptic transmission is affected by general anesthetics, but an anesthetic dose response in freely moving animals has not been done. The hippocampus provides a neural network for the evaluation of isoflurane and pentobarbital on multisynaptic transmission that is relevant to memory function. METHODS: Male Long-Evans rats were implanted with multichannel and single electrodes in the hippocampus. Spontaneous local field potentials and evoked field potentials were recorded in freely behaving rats before (baseline) and after various doses of isoflurane (0...
September 12, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902436/neuroprotective-effect-of-amantadine-on-corticosterone-induced-abnormal-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-of-ca3-ca1-pathway-in-rat-s-hippocampal-slices
#18
Xi Xiao, Hui Zhang, Hui Wang, Qun Li, Tao Zhang
Depression is a psychiatric disorder and chronic stress, leading to altered glucocorticoid secretion patterns, is one of the factors that induce depression. Our previous study showed that amantadine significantly attenuated the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function a rat model of CUS. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to examine the protection effect of amantadine on the hippocampus CA3-CA1 pathway...
September 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901289/distinct-stages-of-synapse-elimination-are-induced-by-burst-firing-of-ca1-neurons-and-differentially-require-mef2a-d
#19
Chia-Wei Chang, Julia Wilkerson, Carly Hale, Jay R Gibson, Kimberly M Huber
Experience and activity refine cortical circuits through synapse elimination, but little is known about the activity patterns and downstream molecular mechanisms that mediate this process. We used optogenetics to drive individual mouse CA1 hippocampal neurons to fire in theta frequency bursts to understand how cell autonomous, postsynaptic activity leads to synapse elimination. Brief (1hr) periods of postsynaptic bursting selectively depressed AMPA receptor (R) synaptic transmission, or silenced excitatory synapses, whereas more prolonged (24 hr) firing depressed both AMPAR and NMDAR EPSCs and eliminated spines, indicative of a synapse elimination...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899919/astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-synchronisation-properties-revealed-by-false-gliotransmitter-release
#20
Tiina M Pirttimaki, Robert E Sims, Gregory Saunders, Serena A Antonio, Neela Krushna Codadu, H Rheinallt Parri
Astrocytes spontaneously release glutamate as a gliotransmitter (GT) resulting in the generation of extrasynaptic NMDA-R mediated slow inward currents (SICs) in neighbouring neurons, which can increase local neuronal excitability. However, there is a deficit in our knowledge of the factors that control spontaneous astrocyte GT release, and the extent of its influence. We found that in rat brain slices, increasing the supply of the physiological transmitter glutamate increased the frequency and signalling charge of SICs over an extended period...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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