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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239518/childhood-maltreatment-psychopathology-and-the-development-of-hippocampal-subregions-during-adolescence
#1
Sarah Whittle, Julian G Simmons, Sylke Hendriksma, Nandita Vijayakumar, Michelle L Byrne, Meg Dennison, Nicholas B Allen
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239515/reduced-interneuronal-dendritic-arborization-in-ca1-but-not-in-ca3-region-of-mice-subjected-to-chronic-mild-stress
#2
Javier Gilabert-Juan, Clara Bueno-Fernandez, Esther Castillo-Gomez, Juan Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Chronic stress induces dendritic atrophy and decreases spine density in excitatory hippocampal neurons, although there is also ample evidence indicating that the GABAergic system is altered in the hippocampus after this aversive experience. Chronic stress causes dendritic remodeling both in excitatory neurons and interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. METHODS: In order to know whether it also has an impact on the structure and neurotransmission of hippocampal interneurons, we have analyzed the dendritic arborization, spine density, and the expression of markers of inhibitory synapses and plasticity in the hippocampus of mice submitted to 21 days of mild restrain stress...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238069/novel-5-ht3-receptor-antagonist-qcm-4-attenuates-depressive-like-phenotype-associated-with-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
Yeshwant Kurhe, R Mahesh, Thangaraj Devadoss
RATIONALE: Depression associated with obesity remains an interesting area to study the biological mechanisms and novel therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigates the effect of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4) on several pathogenic markers of depression associated with obesity such as plasma insulin resistance, hippocampal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT) concentrations, hippocampal neuronal damage, and p53 protein expression in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 25, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235423/spatiotemporal-progression-of-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-inhibition-after-status-epilepticus-suggests-protective-adaptation-against-hippocampal-injury
#4
Tobias Engel, Jaime Martinez-Villarreal, Christine Henke, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Mariana Alves, Yasmina Hernandez-Santana, Gary P Brennan, Aidan Kenny, Aoife Campbell, Jose J Lucas, David C Henshall
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is the major intracellular pathway leading to the degradation of unwanted and/or misfolded soluble proteins. This includes proteins regulating cellular survival, synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter signaling; processes controlling excitability thresholds that are altered by epileptogenic insults. Dysfunction of the UPS has been reported to occur in a brain region- and cell-specific manner and contribute to disease progression in acute and chronic brain diseases...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231543/date-seed-extract-ameliorates-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-impairments-in-hippocampus-of-male-rats
#5
Farzaneh Dehghanian, Taj Pari Kalantaripour, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Leila Elyasi, Hakime Oloumi, Fatmeh Mehdi Pour, Majid Asadi-Shekaari
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder among the elderly. Because the existing treatments for Alzheimer's disease only offer limited symptomatic alleviation, more efficient therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Date seed is a hepatoprotective and neuroprotective agent. Date seed extract (DSE) has bioactive components like phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins. In view of the ameliorative effects of DSE against an oxidative injury, the current study was designed to reveal whether DSE has a neuroprotective resource in the rat model of Alzheimer's disease...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231381/hippocampal-prefrontal-theta-phase-synchrony-in-planning-of-multi-step-actions-based-on-memory-retrieval
#6
Seiya Ishino, Susumu Takahashi, Masaaki Ogawa, Yoshio Sakurai
Planning of multi-step actions based on the retrieval of acquired information is essential for efficient foraging. The hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play critical roles in this process. However, in rodents, many studies investigating such roles utilized T-maze tasks that only require one-step actions (i.e., selection of one of two alternatives), in which memory retrieval and selection of an action based on the retrieval cannot be clearly differentiated. In monkeys, PFC has been suggested to be involved in planning of multi-step actions; however, the synchrony between HPC and PFC has not been evaluated...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230177/storage-of-passive-motion-pattern-in-hippocampal-ca1-region-depends-on-camkii-creb-signaling-pathway-in-a-motion-sickness-rodent-model
#7
Junqin Wang, Jiluo Liu, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Wei Zhou, Yiling Cai
Sensory mismatch between actual motion information and anticipated sensory patterns (internal model) is the etiology of motion sickness (MS). Some evidence supports that hippocampus might involve the neural storage of the "internal model". This study established an "internal model" acquisition-retention behavioral model using a repeated habituation rotation training protocol. We tried to identify the hippocampal subregion involved in "internal model" retention using chemical lesion methods. Hippocampal kinases (CaMK, CaMKIV, CREB and ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the target subregion was assayed and the effects of kinase inhibitors (KN93 or U0126) on "internal model" retention were investigated...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227832/sinusoidal-stimulation-trains-suppress-epileptiform-spikes-induced-by-4-ap-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-vivo
#8
Zheshan Guo, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xuefeng Wei, Zheshan Guo, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xuefeng Wei, Ying Yu, Zhouyan Feng, Xuefeng Wei, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) shows promises in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Due to the complex causes of epilepsy, the mechanisms of DBS are still unclear. Depolarization block caused by the persistent excitation of neurons may be one of the possible mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) was injected in rat hippocampal CA1 region in-vivo to induce epileptiform activity. Sinusoidal stimulation trains were applied to the afferent pathway (Schaffer collaterals) of CA1 region to suppress the epileptiform spikes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227831/detection-of-single-unit-spikes-during-orthodromic-high-frequency-stimulation-in-rat-hippocampus
#9
Zhaoxiang Wang, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Yufang Zhu, Zheshan Guo, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Yufang Zhu, Zheshan Guo, Yufang Zhu, Ying Yu, Zhouyan Feng, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used as a treatment of brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease and is a promising therapy for epilepsy. But the mechanisms of high frequency stimulation (HFS) used by DBS are still uncertain. In order to investigate the changes of action penitential firings of individual neurons (single unit activity, SUA) during the period of HFS, a new algorithm based on window detection was designed to detect spikes in broadband-frequency recording signals. The results show that orthodromic-HFS (O-HFS) could excite the neurons in CA1 regions, and the firing rate of interneurons and pyramidal neurons increased significantly...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227507/efficient-assembly-of-multi-color-fiberless-optoelectrodes-with-on-board-light-sources-for-neural-stimulation-and-recording
#10
K Kampasi, J Seymour, E Stark, G Buzsaki, K D Wise, E Yoon, K Kampasi, J Seymour, E Stark, G Buzsaki, K D Wise, E Yoon, E Yoon, K Kampasi, J Seymour, G Buzsaki, E Stark, K D Wise
Fiberless optoelectrodes are an emerging tool to enable brain circuit mapping by providing precise optical modulation and electrical monitoring of many neurons. While optoelectrodes having an on-board light source offer compact and optically efficient device solutions, many of them fail to provide robust thermal and electrical design to fully exploit the recording capabilities of the device. In this work, we present a novel fiberless multicolor optoelectrode solution, which meets the optical and thermal design requirements of an in vivo neural optoelectrode and offers potential for low-noise neural recording...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227394/principal-component-analysis-of-the-shape-deformations-of-the-hippocampus-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu, Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu, Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu
In this paper, we present the principal component analysis (PCA) of shape deformations of bilateral hippocampi in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as derived in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping setting. We investigated the PCA patterns (the scores and loadings) of the bilateral hippocampi for 51 subjects, 28 of which had AD while 23 were normal aging. Student's t-tests were used to select the components displaying significant group difference for a more purposed analysis. Our findings revealed that the head part of the hippocampus in each hemisphere, to be specific the CA1 and subiculum subregions, contributed the most to the significant group differences...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227191/application-of-independent-component-analysis-to-remove-linear-dependencies-in-eeg-recorded-in-hippocampus
#12
J Harry Blaise, Taikang Ning, J Harry Blaise, Taikang Ning, Taikang Ning
Linear cross-spectral and nonlinear cross-bispectral analysis techniques were applied to EEG data recorded simultaneously in two subfields (CA1 and dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus in freely behaving neonatal rats during REM sleep. Linear dependencies between the two sites were specifically removed using independent component analysis (ICA). The cross-spectrum and the cross-bispectrum computed prior to ICA processing were compared with those after ICA processing to determine its effects. Our results indicate that ICA almost completely extracts the linear relationship in the theta frequency band between CA1 and the dentate gyrus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227113/developmental-differences-of-dimension-complexity-of-hippocampal-eeg-during-rem-sleep
#13
Taikang Ning, J Harry Blaise, Mariam Avagyan, Prawesh Dahal, Taikang Ning, J Harry Blaise, Mariam Avagyan, Prawesh Dahal, J Harry Blaise, Taikang Ning, Mariam Avagyan, Prawesh Dahal
This paper uses spectral analysis and correlation dimension index to examine the developmental differences between the EEG measured from two hippocampal subfields, CA1 and the dentate gyrus. The study was focused on the hippocampal EEG during the vigilance state of REM sleep in freely moving rats of 15 and 90 days of age. Power spectra, magnitude-squared coherence, and correlation dimension were estimated. The correlation dimension adds a new interpretation from the nonlinear dynamics perspective, and we found that there are no significant developmental differences between the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cells of area CA1 when the theta activity was present during REM sleep...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227102/a-flexible-parylene-probe-for-in-vivo-recordings-from-multiple-subregions-of-the-rat-hippocampus
#14
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng, Dong Song, Min-Chi Hsiao, Theodore W Berger, Ahuva Weltman, Kee Scholten, Huijing Xu
The hippocampus is crucial to the formation of long-term memory and declarative memory. It is divided into three sub-fields the CA1, the CA3 and the DG. To understand the neuronal circuitry within the hippocampus and to study the role of the hippocampus in memory function requires the collection of neural activities from multiple subregions of the hippocampus simultaneously. Micro-wire electrode arrays are commonly used as an interface with neural systems. However, recording from multiple deep brain regions with curved anatomical structures such as the thin cell body layers of the hippocampus requires the micro-wires to be arranged into a highly accurate, complex layout that is difficult to fabricated manually...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226819/decoding-memory-features-from-hippocampal-spiking-activities-using-sparse-classification-models
#15
Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Brian S Robinson, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Robert E Hampson, Sam A Deadwyler, Theodore W Berger, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Brian S Robinson
To understand how memory information is encoded in the hippocampus, we build classification models to decode memory features from hippocampal CA3 and CA1 spatio-temporal patterns of spikes recorded from epilepsy patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. The classification model consists of a set of B-spline basis functions for extracting memory features from the spike patterns, and a sparse logistic regression classifier for generating binary categorical output of memory features...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225578/detection-of-volume-alterations-in-hippocampal-subfields-of-rats-under-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-using-7t-mri-a-follow-up-study
#16
Yuefeng Li, Xiaolan Zhu, Shenghong Ju, Jinchuan Yan, Dongqing Wang, Yan Zhu, Fengchao Zang
PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal subfields volume loss in depression, which was simulated by a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. As different cellular and molecular characteristics in hippocampal subfields, these subfields are regarded as differentially vulnerable to processes associated with stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were exposed to various stressors until the model was successfully established. The effects of physical exercise on recovery of hippocampal volume in depressed rats were simulated using the wheel running test (WRT)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223923/embryonic-and-postnatal-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mrna-in-mouse-brain
#17
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219715/metabolic-syndrome-causes-rec-ognition-memory-impairments-and-reduced-the-hippocampal-neuronal-plasticity-in-rats
#19
Samuel Treviño, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Gustavo López-López, Claudia Perez-Cruz, Carolina Moran, Anhabella Handal-Silva, Enrique González-Vergara, Gonzalo Flores, Jorge Guevara, Alfonso Díaz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious public health problem, which can promote neuronal alterations in cognitive regions related to memory processes and learning, such as the hippocampus. However, up to now there is no information of a regional segregation of this damage. In this study, we evaluate the MS effect on the neuronal morphology of the hippocampus by a regional segregation approach. Our results demonstrate that 90days of a high-calorie diet altered metabolic energy markers and caused memory impairments, as evaluated by the recognition of novel objects test (NORT)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218471/%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-%C3%AE-gabaa-receptors-in-dorsal-hippocampal-ca1-of-adolescent-female-rats-traffic-to-the-plasma-membrane-of-dendritic-spines-following-voluntary-exercise-and-contribute-to-protection-of-animals-from-activity-based-anorexia-through-localization-at-excitatory
#20
Chiye Aoki, Yi-Wen Chen, Tara Gunkali Chowdhury, Walter Piper
In hippocampal CA1 of adolescent female rodents, α4βδ-GABAA receptors (α4βδ-GABAA Rs) suppress excitability of pyramidal neurons through shunting inhibition at excitatory synapses. This contributes to anxiolysis of stressed animals. Socially isolated adolescent female rats with 8 days of wheel access, the last 4 days of which entail restricted food access, have been shown to exhibit excessive exercise, choosing to run instead of eat (activity-based anorexia [ABA]). Upregulation of α4βδ-GABAA Rs in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 (DH), seen among some ABA animals, correlates with suppression of excessive exercise...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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