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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168269/adolescent-ethanol-intake-alters-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-localization-in-astrocytes-of-the-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#1
Itziar Bonilla-Del Rίo, Nagore Puente, Sara Peñasco, Irantzu Rico, Ana Gutiérrez-Rodrίguez, Izaskun Elezgarai, Almudena Ramos, Leire Reguero, Inmaculada Gerrikagoitia, Brian R Christie, Patrick Nahirney, Pedro Grandes
Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 ) receptors are widely distributed in the brain and play important roles in astrocyte function and the modulation of neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it is currently unknown how CB1 receptor expression in astrocytes is affected by long-term exposure to stressors. Here we examined CB1 receptors in astrocytes of ethanol (EtOH)-exposed adolescent mice to determine its effect on CB1 receptor localization and density in adult brain. 4-8-week-old male mice were exposed to 20 percent EtOH over a period of 4 weeks, and receptor localization was examined after 4 weeks in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163824/targeting-cyclophilin-d-by-compound-19-protects-neuronal-cells-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-re-oxygenation
#2
Jinyu Zheng, Enhui Cui, Haikou Yang, Mao Li, Jing Zhou, Ming Yan, Jian Sun, De-Rong Tang
Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) with re-oxygenation (OGDR) is applied to neuronal cells to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Activation of cyclophilin D (Cyp-D)-dependent programmed necrosis pathway mediates OGDR-induced neuronal cell damages. Here, we tested the potential effect of Compound 19 (C19), a novel Cyp-D inhibitor, in this process. In both established neuronal cell lines (Neuro-2a and NB41A3 cells) and the primary murine CA1 hippocampal neurons, pretreatment with C19 largely attenuated OGDR-induced cell viability reduction and cell death...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163811/impaired-gabab-mediated-presynaptic-inhibition-increases-excitatory-strength-and-alters-short-term-plasticity-in-synapsin-knockout-mice
#3
Pierluigi Valente, Pasqualina Farisello, Flavia Valtorta, Pietro Baldelli, Fabio Benfenati
Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. SYN1/2 genes are major epilepsy susceptibility genes in humans. Consistently, synapsin I/II/III triple knockout (TKO) mice are epileptic and exhibit severe impairments in phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition that precede the appearance of the epileptic phenotype. These changes are associated with an increased strength of excitatory transmission that has never been mechanistically investigated. Here, we observed that an identical effect in excitatory transmission could be induced in wild-type (WT) Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses by blockade of GABAB receptors (GABABRs)...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163756/effect-of-chronic-administration-of-resveratrol-on-cognitive-performance-during-aging-process-in-rats
#4
A R Navarro-Cruz, R Ramírez Y Ayala, C Ochoa-Velasco, E Brambila, R Avila-Sosa, S Pérez-Fernández, J C Morales-Medina, P Aguilar-Alonso
The increase in the elderly population has generated concern to meet health demands. The research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms of damage associated with aging have also been significantly increased, especially in order to avoid the reduction of the cognitive abilities in geriatric patients, resulting from the damage generated mainly at the level of the hippocampus during old age. At present, many studies describe resveratrol as an antiaging component. There are reports that it can activate the Sirt1 gene related to antiaging, emulating the effects obtained by caloric restriction in rodents...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163674/clinical-value-of-homodynamic-numerical-simulation-applied-in-the-treatment-of-cerebral-aneurysm
#5
Hailin Zhang, Li Li, Chongjie Cheng, Xiaochuan Sun
Our objective was to evaluate the clinical value of numerical simulation in diagnosing cerebral aneurysm based on the analysis of numerical simulation of hemodynamic model. The experimental method used was the numerical model of cerebral aneurysm hemodynamic, and the numerical value of blood flow at each point was analyzed. The results showed that, the wall shear stress (WSS) value on the top of CA1 was significantly lower than that of the top (P<0.05), the WSS value of each point on the CA2 tumor was significantly lower than that of tumor neck (P<0...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163013/motor-areas-show-altered-dendritic-structure-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model
#6
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at four postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75, and 120 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162383/inhibition-of-ampar-endocytosis-alleviates-pentobarbital-induced-spatial-memory-deficits-and-synaptic-depression
#7
Wei Wang, Tao Tan, Yanzhi Yu, Zhilin Huang, Yehong Du, Huili Han, Zhifang Dong
Our previous study has shown that pentobarbital causes memory deficits and impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The Tat-GluA23Y peptide (GluA23Y) prevents activity-dependent α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. It enables early-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) to proceed to late-phase LTP allowing short-term memory to convert to long-term memory. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential effects of GluA23Y on pentobarbital-induced memory deficits through behavioral and electrophysiological paradigms...
November 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161446/microglia-activation-and-gene-expression-alteration-of-neurotrophins-in-the-hippocampus-following-early-life-exposure-to-e-cigarette-aerosols-in-a-murine-model
#8
Judith T Zelikoff, Nancy Parmalee, Kevin Corbett, Terry Gordon, Catherine B Klein, Michael Aschner
Recent epidemiological data indicate that the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and consequently nicotine use, is rising in both adolescent and adult populations. As nicotine is a known developmental neurotoxin, these products present a potential threat for those exposed during early life stages. Despite this, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of e-cigarettes on the developing central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study was to assess neurotoxicity resulting from early life exposure to electronic cigarette aerosols in an in vivo model...
November 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159960/mapping-the-structural-and-functional-network-architecture-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-using-7t-mri
#9
Preya Shah, Danielle S Bassett, Laura E M Wisse, John A Detre, Joel M Stein, Paul A Yushkevich, Russell T Shinohara, John B Pluta, Elijah Valenciano, Molly Daffner, David A Wolk, Mark A Elliott, Brian Litt, Kathryn A Davis, Sandhitsu R Das
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions play integral roles in memory function and are differentially affected in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The ability to structurally and functionally characterize these subregions may be important to understanding MTL physiology and diagnosing diseases involving the MTL. In this study, we characterized network architecture of the MTL in healthy subjects (n = 31) using both resting state functional MRI and MTL-focused T2-weighted structural MRI at 7 tesla...
November 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155768/slice-patch-clamp-technique-for-analyzing-learning-induced-plasticity
#10
Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Sakimoto, Dai Mitsushima
The slice patch clamp technique is a powerful tool for investigating learning-induced neural plasticity in specific brain regions. To analyze motor-learning induced plasticity, we trained rats using an accelerated rotor rod task. Rats performed the task 10 times at 30-s intervals for 1 or 2 days. Performance was significantly improved on the training days compared to the first trial. We then prepared acute brain slices of the primary motor cortex (M1) in untrained and trained rats. Current-clamp analysis showed dynamic changes in resting membrane potential, spike threshold, afterhyperpolarization, and membrane resistance in layer II/III pyramidal neurons...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155282/seizure-liability-assessments-using-the-hippocampal-tissue-slice-comparison-of-non-clinical-species
#11
Michael V Accardi, Hai Huang, Simon Authier
INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, rat hippocampal tissue slice models are used as an in vitro electrophysiology assay to assess seizurogenic potential in early drug development despite non-clinical species-specific differences noted during in vivo seizure studies. METHODS: Hippocampal tissue slices were acutely isolated from rats, minipigs, dogs and nonhuman primates (NHP). Population spikes (PS) were evoked through stimulation of the CA3 Schaffer collateral pathway and recorded using in vitro electrophysiological techniques via an extracellular electrode placed within the CA1 stratum pyramidale cell body layer...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155005/effects-of-genetic-and-environmental-risk-for-schizophrenia-on-hippocampal-activity-and-psychosis-like-behavior-in-mice
#12
Daniel Scott, Carol A Tamminga
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness most notably characterized by psychotic symptoms. In humans, psychotic disorders are associated with specific hippocampal pathology. However, animal model systems for psychosis often lack this pathology, and have been weak in providing a representation of psychosis. We utilized a double-risk model system combining genetic risk with environmental stress. We hypothesized these factors will induce hippocampal subfield pathology consistent with human findings, as well as behavioral phenotypes relevant to psychosis...
November 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154272/differences-in-synaptic-dysfunction-between-rtg4510-and-app-ps1-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Simon Gelman, Jonathan Palma, Geoffrey Tombaugh, Afshin Ghavami
Genetically modified mice have provided insights into the progression and pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we have examined two mouse models of AD: the rTg4510 mouse, which overexpresses mutant human Tau gene, and the APP/PS1 mouse, which overexpresses mutant human genes for amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1. Both models exhibit deficits in hippocampal function, but comparative analyses of these deficits are sparse. We used extracellular field potential recordings in hippocampal slices to study basal synaptic transmission (BST), paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses in both models...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154129/collective-behavior-of-place-and-non-place-neurons-in-the-hippocampal-network
#14
Leenoy Meshulam, Jeffrey L Gauthier, Carlos D Brody, David W Tank, William Bialek
Discussions of the hippocampus often focus on place cells, but many neurons are not place cells in any given environment. Here we describe the collective activity in such mixed populations, treating place and non-place cells on the same footing. We start with optical imaging experiments on CA1 in mice as they run along a virtual linear track and use maximum entropy methods to approximate the distribution of patterns of activity in the population, matching the correlations between pairs of cells but otherwise assuming as little structure as possible...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150182/mature-hippocampal-neurons-require-lis1-for-synaptic-integrity-implications-for-cognition
#15
Anamaria Sudarov, Xin-Jun Zhang, Leighton Braunstein, Eve LoCastro, Shawn Singh, Yu Taniguchi, Ashish Raj, Song-Hai Shi, Holly Moore, M Elizabeth Ross
BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B1 (LIS1), a critical mediator of neuronal migration in developing brain, is expressed throughout life. However, relatively little is known about LIS1 function in the mature brain. We previously demonstrated that LIS1 involvement in the formation and turnover of synaptic protrusions and synapses of young brain after neuronal migration is complete. Here we examine the requirement for LIS1 to maintain hippocampal circuit function in adulthood...
September 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149774/hippocampal-ca1-activity-correlated-with-the-distance-to-the-goal-and-navigation-performance
#16
Hugo J Spiers, H Freyja Olafsdottir, Colin Lever
Coding the distance to a future goal is an important function of a neural system supporting navigation. While some evidence indicates the hippocampus increases activity with proximity to the goal, others have found activity to decreases with proximity. To explore goal distance coding in the hippocampus we recorded from CA1 hippocampal place cells in rats as they navigated to learned goals in an event arena with a win-stay lose-shift rule. CA1 activity was positively correlated with the distance - decreasing with proximity to the goal...
November 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#17
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147584/il-33-acts-to-express-schaffer-collateral-ca1-ltp-and-regulate-learning-and-memory-by-targeting-myd88
#18
Tomoyuki Nishizaki
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is recognized to transmit a signal through a heterodimeric receptor complex ST2/interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) bearing activation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). High-frequency stimulation to the Schaffer collateral induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from wild-type control mice. Schaffer collateral/CA1 LTP in IL-33-deficient mice was significantly suppressed, which was neutralized by application with IL-33. Similar suppression of the LTP was found with MyD88-deficient mice but not with ST2-deficient mice...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146112/different-concentrations-of-docosahexanoic-acid-supplement-during-lactation-result-in-different-outcomes-in-preterm-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Qian Wang, Chunhong Jia, Xiaohua Tan, Fan Wu, Xinqi Zhong, Zhiwen Su, Weiwen Sun, Qiliang Cui
PROPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplement on preterm Sprague-Dawley rat pups, and in parallel, measured the phosphorylation activity of the mTOR pathway in the hippocampal CA1 area. METHODS: Preterm Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly assigned to experimental groups which included; a sufficient DHA group (100 mg/kg/day); an enriched DHA group (300 mg/kg/day); an excess DHA group (800 mg/kg/day); and a deficient DHA group (normal saline gavage 0...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142096/novel-ca-2-dependent-mechanisms-regulate-spontaneous-release-at-excitatory-synapses-onto-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#20
Walter E Babiec, Thomas J O'Dell
Although long thought to simply be a source of synaptic noise, spontaneous, action-potential independent release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals has multiple roles in synaptic function. We explored whether and to what extent the two predominantly proposed mechanisms for explaining spontaneous release, stochastic activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) or activation of Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSRs) by extracelluar Ca(2+), played a role in the sensitivity of spontaneous release to the level of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration at excitatory synapses at CA1 pyramidal cells of the adult, male mouse hippocampus...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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