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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923975/efficacy-of-nonselective-optogenetic-control-of-the-medial-septum-over-hippocampal-oscillations-the-influence-of-speed-and-implications-for-cognitive-enhancement
#1
Benjamin J Blumberg, Sean P Flynn, Sylvain J Barriere, Philippe R Mouchati, Rod C Scott, Gregory L Holmes, Jeremy M Barry
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. To date, no studies have examined the efficacy of optogenetic stimulation for altering hippocampal oscillations in freely moving wild-type rats, or how these alterations would affect performance on behavioral tasks. Here, we used an AAV virus to express ChR2 in the medial septum (MS) of wild-type rats, and optically stimulated septal neurons at 6 Hz and 30 Hz...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923634/rosmarinic-acid-protects-rat-hippocampal-neurons-from-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-the-akt-jnk3-caspase-3-signaling-pathway
#2
Min Zhang, Hui Yan, Sumei Li, Jun Yang
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury can result in neuronal death, which further results in brain damage and can even lead to death. Although recent studies showed that rosmarinic acid (RA) exerts neuroprotective effects and attenuates ischemia-induced brain injury and neuronal cell death, little is known about the precise mechanisms that occur during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of RA against ischemic brain injury induced by cerebral I/R...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923588/autophagy-and-akt-creb-signalling-play-an-important-role-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-nimodipine-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#3
Ming Hu, Zhijuan Liu, Peiyuan Lv, Hebo Wang, Yifei Zhu, Qianqian Qi, Jing Xu
The Akt/CREB signalling pathway is involved in neuronal survival and protection. Autophagy is also likely to be involved in survival mechanisms. Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel antagonist that reduces excessive calcium influx during pathological conditions (contributing to its neuroprotective properties). However, the potential role of nimodipine in autophagic and Akt/CREB signalling is not well understood. In addition, little is known about the relationship between autophagic and Akt/CREB signalling...
December 3, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922063/design-and-mechanistic-insight-into-ultrafast-calcium-indicators-for-monitoring-intracellular-calcium-dynamics
#4
Nordine Helassa, Borbala Podor, Alan Fine, Katalin Török
Calmodulin-based genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicators (GCaMP-s) are powerful tools of imaging calcium dynamics from cells to freely moving animals. High affinity indicators with slow kinetics however distort the temporal profile of calcium transients. Here we report the development of reduced affinity ultrafast variants of GCaMP6s and GCaMP6f. We hypothesized that GCaMP-s have a common kinetic mechanism with a rate-limiting process in the interaction of the RS20 peptide and calcium-calmodulin...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922053/electrophysiological-properties-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-along-the-longitudinal-axis-of-the-mouse-hippocampus
#5
Giampaolo Milior, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Livio Pepe' Sciarria, Stefano Garofalo, Igor Branchi, Davide Ragozzino, Cristina Limatola, Laura Maggi
Evidence for different physiological properties along the hippocampal longitudinal axis is emerging. Here, we examined the electrophysiological features of neurons at different dorso-ventral sites of the mouse CA1 hippocampal region. Cell position was defined with respect to longitudinal coordinates of each slice. We measured variations in neuronal excitability, subthreshold membrane properties and neurotransmitter responses along the longitudinal axis. We found that (i) pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) were less excitable than those of the ventral hippocampus (VH)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919694/neuron-specific-sumo-knockdown-suppresses-global-gene-expression-response-and-worsens-functional-outcome-after-transient-forebrain-ischemia-in-mice
#6
Lin Zhang, Xiaozhi Liu, Huaxin Sheng, Shuai Liu, Ying Li, Julia Q Zhao, David S Warner, Wulf Paschen, Wei Yang
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation (SUMOylation) plays key roles in neurologic function in health and disease. Neuronal SUMOylation is essential for emotionality and cognition, and this pathway is dramatically activated in post-ischemic neurons, a neuroprotective response to ischemia. It is also known from cell culture studies that SUMOylation modulates gene expression. However, it remains unknown how SUMOylation regulates neuronal gene expression in vivo, in the physiologic state and after ischemia, and modulates post-ischemic recovery of neurologic function...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918547/optical-inactivation-of-synaptic-ampa-receptors-erases-fear-memory
#7
Kiwamu Takemoto, Hiroko Iwanari, Hirobumi Tada, Kumiko Suyama, Akane Sano, Takeharu Nagai, Takao Hamakubo, Takuya Takahashi
The synaptic delivery of neurotransmitter receptors, such as GluA1 AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors, mediates important processes in cognitive function, including memory acquisition and retention. Understanding the roles of these receptors has been hampered by the lack of a method to inactivate them in vivo with high spatiotemporal precision. We developed a technique to inactivate synaptic GluA1 AMPA receptors in vivo using chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#8
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917270/effect-of-creatine-supplementation-on-cognitive-performance-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-amyloid-beta-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Malek Alimohammadi-Kamalabadi, Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza Zarindast, Abbas Aliaghaei, Hamideh Pishva
OBJECTIVES: Neuroprotective effect of creatine (Cr) against β-amyloid (Aβ) is reported in an in vitro study. This study investigated the effect of Cr supplementation on β-amyloid toxicity in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty two, male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. During ten weeks of study, control group went through no surgical or dietary intervention. At the 4th week of study Sham group had a hippocampal normal saline injection, while Aβ and AβCr groups had an β-amyloid injection in the hippocampus...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916859/postnatal-gene-therapy-improves-spatial-learning-despite-the-presence-of-neuronal-ectopia-in-a-model-of-neuronal-migration-disorder
#10
Huaiyu Hu, Yu Liu, Kevin Bampoe, Yonglin He, Miao Yu
Patients with type II lissencephaly, a neuronal migration disorder with ectopic neurons, suffer from severe mental retardation, including learning deficits. There is no effective therapy to prevent or correct the formation of neuronal ectopia, which is presumed to cause cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that learning deficits were not solely caused by neuronal ectopia and that postnatal gene therapy could improve learning without correcting the neuronal ectopia formed during fetal development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated spatial learning of cerebral cortex-specific protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2, an enzyme required for O-mannosyl glycosylation) knockout mice and compared to the knockout mice that were injected with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding POMT2 into the postnatal brains with Barnes maze...
November 29, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#11
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911772/c-terminal-domain-ctd-phosphatase-links-rho-gtpase-signaling-to-pol-ii-ctd-phosphorylation-in-arabidopsis-and-yeast
#12
Bo Zhang, Guohua Yang, Yu Chen, Yihong Zhao, Peng Gao, Bo Liu, Haiyang Wang, Zhi-Liang Zheng
Rho GTPases, including the Rho, Cdc42, Rac, and ROP subfamilies, act as pivotal signaling switches in various growth and developmental processes. Compared with the well-defined role of cytoskeletal organization in Rho signaling, much less is known regarding transcriptional regulation. In a mutant screen for phenotypic enhancers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of ROP2 (designated CA1-1), we identified RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) as a transcriptional regulator of ROP2 signaling...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911756/activation-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-promotes-ltp-induction-at-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-by-priming-nmda-receptors
#13
Nadia Rosenberg, Urs Gerber, Jeanne Ster
: It is well established that selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors induces LTD of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. In contrast, application of 1S,3R-ACPD, a mixed agonist at group I and group II mGlu receptors, induces LTP. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and field recordings in the hippocampal CA1 region, we investigated the specific contribution of group II mGlu receptors to synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute slices of adult mice...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911380/method-for-identifying-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-the-protein-protein-interaction-between-hcn1-and-trip8b
#14
Ye Han, Kyle A Lyman, Matt Clutter, Gary E Schiltz, Quratul-Ain Ismail, Xiangying Cheng, Chi-Hao Luan, Dane M Chetkovich
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are expressed ubiquitously throughout the brain, where they function to regulate the excitability of neurons. The subcellular distribution of these channels in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal area CA1 is regulated by tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b interacting protein (TRIP8b), an auxiliary subunit. Genetic knockout of HCN pore forming subunits or TRIP8b, both lead to an increase in antidepressant-like behavior, suggesting that limiting the function of HCN channels may be useful as a treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908790/mpp-inhibits-mglur1-5-mediated-long-term-depression-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-calpain-activation
#15
Junyao Li, Hui Chen, Shengbing Wu, Yuefa Cheng, Qinglin Li, Jing Wang, Guoqi Zhu
Neurotoxins are harmful to nervous system and cause either neuronal cell death or impairment of synaptic activity, which contributes to Parkinson's disease or other neuronal disorders. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity was proposed as a cellular model for memory processing. In this study, we reported a novel effect of neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), on metabotropic glutamate receptor 1/5 agonist, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and MPP(+) incubation blocked DHPG-induced hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908726/activation-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-improves-early-onset-cognitive-impairment-via-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Ze-Fen Wang, Zhi-Yong Pan, Cheng-Shi Xu, Zhi-Qiang Li
Previous studies experimentally reveal that G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1(GPER) has neuroprotection against ischemic injury. However, its effect on traumatic brain injury (TBI) is less well-established. Cognitive impairment following human TBI is a common clinical observation, and TBI is considered as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to observe the possible protective effect of GPER on early-onset cognitive impairment after a single TBI and investigate the cellular mechanism underlying its actions...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907826/extent-of-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-patients-with-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-correlates-with-neuronal-cell-loss-and-granule-cell-dispersion
#17
Barbara Schmeiser, Josef Zentner, Marco Prinz, Armin Brandt, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: The most frequent finding in temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis, characterized by selective cell loss of hippocampal subregions CA1 and CA4 as well as mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) towards the supragranular region and granule cell dispersion. Although selective cell loss is well described, its impact on mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single center series, we examined 319 human hippocampal specimens, collected in a 15-years period...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905406/differential-roles-for-l-type-calcium-channel-subtypes-in-alcohol-dependence
#18
Stefanie Uhrig, David Vandael, Andrea Marcantoni, Nina Dedic, Ainhoa Bilbao, Miriam A Vogt, Natalie Hirth, Laura Broccoli, Rick E Bernardi, Kai Schönig, Peter Gass, Dusan Bartsch, Rainer Spanagel, Jan M Deussing, Wolfgang H Sommer, Emilio Carbone, Anita C Hansson
It has previously been shown that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) decreases alcohol consumption, although the contribution of the central LTCC subtypes Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 remains unknown. Here, we determined changes in Cav1.2 (Cacna1c) and Cav1.3 (Cacna1d) mRNA and protein expression in alcohol dependent rats during protracted abstinence and naïve controls using in situ hybridization and Western Blot analysis. Functional validation was obtained by electrophysiological recordings of calcium currents in dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons...
December 1, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901472/effects-of-low-and-high-deprenyl-dose-on-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#19
Maria Lalkovicova, Frantiska Horvathova, Igor Sulla, Jozef Mihalik, Viera Danielisova
We evaluated the effects of low dose deprenyl (LDD, 0.0025 mg/kg per day) and high dose deprenyl (HDD, 0.25 mg/kg per day) treatment of male Wistar rats for 30 days on the activities of SOD and CAT in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Total SOD and MnSOD activities were increased with LDD (p <0.05) in the cortex (0.74 ± 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.02), striatum (0.75 ± 0.02; 0.27 ± 0.03) and CA1 region of the hippocampus (0.75 ± 0.02; 0.29 ± 0.03) compared to the control (0.53 ± 0.02; 0.15 ± 0.02), but reduced (p <0...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900598/oxidative-stress-mediated-hippocampal-neuron-apoptosis-participated-in-carbon-disulfide-induced-rats-cognitive-dysfunction
#20
Shuo Wang, Gleniece Irving, Lulu Jiang, Hui Wang, Ming Li, Xujing Wang, Wenting Han, Yongpeng Xu, Yilin Yang, Tao Zeng, Fuyong Song, Xiulan Zhao, Keqin Xie
Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) exhibits central nervous systems toxicity. But the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by CS2, and eventually reveal the possible oxidative-related mechanism of hippocampus pathological changes in CS2 exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were administrated with CS2 at dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for consecutive 20 days, respectively. Cognitive performances were evaluated by Morris water maze tests...
November 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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