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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763671/searching-for-signals-of-recent-natural-selection-in-genes-of-the-innate-immune-response-ancient-dna-study
#1
Magda Lewandowska, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Tomasz Płoszaj, Piotr Witas, Alicja Zamerska, Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Henryk W Witas
The last decade has seen sharp progress in the field of human evolutionary genetics and a great amount of genetic evidence of natural selection has been provided so far. Since host-pathogen co-evolution is difficult to trace due to the polygenic nature of human susceptibility to microbial diseases, of particular interest is any signal of natural selection in response to the strong selective pressure exerted by pathogens. Analysis of ancient DNA allows for the direct insight into changes of a gene pool content over time and enables monitoring allele frequency fluctuations...
May 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754746/rs3212227-snp-in-the-il12b-gene-prevents-delayed-graft-function-after-kidney-transplantation
#2
Vladimir Perovic, Milos Markovic, Milica Kravljaca, Emina Milosevic, Milica Djoric, Vera Pravica, Radomir Naumovic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transplantation is the best treatment option for end stage kidney disease. The most common early complications in post-transplant period are acute rejection (AR) of the graft and delayed graft function (DGF). The underlying mechanisms in these events are heterogeneous and at least in part involve cytokine genes which regulate immune response to allograft. We have investigated whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the genes encoding IFN-γ (IFNG), TNF (TNFA), IL-10 (IL10) and p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-23 (IL12B) could predict risk of AR and DGF in kidney allograft recipients...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743262/mehp-induced-rat-testicular-inflammation-does-not-exacerbate-germ-cell-apoptosis
#3
Jorine J L P Voss, Angela R Stermer, Rashin Ghaffari, Richa Tiwary, John Henry Richburg
The testis is an organ that maintains an immune suppressive environment. We previously revealed that exposure of pre-pubertal rats to an acute dose of a well-described Sertoli cell toxicant, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), leads to an accumulation of CD11b+ immune cells in the testicular interstitial space that closely correlates with a robust incidence of germ cell (GC) apoptosis. Here we test the hypothesis that the infiltrating immune cells contribute to GC apoptosis. Postnatal day 28 Fischer rats that received an oral dose of 700 mg/kg MEHP showed a significant infiltration of both CD11bc+/CD68+/CD163- macrophages and neutrophils...
May 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721366/tnfa-and-il-2-armed-adenoviruses-enable-complete-responses-by-anti-pd-1-checkpoint-blockade
#4
V Cervera-Carrascon, M Siurala, J M Santos, R Havunen, S Tähtinen, P Karell, S Sorsa, A Kanerva, A Hemminki
Releasing the patient's immune system against their own malignancy by the use of checkpoint inhibitors is delivering promising results. However, only a subset of patients currently benefit from them. One major limitation of these therapies relates to the inability of T cells to detect or penetrate into the tumor resulting in unresponsiveness to checkpoint inhibition. Virotherapy is an attractive tool for enabling checkpoint inhibitors as viruses are naturally recognized by innate defense elements which draws the attention of the immune system...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705945/could-alzheimer-s-disease-originate-in-the-periphery-and-if-so-how-so
#5
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Michael Maes, Basant K Puri
The classical amyloid cascade model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been challenged by several findings. Here, an alternative molecular neurobiological model is proposed. It is shown that the presence of the APOE ε4 allele, altered miRNA expression and epigenetic dysregulation in the promoter region and exon 1 of TREM2, as well as ANK1 hypermethylation and altered levels of histone post-translational methylation leading to increased transcription of TNFA, could variously explain increased levels of peripheral and central inflammation found in AD...
April 29, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702095/evidence-that-interferon-tau-secreted-from-day-7-embryo-in-vivo-generates-anti-inflammatory-immune-response-in-the-bovine-uterus
#6
Mohammad B Rashid, Anup K Talukder, Kazuya Kusama, Shingo Haneda, Toshiro Takedomi, Hitomi Yoshino, Satoru Moriyasu, Motozumi Matsui, Masayuki Shimada, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Akio Miyamoto
Recent studies suggest that Day-7 bovine embryo starts to communicate with the uterine epithelium through interferon-tau (IFNT) signaling. However, immune modulatory role of IFNT in the uterus just after the embryo moves from the oviduct is unclear. We aimed to examine the hypothesis that Day-7 bovine embryo secretes IFNT in the uterus, which induces anti-inflammatory response in immune cells. The uterine flush (UF) with multiple embryos was collected from Day-7 donor pregnant cows and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were then cultured in UF...
April 24, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692623/nephritis-cerebritis-and-myositis-after-adalimumab-therapy-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-case-report
#7
Narges E Omran, Abdulsalam A Noorwali
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that mainly affects the joints, therefore, may cause deformities and disability if untreated. The first line of treatment is disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). When the patient fails to respond to DMARDs, mainly methotrexate, then second-line therapy is required. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RA; however, the treatment with anti-TNFα medications is challenging. It may trigger the autoimmune system and result in producing antibodies that induce symptoms and signs mimic to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and in rare situations can affect vital organs with severe and life-threatening complications...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679615/novel-protective-role-of-kallistatin-in-obesity-by-limiting-adipose-tissue-low-grade-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Gema Frühbeck, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Sara Becerril, Xabier Unamuno, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Victoria Catalán
OBJECTIVE: Kallistatin plays an important role in the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and angiogenesis. We aimed to determine the impact of kallistatin on obesity and its associated metabolic alterations as well as its role in adipocyte inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Samples obtained from 95 subjects were used in a case-control study. Circulating concentrations and expression levels of kallistatin as well as key inflammation, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodelling-related genes were analyzed...
April 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673983/population-genetics-informed-meta-analysis-in-seven-genes-associated-with-risk-to-dengue-fever-disease
#9
Marisa Oliveira, Diana P Saraiva, Bruno Cavadas, Verónica Fernandes, Nicole Pedro, Isabelle Casademont, Fanny Koeth, Farida Alshamali, Nourdin Harich, Lotfi Cherni, Beatriz Sierra, Maria G Guzman, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Luisa Pereira
Population genetics theory predicted that rare frequent markers would be the main contributors for heritability of complex diseases, but meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies are revealing otherwise common markers, present in all population groups, as the identified candidate genes. In this work, we applied a population-genetics informed meta-analysis to 10 markers located in seven genes said to be associated with dengue fever disease. Seven markers (in PLCE1, CD32, CD209, OAS1 and OAS3 genes) have high-frequency and the other three (in MICB and TNFA genes) have intermediate frequency...
April 16, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665320/reduced-lymphotoxin-beta-production-by-tumour-cells-is-associated-with-loss-of-follicular-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-diffuse-growth-in-follicular-lymphoma
#10
Giuseppina Pepe, Arianna Di Napoli, Claudia Cippitelli, Stefania Scarpino, Emanuela Pilozzi, Luigi Ruco
Cytokine production is essential for follicular dendritic cell (FDC) maintenance and organization of germinal centres. In follicular lymphoma, FDCs are often disarrayed and may lack antigens indicative of terminal differentiation. We investigated the in situ distribution of cells producing lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) transcripts in human reactive lymph nodes and in follicular lymphomas with follicular or diffuse growth pattern. LTB was the cytokine most abundantly produced in germinal centres...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659957/dietary-fermentable-fibers-attenuate-chronic-kidney-disease-in-mice-by-protecting-the-intestinal-barrier
#11
Tran Van Hung, Takuya Suzuki
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. Although the pathogenesis of CKD is still unclear, recent studies suggest that systemic inflammation caused by a dysregulated microflora and an impaired intestinal barrier is involved in CKD development. Objective: We investigated the effects of the fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), unmodified guar gum (GG), and partially hydrolyzed GG (PHGG) (i.e., substances with distinct viscosity characteristics) on CKD development, with a particular focus on colonic tight junction (TJ) barriers in mice...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657313/curcumin-attenuates-inflammation-in-a-severe-acute-pancreatitis-animal-model-by-regulating-traf1-ask1-signaling
#12
Shuo Yu, Min Wang, Xingjun Guo, Renyi Qin
BACKGROUND Inflammation plays an important role in initiation and development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Curcumin exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in many diseases, including acute pancreatitis. However, the specific molecular mechanisms are not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intra-biliopancreatic duct injection of taurocholate was used to establish an animal model of SAP. Curcumin was administrated to animals as pre-treatments. Concentrations of cytokines in serum and ascites were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655567/acute-coronary-syndrome-relationship-between-genetic-variants-and-timi-risk
#13
Viviane do Carmo Vasconcelos de Carvalho, Lílian Caroliny Amorim Silva, Romário Martins Araújo, Fábia Carla da Silva Soares, Maria José Ribeiro Bezerra, Sávio Augusto Vieira de Oliveira, Alex José de Melo Silva, Sérgio Tavares Montenegro, Roberto Pereira Werkhauser, Carlos Gustavo Régis da Silva, Adriana Vieira Gomes, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais, Silvia Maria Lucena Montenegro
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a multifactorial disease, including the genetic factor, caused by coronary artery obstruction by atheroma. Some genetic variants have been described as risk factors for this disease. Its early diagnosis and stratification of risk of death by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) are important. Therefore, we evaluated variants in the IL6R (c950-1722C>T), TNFa (c.-488G>A), LEPR (c.2673+1118C>T) and IL1b (c.-598T>C) genes in relation to TIMI risk, cytokine serum levels, and risk factors for ACS...
April 11, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618658/pancreatic-cancer-therapy-with-combined-mesothelin-redirected-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-and-cytokine-armed-oncolytic-adenoviruses
#14
Keisuke Watanabe, Yanping Luo, Tong Da, Sonia Guedan, Marco Ruella, John Scholler, Brian Keith, Regina M Young, Boris Engels, Suvi Sorsa, Mikko Siurala, Riikka Havunen, Siri Tähtinen, Akseli Hemminki, Carl H June
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by its highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) that limits T cell infiltration and induces T cell hypofunction. Mesothelin-redirected chimeric antigen receptor T cell (meso-CAR T cell) therapy has shown some efficacy in clinical trials but antitumor efficacy remains modest. We hypothesized that combined meso-CAR T cells with an oncolytic adenovirus expressing TNF-α and IL-2 (Ad5/3-E2F-D24-TNFa-IRES-IL2, or OAd-TNFa-IL2) would improve efficacy...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610259/the-host-antimicrobial-protein-calgranulin-c-participates-in-the-control-of-campylobacter-jejuni-growth-via-zinc-sequestration
#15
Janette M Shank, Brittni R Kelley, Joseph W Jackson, Jessica L Tweedie, Dana Franklin, Steven M Damo, Jennifer A Gaddy, Caitlin N Murphy, Jeremiah G Johnson
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is most commonly acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry meat or through drinking contaminated water. Following ingestion, Campylobacter adheres to the intestinal epithelium and mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inflammation and inhibition of fluid reabsorption. Currently, the human response to infection is relatively unknown and animal hosts that model those responses are rare. As such, we examined patient fecal samples for the accumulation of the neutrophil protein, calgranulin C, during infection with Campylobacter jejuni...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584615/metabolic-and-genetic-markers-associations-with-elevated-levels-of-alanine-aminotransferase-in-adolescents
#16
Guadalupe Ramírez-López, Segundo Morán-Villota, Francisco Mendoza-Carrera, Eliseo Portilla-de Buen, Victoria Valles-Sánchez, Xochitl H Castro-Martínez, José Sánchez-Corona, Jorge Salmerón
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in adolescents, is a feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are risk factors for NAFLD, as well as inflammation-related genetic markers. The relationship between metabolic or inflammation-related genetic markers and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is not fully understood. We examined the relationship of MetS, metabolic and inflammation-related genetic markers with elevated ALT in adolescents...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579081/genetics-in-tnf-tnfr-pathway-a-complex-network-causing-spondyloarthritis-and-conditioning-response-to-anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy
#17
Ada Aita, Daniela Basso, Roberta Ramonda, Stefania Moz, Mariagrazia Lorenzin, Filippo Navaglia, Carlo-Federico Zambon, Andrea Padoan, Mario Plebani, Leonardo Punzi
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of TNFA, or in the autoinflammatory TNFRSF1A and MEFV genes, concur with HLA-B27 in enhancing the risk of Spondyloarthritis (SpA) and/or in predicting the response to anti-TNFα treatment. METHODS: 373 controls and 137 SpA (82 with Psoriatic Arthritis-PsA and 55 with Ankylosing Spondylitis- AS; 98/137 under TNFα inhibitor therapy) from the Veneto Region (Italy) were studied. TNFA polymorphisms (-1031T>C;-857C>T;-376G>A;-308G>A;-238G>A) and HLA-B27 were assayed by RT-PCR...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566366/psychosocial-stress-liver-regeneration-and-weight-gain-a-conspicuous-pathophysiological-triad
#18
Syeda Momna Ishtiaq, Junaid Ali Khan, Muhammad Imran Arshad
Psychosocial stress alters several physiological parameters resulting in multiple disorders, particularly compromising the immune system thereby provoking various diseases including liver disorders. However, the plausible underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recent literature provides mechanistic evidences of detrimental effects of psychosocial stress on physiology of different body organs including liver. The data of stress-induced pathophysiological changes in liver functions and obesity were systematically collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and the Web of Science Databases published in English...
March 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556041/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-induce-pdl1-neutrophils-through-the-il6-stat3-pathway-that-foster-immune-suppression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Yusheng Cheng, Hui Li, Yinan Deng, Yan Tai, Kaining Zeng, Yingcai Zhang, Wei Liu, Qi Zhang, Yang Yang
Emerging evidence indicate that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect tumor progression by reshaping the tumor microenvironment. Neutrophils are prominent components of solid tumors and important in cancer progression. Whether the phenotype and function of neutrophils in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are influenced by CAFs is not well understood. Herein, we investigated the effect of HCC-derived CAFs (HCC-CAFs) on the neutrophils and explored the biological role of this effect. We found that HCC-CAFs induced chemotaxis of neutrophils and protected them from spontaneous apoptosis...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548899/inflammatory-cytokine-profiles-in-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-of-obese-patients-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-reveal-lack-of-correlation-with-obesity-or-diabetes
#20
Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Gregory Lacraz, Marian Mayhue, Christine Brown, Diane Rottembourg, Julie Fradette, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Sheela Ramanathan
Population studies have linked insulin resistance to systemic low-grade chronic inflammation and have reported elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, individually or in certain combinations, in adipose tissues or in the serum. We undertook this comprehensive study to simultaneously evaluate the expression of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum and in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery...
March 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
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