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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893782/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-and-or-salicylate-on-palmitate-or-tnf%C3%AE-induced-neuroinflammatory-marker-and-neuropeptide-gene-regulation-in-immortalized-npy-agrp-neurons
#1
Wenqing Ye, Ernesto H Ramos, Brian C Wong, Denise D Belsham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890035/epigenetics-in-type-1-diabetes-tnfa-gene-promoter-methylation-status-in-chilean-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Viviana Arroyo-Jousse, Diego F Garcia-Diaz, Ethel Codner, Francisco Pérez-Bravo
TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. The TNFa gene is subject of epigenetic regulation in which folate and homocysteine are important molecules because they participate in the methionine cycle where the most important methyl group donor (S-adenosylmethionine) is formed. We investigated whether TNFa gene promoter methylation status in T1D patients was related to blood folate, homocysteine and TNF-α in a transversal case-control study. We studied T1D patients (n 25, mean=13·7 years) and healthy control subjects (n 25, mean=31·1 years), without T1D and/or other autoimmune diseases or direct family history of these diseases...
November 28, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873324/red-blood-cell-alloimmunization-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-correlation-with-hla-and-cytokine-gene-polymorphisms
#3
Emilia Ângela Sippert, Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer, Hugo Vicentin Alves, Camila Rodrigues, Simone Cristina Olenscki Gilli, Marcelo Addas-Carvalho, Sara Teresinha Ollala Saad, Fernando Ferreira Costa, Lilian Castilho
BACKGROUND: The reason for the difference in susceptibility to red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is not clearly understood and is probably the result of multiple factors. Our hypothesis is that genetic polymorphisms are associated with RBC alloimmunization. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the possible association of susceptibility to RBC alloimmunization with polymorphisms of HLA and cytokines genes in 161 SCD patients prior exposed to RBC transfusion...
November 21, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867269/platyphylloside-isolated-from-betula-platyphylla-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-and-induce-lipolysis-via-regulating-adipokines-including-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#4
Mina Lee, Sang Hyun Sung
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859672/immune-activation-and-regulation-related-patterns-in-stable-hand-transplant-recipients
#5
Dorota Kamińska, Katarzyna Kościelska-Kasprzak, Magdalena Krajewska, Adam Chełmoński, Jerzy Jabłecki, Marcelina Żabińska, Marta Myszka, Mirosław Banasik, Maria Boratyńska, Agnieszka Gomółkiewicz, Piotr Dzięgiel, Marian Klinger
BACKGROUND: We assessed cell subsets and expression of a set of genes related to the T cell populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to elucidate whether immune status of stable hand transplant recipients (HTx) differs from stable kidney transplant recipients (KTx). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 5 HTx 4.8 ± 1.7 years after transplantation and 30 stable KTx 7.9 ± 2.4 years after transplantation as well as 18 healthy volunteers. The research involved PBMC gene expression analysis of CD4, CD8, CTLA4, GZMB, FOXP3, IL10, IL4, ILR2A, NOTCH, PDCD1, PRF1, TGFB, TNFA genes on a custom designed low density array (TaqMan) as well as flow cytometry assessment of lymphocyte subpopulations...
November 9, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856306/enhanced-formation-of-giant-cells-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-relation-to-granulomatous-disease
#6
Timothy H Scott-Taylor, Karen Whiting, Ruth Pettengell, David A Webster
Peripheral monocytes from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) had on average a 2 fold greater tendency to form giant cells in medium without additional cytokines. Giant cell formation was faster and 3 to 5 fold higher in most CVID cells compared to normal. Addition of IL4, GMCSF, IFNγ, TNFa and both T cell and monocyte conditioned media promoted monocyte fusion of some CVID individuals over 5 fold the normal average level, with combinations of cytokines and monokines acting synergistically...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822481/association-between-308g-a-tnfa-polymorphism-and-susceptibility-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Geisa Izetti Luna, Izabel Cristina Rodrigues da Silva, Mauro Niskier Sanchez
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a worldwide epidemic disease and its type 2 form comprises more than 95% of all cases. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine. Its dysregulation has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The control of expression of this cytokine is associated with insulin resistance and has a strong genetic influence. In order to understand this relationship, the literature from all case-control studies since 2000 to date was reviewed...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821647/preclinical-evaluation-of-drugs-to-block-inflammation-driven-preterm-birth
#8
Demelza J Ireland, Elizabeth A Nathan, Shaofu Li, Adrian K Charles, Lisa F Stinson, Matthew W Kemp, John P Newnham, Jeffrey A Keelan
Intrauterine inflammation, the major cause of early preterm birth, can have microbial and sterile aetiologies. We assessed in a Transwell model the anti-inflammatory efficacies of five drugs on human extraplacental membranes delivered after preterm spontaneous labour (30-34 wk). Drugs [TPCA1 (IKKβ inhibitor), 5 z-7-oxozeaenol (OxZ, TAK1 inhibitor), inhibitor of NF-κB essential modulator binding domain (iNBD), SB239063 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and N-acetyl cysteine (free radical scavenger free radicals)] were added after 12 h equilibration to the amniotic compartment...
November 7, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793001/mir-135b-5p-inhibits-lps-induced-tnf%C3%AE-production-via-silencing-ampk-phosphatase-ppm1e
#9
Ping Li, Jian-Bo Fan, Yanxia Gao, Ming Zhang, Li Zhang, Ning Yang, Xiaojing Zhao
AMPK activation in monocytes could suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue-damaging TNFa production. We are set to provoke AMPK activation via microRNA ("miRNA") downregulating its phosphatase Ppm1e. In human U937 and THP-1 monocytes, forced expression of microRNA-135b-5p ("miR-135b-5p") downregulated Ppm1e and activated AMPK signaling. Further, LPS-induced TNFα production in above cells was dramatically attenuated. Ppm1e shRNA knockdown in U937 cells also activated AMPK and inhibited TNFα production by LPS...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790411/protective-yeasts-control-v-anguillarum-pathogenicity-and-modulate-the-innate-immune-response-of-challenged-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#10
Mario Caruffo, Natalie C Navarrete, Oscar A Salgado, Nelly B Faúndez, Miguel C Gajardo, Carmen G Feijóo, Angélica Reyes-Jara, Katherine García, Paola Navarrete
We investigated mechanisms involved in the protection of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae by two probiotic candidate yeasts, Debaryomyces hansenii 97 (Dh97) and Yarrowia lypolitica 242 (Yl242), against a Vibrio anguillarum challenge. We determined the effect of different yeast concentrations (10(4)-10(7) CFU/mL) to: (i) protect larvae from the challenge, (ii) reduce the in vivo pathogen concentration and (iii) modulate the innate immune response of the host. To evaluate the role of zebrafish microbiota in protection, the experiments were performed in conventionally raised and germ-free larvae...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768511/low-hemagglutinin-antigen-dose-influenza-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-as03-alter-the-long-term-immune-responses-in-balb-c-mice
#11
Karen K Yam, Angela Brewer, Virginie Bleau, Édith Beaulieu, Corey P Mallett, Brian J Ward
We investigated the long-term immune profiles of dose-sparing, AS03-adjuvanted vaccines compared to a traditional high-dose, unadjuvated influenza vaccine formulations. BALB/c mice received 2 IM injections of influenza A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) split vaccine antigen: high-dose (HD) (3 µg hemagglutinin (HA)/dose) or low-dose (LD) formulations (0.03 µg or 0.003 µg HA) with AS03 and were followed to 34 weeks post-boost (pb). We examined serologic responses, spleen and bone marrow (BM) HA-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) by ELISpot, influenza-specific cytokine/chemokine production in re-stimulated splenocytes by multiplex ELISA, and antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that express cytokines (IL-2, IFNγ, TNFa and IL-5) by flow cytometry...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762509/analytical-and-clinical-evaluation-of-an-immunoassay-for-estimating-immunogenicity-of-infliximab-and-etanercept-in-indian-population
#12
Canna Ghia, Shashank Akerkar, Shailaja Sabnis, Urk Rao, Gautam Rambhad
BACKGROUND / OBJECTIVES: Biologic anti-TNFs in India have improved the patient management. Significant proportions of patients lose response over time or do not respond. Possible explanations are suboptimal trough anti-TNFa concentrations or antibodies to anti-TNFs. The aim of this project was to set up and standardize an independent laboratory to test immunogenicity of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). METHODS: Three rheumatologists piloted this project approved by independent ethics committee and carried out in compliance with ICH/GCP guidelines...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754272/sy-17-2-inflammation-immunity-and-hypertension
#13
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750040/tnfa-knockdown-in-the-retina-promotes-cone-survival-in-a-mouse-model-of-autosomal-dominant-retinitis-pigmentosa
#14
Tapasi Rana, Pravallika Kotla, Roderick Fullard, Marina Gorbatyuk
Expression of T17M rhodopsin (T17M) in rods activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and leads to the development of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The rod death occurs in adRP retinas prior to cone photoreceptor death, so the mechanism by which cone photoreceptors die remains unclear. Therefore, the goal of the study was to verify whether UPR in rods induces TNFa-mediated signaling to the cones and to determine whether the TNFa deficit could prevent adRP cone cell death. Primary rod photoreceptors and cone-derived 661W cells transfected with siRNA against TNFa were treated with tunicamycin to mimic activation of UPR in T17M retinas expressing normal and reduced TNFa levels...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726457/a-review-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-vedolizumab-for-treating-moderate-to-severely-active-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Her Hsin Tsai, Christopher Black
Introduction Vedolizumab is a novel humanised monoclonal IgG1 antibody gut selective anti-integrin specifically targeting α4β7 integrins in the gut and found to be efficacious in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Areas covered Research investigating the cost-effectiveness of vedolizumab is limited. This review considers data from the manufacturers, the evidence research group commissioned by NICE to conduct a single technology appraisal, and the decision of NICE itself to appraise what is currently known about the cost-effectiveness of vedolizumab for moderately to severely active ulcerative from a UK perspective...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721742/-soldier-s-heart-a-genetic-basis-for-elevated-cardiovascular-disease-risk-associated-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Harvey B Pollard, Chittari Shivakumar, Joshua Starr, Ofer Eidelman, David M Jacobowitz, Clifton L Dalgard, Meera Srivastava, Matthew D Wilkerson, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano
"Soldier's Heart," is an American Civil War term linking post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with increased propensity for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have hypothesized that there might be a quantifiable genetic basis for this linkage. To test this hypothesis we identified a comprehensive set of candidate risk genes for PTSD, and tested whether any were also independent risk genes for CVD. A functional analysis algorithm was used to identify associated signaling networks. We identified 106 PTSD studies that report one or more polymorphic variants in 87 candidate genes in 83,463 subjects and controls...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670395/impact-of-serum-and-dialysates-obtained-from-chronic-hemodialysis-patients-maintained-on-high-cut-off-membranes-on-inflammation-profile-in-human-thp-1-monocytes
#17
Bogusz Trojanowicz, Christof Ulrich, Roman Fiedler, Markus Storr, Torsten Boehler, Peter Martus, Michael Pawlak, Marcus A Glomb, Christian Henning, Markus Templin, Kristin Werner, Daniel Zickler, Kevin Willy, Ralf Schindler, Matthias Girndt
Introduction Patients with chronic kidney disease maintained on intermittent hemodialysis suffer from systemic chronic inflammation which is causally associated with high mortality. Inflammation mediators of 15-45 kDa range cannot be effectively removed by conventional dialysis membranes. In this study, we tested the influence of serum and dialysates obtained from patients maintained on High cut-off or High flux membranes on the inflammation profile of THP-1 monocytes. Methods THP-1 monocytes were treated with serum or dialysates obtained from patients maintained on High cut-off and High flux membranes within a randomized crossover pilot trial...
September 26, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649267/ethnicity-dependent-influence-of-innate-immune-genetic-markers-on-morphine-pca-requirements-and-adverse-effects-in-postoperative-pain
#18
Andrew A Somogyi, Alex T Sia, Ene-Choo Tan, Janet K Coller, Mark R Hutchinson, Daniel T Barratt
Although several genetic factors have been associated with postsurgical morphine requirements, those involving the innate immune system and cytokines have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variability in innate immune signalling pathways to variability in morphine dosage after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in 133 Indian, 230 Malay, and 598 Han Chinese women previously studied. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes involved in glial activation (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, MD2), inflammatory signalling (IL2, IL6, IL10, IL1B, IL6R, TNFA, TGFB1, CRP, CASP1), and neuronal regulation (BDNF) were newly investigated, in addition to OPRM1, COMT, and ABCB1 genetic variability identified previously...
July 14, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643269/sy-17-2-inflammation-immunity-and-hypertension
#19
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621730/transient-migration-of-large-numbers-of-cd14-cd16-monocytes-to-the-draining-lymph-node-after-onset-of-inflammation
#20
Hege Lund, Preben Boysen, Caroline Piercey Åkesson, Anna Monika Lewandowska-Sabat, Anne K Storset
The dynamics of skin-draining cells following infection or vaccination provide important insight into the initiation of immune responses. In this study, the local recruitment and activation of immune cells in draining lymph nodes (LNs) was studied in calves in an adjuvant-induced inflammation. A transient but remarkably strong recruitment of monocytes was demonstrated after onset of inflammation, constituting up to 41% of live cells in the draining LNs after 24 h. Numerous CD14(+) cells were visualized in subcutaneous tissues and draining LNs, and the majority of these cells did not express dendritic cell-associated markers CD205 and CD11c...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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