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Canna Ghia, Shashank Akerkar, Shailaja Sabnis, Urk Rao, Gautam Rambhad
BACKGROUND / OBJECTIVES: Biologic anti-TNFs in India have improved the patient management. Significant proportions of patients lose response over time or do not respond. Possible explanations are suboptimal trough anti-TNFa concentrations or antibodies to anti-TNFs. The aim of this project was to set up and standardize an independent laboratory to test immunogenicity of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). METHODS: Three rheumatologists piloted this project approved by independent ethics committee and carried out in compliance with ICH/GCP guidelines...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tapasi Rana, Pravallika Kotla, Roderick Fullard, Marina Gorbatyuk
Expression of T17M rhodopsin (T17M) in rods activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and leads to the development of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The rod death occurs in adRP retinas prior to cone photoreceptor death, so the mechanism by which cone photoreceptors die remains unclear. Therefore, the goal of the study was to verify whether UPR in rods induces TNFa-mediated signaling to the cones and to determine whether the TNFa deficit could prevent adRP cone cell death. Primary rod photoreceptors and cone-derived 661W cells transfected with siRNA against TNFa were treated with tunicamycin to mimic activation of UPR in T17M retinas expressing normal and reduced TNFa levels...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Her Hsin Tsai, Christopher Black
Introduction Vedolizumab is a novel humanised monoclonal IgG1 antibody gut selective anti-integrin specifically targeting α4β7 integrins in the gut and found to be efficacious in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Areas covered Research investigating the cost-effectiveness of vedolizumab is limited. This review considers data from the manufacturers, the evidence research group commissioned by NICE to conduct a single technology appraisal, and the decision of NICE itself to appraise what is currently known about the cost-effectiveness of vedolizumab for moderately to severely active ulcerative from a UK perspective...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Harvey B Pollard, Chittari Shivakumar, Joshua Starr, Ofer Eidelman, David M Jacobowitz, Clifton L Dalgard, Meera Srivastava, Matthew D Wilkerson, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano
"Soldier's Heart," is an American Civil War term linking post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with increased propensity for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have hypothesized that there might be a quantifiable genetic basis for this linkage. To test this hypothesis we identified a comprehensive set of candidate risk genes for PTSD, and tested whether any were also independent risk genes for CVD. A functional analysis algorithm was used to identify associated signaling networks. We identified 106 PTSD studies that report one or more polymorphic variants in 87 candidate genes in 83,463 subjects and controls...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Bogusz Trojanowicz, Christof Ulrich, Roman Fiedler, Markus Storr, Torsten Boehler, Peter Martus, Michael Pawlak, Marcus A Glomb, Christian Henning, Markus Templin, Kristin Werner, Daniel Zickler, Kevin Willy, Ralf Schindler, Matthias Girndt
Introduction Patients with chronic kidney disease maintained on intermittent hemodialysis suffer from systemic chronic inflammation which is causally associated with high mortality. Inflammation mediators of 15-45 kDa range cannot be effectively removed by conventional dialysis membranes. In this study, we tested the influence of serum and dialysates obtained from patients maintained on High cut-off or High flux membranes on the inflammation profile of THP-1 monocytes. Methods THP-1 monocytes were treated with serum or dialysates obtained from patients maintained on High cut-off and High flux membranes within a randomized crossover pilot trial...
September 26, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Andrew A Somogyi, Alex T Sia, Ene-Choo Tan, Janet K Coller, Mark R Hutchinson, Daniel T Barratt
Although several genetic factors have been associated with postsurgical morphine requirements, those involving the innate immune system and cytokines have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variability in innate immune signalling pathways to variability in morphine dosage after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in 133 Indian, 230 Malay, and 598 Han Chinese women previously studied. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes involved in glial activation (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, MD2), inflammatory signalling (IL2, IL6, IL10, IL1B, IL6R, TNFA, TGFB1, CRP, CASP1), and neuronal regulation (BDNF) were newly investigated, in addition to OPRM1, COMT, and ABCB1 genetic variability identified previously...
July 14, 2016: Pain
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hege Lund, Preben Boysen, Caroline Piercey Åkesson, Anna Monika Lewandowska-Sabat, Anne K Storset
The dynamics of skin-draining cells following infection or vaccination provide important insight into the initiation of immune responses. In this study, the local recruitment and activation of immune cells in draining lymph nodes (LNs) was studied in calves in an adjuvant-induced inflammation. A transient but remarkably strong recruitment of monocytes was demonstrated after onset of inflammation, constituting up to 41% of live cells in the draining LNs after 24 h. Numerous CD14(+) cells were visualized in subcutaneous tissues and draining LNs, and the majority of these cells did not express dendritic cell-associated markers CD205 and CD11c...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Yi Cui, Sheng Lu, Hongbo Tan, Jun Li, Min Zhu, Yongqing Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteomyelitis is defined as an inflammation of the bones and bone marrow. The inflammatory microenvironment attenuates the osteogenic differentiation capacity of stem cells and inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, leading to net bone loss. However, the whole expression profile, function and side effect of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in an inflammatory microenvironment of osteomyelitis are not known. METHODS: In the present study, human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were treated with different concentrations of Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) to trigger an inflammatory microenvironment in vitro to partly duplicate the inflammatory microenvironment of osteomyelitis, which was confirmed using ELISA for detecting the inflammatory cytokines...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, Vanesa Sabugo, María Cecilia Castro, Guillermo Schinella, Daniel Castrogiovanni, Eduardo Spinedi, María Laura Massa, Flavio Francini
We investigated the impact of chronic hypercorticosteronemia (due to neonatal monosodium L-glutamate, MSG, and treatment) on liver oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism in adult male rats. We evaluated the peripheral concentrations of several metabolic and OS markers and insulin resistance indexes. In liver we assessed (a) OS (GSH and protein carbonyl groups) and inflammatory (IL-1b, TNFa, and PAI-1) biomarkers and (b) carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. MSG rats displayed degenerated optic nerves, hypophagia, low body and liver weights, and enlarged adipose tissue mass; higher peripheral levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, uric acid, leptin, corticosterone, transaminases and TBARS, and peripheral and liver insulin resistance; elevated liver OS, inflammation markers, and glucokinase (mRNA/activity) and fructokinase (mRNA)...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Hazuki Tanaka, Ayaka Ohtsu, Shogo Shiratsuki, Ryoka Kawahara-Miki, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
The mammalian oviduct is an essential site for sperm storage, the transport of gametes, fertilization, and embryo development-functions that are aided by cytokines secreted from oviduct epithelial cells (OECs). Aging leads to cellular and organ dysfunction, with infertility associated with advanced maternal age. Few studies have investigated age-dependent changes in the oviduct as a possible cause of infertility, so we compared OECs from young (30-50 months) versus aged (more than 120 months) cattle. Next-generation sequencing was first used to identify age-related differences in gene expression...
September 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Wafa Munir Ansari, Steve E Humphries, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Omer Jamshed Khan, Dilshad Ahmed Khan
BACKGROUND: Genetic information has the potential to create a more personalised, prompt, early and accurate risk evaluation. The effect of these genetic variants on the serum biomarker levels (phenotype) needs to be studied to assess their potential causal role in the pathogenesis of premature coronary artery disease (PCAD). Objectives were to determine the genotypic distribution of interleukin (IL) 18, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFA), IL6 and IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Pakistani PCAD cases and disease free controls and to study the effect of these gene polymorphisms on the serum cytokine levels (IL18, TNFA, IL6 and IL10) and cytokine imbalance (IL18:IL10 and TNFA:IL10)...
August 24, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Xinqi Wu, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Xiaoyun Liao, Donald Lawrence, David McDermott, Jun Zhou, Scott Rodig, F Stephen Hodi
Immune recognition of tumor targets by specific cytotoxic lymphocytes is essential for the effective rejection of tumors. A phase I clinical trial of ipilimumab (an antibody that blocks CTLA-4 function) in combination with bevacizumab (an antibody that inhibits angiogenesis) in patients with metastatic melanoma found favorable clinical outcomes were associated with increased tumor endothelial activation and lymphocyte infiltration. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, we sought features and factors that changed as a function of treatment in patients...
October 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
M Saitoh, K Kobayashi, I Ohmori, Y Tanaka, K Tanaka, T Inoue, A Horino, K Ohmura, A Kumakura, Y Takei, S Hirabayashi, M Kajimoto, T Uchida, S Yamazaki, T Shiihara, T Kumagai, M Kasai, H Terashima, M Kubota, M Mizuguchi
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), or acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS), is an epileptic encephalopathy beginning with fever-mediated seizures. The etiology remains unclear. To elucidate the genetic background of FIRES/AERRPS (hereafter FIRES), we recruited 19 Japanese patients, genotyped polymorphisms of the IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, IL1RN, SCN1A and SCN2A genes, and compared their frequency between the patients and controls. For IL1RN, the frequency of a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) allele, RN2, was significantly higher in the patients than in controls (p=0...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Simona Nemska, Laurent Monassier, Max Gassmann, Nelly Frossard, Reza Tavakoli
Left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a risk factor for heart failure and death, is characterized by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial cell proliferation, and leukocyte infiltration. Chemokines interacting with G protein-coupled chemokine receptors may play a role in LVH development by promoting recruitment of activated leukocytes or modulating left-ventricular remodeling. Using a pressure overload-induced kinetic model of LVH in rats, we examined during 14 days the expression over time of chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNAs in left ventricles from aortic-banded vs sham-operated animals...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca L Skalsky, Sarah A Barr, Andrew J Jeffery, Tiffany Blair, Ryan Estep, Scott W Wong
UNLABELLED: Japanese macaque (JM) rhadinovirus (JMRV) is a novel, gamma-2 herpesvirus that was recently isolated from JM with inflammatory demyelinating encephalomyelitis (JME). JME is a spontaneous and chronic disease with clinical characteristics and immunohistopathology comparable to those of multiple sclerosis in humans. Little is known about the molecular biology of JMRV. Here, we sought to identify and characterize the small RNAs expressed during lytic JMRV infection using deep sequencing...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
L Graham, D Graham, M W McBride, A F Dominiczak, S Padmanabhan
OBJECTIVE: UMOD-/- mice have low blood pressure and decreased salt-sensitivity indicating interactions between UMOD and sodium transport in the TAL. However, it's unclear whether the effect of UMOD is solely through interaction with cognate molecules in the TAL or whether the perturbations in physiology are more complex with involvement of both TAL and other parts of the nephron. We propose to answer this by profiling mRNA expression levels of the main ion transporters and signalling molecules in tubules from UMOD+/+ and UMOD-/- mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
E Legaki, M G Roubelakis, G E Theodoropoulos, A Lazaris, A Kollia, G Karamanolis, E Marinos, M Gazouli
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are the result of pathological immune responses due to environmental factors or microbial antigens into a genetically predisposed individual. Mainly due to their trophic properties, a mounting interest is focused on the use of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) to treat IBD disease in animal models. The aim of the study is to test whether the secreted molecules, derived from a specific population of second trimester amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, the spindle-shaped MSCs (SS-AF-MSCs), could be utilized as a novel therapeutic, cell free approach for IBD therapy...
October 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
A V Elchaninov, T Kh Fatkhudinov, N Yu Usman, I V Arutyunyan, A V Makarov, E Yu Kananykhina, V V Glinkina, G B Bolshakova, G T Sukhikh
Expression of il1b, il6, il10, tnfa, hgf, tgfb, vegf, and fgf2 genes in the lungs and kidneys was examined on rat model of liver regeneration after subtotal hepatectomy. Enhanced expression of il6, il10, tnfa, hgf, and fgf2 genes was detected at the early terms after 80% liver resection.
July 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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