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Cerebral anoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879542/central-nervous-system-symptoms-due-to-transient-methemoglobinemia-in-a-child-with-g6pd-deficiency
#1
Shreya Sharma, Rangan Srinivasaraghavan, Sriram Krishnamurthy
The authors herein report a 5-year-old child who presented with massive hemolysis, irritability, and cyanosis. The final diagnosis was glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with associated central nervous system symptoms probably because of concomitantly acquired methemoglobinemia following oxidant drug exposure. The associated acute-onset anemia would have contributed to the development of cerebral anoxia-related seizures and encephalopathy.
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837370/intraocular-pressure-and-cerebral-oxygenation-during-prolonged-headward-acceleration
#2
Ola Eiken, Michail E Keramidas, Nigel A S Taylor, Mikael Grönkvist
PURPOSE: Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676819/consciousness-assessment-by-activated-cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-complemented-with-the-wessex-head-injury-matrix-whim-in-patients-with-disorder-of-consciousness-doc
#3
Laurent Collombier, Vincent Boudousq, Marion Belorgeot, Francesa Ramella, Frédéric Pellas
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral 18F-FDG PET complements bedside examination with behavioural scales in patients with DOC enabling better functional categorization. We realized a resting PET, then another after motor/visual activation, in patients with DOC according to their clinical course. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective mono central study in our acute inpatients rehabilitation unit between 2011 and 2014. Our group consists of 14 patients (whom 5 women) with DOC, 18-70 years old at moment of brain injury (6 severe TBI, 4 anoxia, 3 hemorrhagic and 1 ischemic major strokes)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484878/brainstem-monitoring-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit-a-rationale-for-real-time-automated-neurophysiological-monitoring
#4
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
August 2, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381353/evaluation-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-tissue-morphology-of-in-vivo-rat-brain-using-spectral-diffuse-reflectance-imaging
#5
Izumi Nishidate, Tomohiro Ishizuka, Afrina Mustari, Keiichiro Yoshida, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato
We investigated a quantitative imaging of reduced scattering coefficients μs'(λ) and the absorption coefficients μa(λ) of in vivo cortical tissues in the range from visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths based on diffuse reflectance spectral imaging technique. In this method, diffuse reflectance images of in vivo cortical tissue are acquired at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm). A multiple regression analysis aided by the Monte Carlo simulation for the absorbance spectra is then utilized to estimate the optical coefficients of cortical tissue...
July 5, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314908/activity-dependent-calcium-oxygen-and-vascular-responses-in-a-mouse-model-of-familial-hemiplegic-migraine-type-1
#6
Lila Khennouf, Bodil Gesslein, Barbara Lykke Lind, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Martin Lauritzen
OBJECTIVE: Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is a subtype of migraine with aura caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV 2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. However, the mechanisms underlying how the disease is brought about and the prolonged aura remain incompletely understood. METHODS: In the anesthetized FHM1 mouse model in vivo, we used two-photon microscopy to measure calcium changes in neurons and astrocytes during somatosensory stimulations and cortical spreading depression (CSD), the putative mechanism of the migraine aura...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280321/phosphorylation-of-the-mitochondrial-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-occurs-independently-of-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-in-turtle-brain
#7
Peter John Hawrysh, Ashley Rebecca Miles, Leslie Thomas Buck
Neurons from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) are remarkably resilient to anoxia. This is partly due to a reduction in the permeability of excitatory glutamatergic ion channels, initiated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mK(+)ATP) channel activation. The aim of this study was to determine if: 1) PKCε, a kinase associated with hypoxic stress tolerance, is more highly expressed in turtle brain than the anoxia-intolerant rat brain; 2) PKCε translocates to the mitochondrial membrane during anoxia; 3) PKCε modulates mK(+)ATP channels at the Thr-224 phosphorylation site on the Kir6...
October 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226188/effects-of-body-temperature-on-post-anoxic-oxidative-stress-from-the-perspective-of-postnatal-physiological-adaptive-processes-in-rats
#8
H Kletkiewicz, J Rogalska, A Nowakowska, A Wozniak, C Mila-Kierzenkowska, M Caputa
It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia...
April 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211347/effects-of-maternal-low-protein-diet-on-parameters-of-locomotor-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-palsy
#9
Kássia Oliveira Gomes da Silva, Sabrina da Conceição Pereira, Mariana Portovedo, Marciane Milanski, Lígia Cristina Monteiro Galindo, Omar Guzmán-Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Ana Elisa Toscano
Children with cerebral palsy have feeding difficulties that can contribute to undernutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early undernutrition on locomotor activity and the expression of the myofibrillar protein MuRF-1 in an experimental model of cerebral palsy (CP). In order to achieve this aim, pregnant rats were divided into two groups according to the diet provided: Normal Protein (NP, n=9) and Low Protein (LP, n=12) groups. After birth, the pups were divided into four groups: Normal Protein Sham (NPS, n=16), Normal Protein Cerebral Palsy (NPCP, n=21), Low Protein Sham (LPS, n=20) and Low Protein Cerebral Palsy (LPCP, n=18) groups...
August 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160344/sodium-sulfide-a-hydrogen-sulfide-releasing-molecule-attenuates-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#10
Hao-Qiang Shi, Ying Zhang, Ming-He Cheng, Bo-Shi Fan, Jia-Sheng Tian, Jian-Guang Yu, Bing Chen
AIMS: Acute cerebral ischemia may lead to ischemic stroke, which is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) functions importantly in mammalian systems. The present work was designed to study the effect of sodium sulfide, a donor of H2 S, on acute cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Acute cerebral focal ischemia was produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Bilateral vertebral arteries and common carotid arteries were blocked to establish cerebral global ischemia in SD rats...
July 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158406/pharmacologic-preconditioning-with-berberine-attenuating-ischemia-induced-apoptosis-and-promoting-autophagy-in-neuron
#11
Qichun Zhang, Huimin Bian, Liwei Guo, Huaxu Zhu
Pharmacologic preconditioning is an intriguing and emerging approach adopted to prevent injury of ischemia/reperfusion. Neuroprotection is the cardinal effect of these pleiotropic actions of berberine. Here we investigated that whether berberine could acts as a preconditioning stimuli contributing to attenuate hypoxia-induced neurons death as well. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and rat primary cortical neurons undergoing oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) were preconditioned with berberine (40 mg/kg, for 24 h in vivo, and 10(-6) mol/L, for 2 h in vitro, respectively)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142913/-clinicopathologic-study-of-intractable-epilepsy-related-encephalitis
#12
C C Liu, S Y Chen, Y S Piao, D H Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of intractable epilepsy related encephalitis. METHODS: The clinical and pathologic findings of 15 cases of intractable epilepsy after functional neurosurgical treatment were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: All patients, including four male and 11 female, had medically intractable epilepsy. The mean age of onset for seizure was 5.3 years (1-15 years) and the disease duration was 4...
May 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103547/consciousness-unconsciousness-and-death-in-the-context-of-slaughter-part-i-neurobiological-mechanisms-underlying-stunning-and-killing
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Terlouw, Cécile Bourguet, Véronique Deiss
This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms that are relevant for the stunning and killing process of animals in the abattoir. The mechanisms underlying the loss of consciousness depend on the technique used: mechanical, electrical or gas stunning. Direct exsanguination (without prior stun) causes also a loss of consciousness before inducing death. The underlying mechanisms may involve cerebral anoxia or ischemia, or the depolarisation, acidification and/or the destruction of brain neurons. These effects may be caused by shock waves, electrical fields, the reduction or arrest of the cerebral blood circulation, increased levels of CO2 or low levels of O2 in the inhaled air, or the mechanical destruction of neurons...
August 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084399/nondrowning-asphyxia-in-veterinary-forensic-pathology-suffocation-strangulation-and-mechanical-asphyxia
#14
B J McEwen
Asphyxia in a forensic context refers to death by rapid cerebral anoxia or hypoxia due to accidental or nonaccidental injury. Death due to nondrowning asphyxia can occur with strangulation, suffocation, and mechanical asphyxia, each of which is categorized based on the mechanism of injury. Individuals dying due to various types of asphyxia may or may not have lesions, and even those lesions that are present may be due to other causes. The interpretation or opinion that death was due to asphyxia requires definitive and compelling evidence from the postmortem examination, death scene, and/or history...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26794834/deferoxamine-prevents-cerebral-glutathione-and-vitamin-e-depletions-in-asphyxiated-neonatal-rats-role-of-body-temperature
#15
Hanna Kletkiewicz, Anna Nowakowska, Agnieszka Siejka, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Alina Woźniak, Michał Caputa, Justyna Rogalska
Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia...
2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735867/rehabilitation-following-cerebral-anoxia-an-assessment-of-27-patients
#16
Eva Tazopoulou, Raphaële Miljkovitch, Jean-Luc Truelle, Alexis Schnitzler, Michel Onillon, Thierry Zucco, Graeme Hawthorne, Michèle Montreuil
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate cognitive and emotional impairments, disability and quality-of-life for adults with cerebral anoxia institutionalized in residential care facilities. (2) To evaluate the efficacy of medication, psychotherapy, support group and therapeutic activities. METHODS: Twenty-seven persons with cerebral anoxia were recruited, on average 8 years post-injury. Only 20 went through the whole study. Over three consecutive 2-month periods, they were assessed four times to evaluate: baseline observations (T1-T2), adjustment of their medication (T2-T3); and the effect of psychotherapy, support group and therapeutic activities such as physical and artistic or cultural activities usually proposed in the facilities involved (T3-T4)...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26113210/evidence-for-an-enduring-ischaemic-penumbra-following-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-with-implications-for-fibrinolytic-therapy
#17
REVIEW
David McLeod, Stephen Beatty
The rationale behind hyperacute fibrinolytic therapy for cerebral and retinal arterial occlusion is to rescue ischaemic cells from irreversible damage through timely restitution of tissue perfusion. In cerebral stroke, an anoxic tissue compartment (the "infarct core") is surrounded by a hypoxic compartment (the "ischaemic penumbra"). The latter comprises electrically-silent neurons that undergo delayed apoptotic cell death within 1-6 h unless salvaged by arterial recanalisation. Establishment of an equivalent hypoxic compartment within the inner retina following central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) isn't widely acknowledged...
November 2015: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25866619/differential-cytokine-expression-by-brain-microglia-macrophages-in-primary-culture-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-their-protective-effects-on-astrocytes-during-anoxia
#18
Rawan Barakat, Zoran Redzic
BACKGROUND: Activation of microglia/macrophages following cerebral ischemia may be beneficial or detrimental for the survival of brain cells, an ambiguity in effects that has been explained by findings that ischemia can induce transformation of resting monocytes/macrophages into two different inflammation-related phenotypes, termed M1 and M2. The extent to which this differentiation depends on paracrine signaling from other brain cells is not clear. This study explored if oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) can trigger expression of phenotype-specific markers in rat microglia/macrophages in primary culture, in absence/low abundance of other brain cells...
2015: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632629/-multimodal-neuromonitoring-for-the-critical-care-management-of-acute-coma
#19
REVIEW
Z Ltaief, N Ben-Hamouda, T Suys, R T Daniel, A O Rossetti, M Oddo
Management of neurocritical care patients is focused on the prevention and treatment of secondary brain injury, i.e. the number of pathophysiological intracerebral (edema, ischemia, energy dysfunction, seizures) and systemic (hyperthermia, disorders of glucose homeostasis) events that occur following the initial insult (stroke, hemorrhage, head trauma, brain anoxia) that may aggravate patient outcome. The current therapeutic paradigm is based on multimodal neuromonitoring, including invasive (intracranial pressure, brain oxygen, cerebral microdialysis) and non-invasive (transcranial doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy, EEG) tools that allows targeted individualized management of acute coma in the early phase...
December 10, 2014: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632571/-effect-of-acupuncture-intervention-on-14-3-3-expression-in-cerebral-cortex-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage-rats
#20
Xing-er Li, Qing Yuan, Chun-zhi Tang, Fei Chen, Rong Zhao, Long-lin Liu, Yu-tian Yu, Yong Cao, Jia-li Wu, Shuo Sun
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture therapy on 14-3-3, Bcl-2 and Bax expression levels in the cerebral cortex in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage(HIBD). METHODS: Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams were delivered either vaginally (normal group), or by C-section (sham-operation group) or by C-section with 5 min of global anoxia (anoxia group), with 8 rats in each group. The rat pups of the anoxia group were randomly divided into model group and acupuncture group (n =8)...
December 2014: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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