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Cerebral anoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050394/cortical-neurons-and-networks-are-dormant-but-fully-responsive-during-isoelectric-brain-state
#1
Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Adrien E Schramm, Jimena Ballestero, Fanny Grosselin, Mario Chavez, Sarah Lecas, Michel Baulac, Lionel Naccache, Sophie Demeret, Vincent Navarro, Séverine Mahon, Stéphane Charpier
A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974122/activation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-in-rat-brain-after-perinatal-anoxia-role-of-body-temperature
#2
Hanna Kletkiewicz, Malwina Hyjek, Krzysztof Jaworski, Anna Nowakowska, Justyna Rogalska
Transcriptional hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays the fundamental role in adaptive processes in response to hypoxia. Specific HIF-1α target genes are involved in glycolysis, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis to promote survival. In our previous study we have demonstrated that naturally low body temperature of newborn rats protects them against damage due to perinatal hypoxia. Therefore, our experiments aimed at checking the effects of body temperature during simulated perinatal anoxia on subsequent changes of expression of HIF-1α and its specific target genes such as VEGF and EPO in the rat brain...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935338/soft-tissue-surgery-for-adults-with-nonfunctional-spastic-hands-following-central-nervous-system-lesions-a-retrospective-study
#3
Laure Gatin, Alexis Schnitzler, Fabien Calé, Guillaume Genêt, Philippe Denormandie, François Genêt
PURPOSE: Soft tissue surgery for upper extremity contractures can improve hygiene, pain, and appearance in adults with central nervous system lesions. The goal of such interventions is highly individual; thus, goal attainment scaling (GAS; a method of scoring the extent to which patient's individual goals are achieved [5 levels] in the course of intervention and using T score values) is pertinent to evaluate outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of soft tissue surgery for upper extremity muscle contractures in patients with central nervous system lesions using GAS...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709915/sex-differences-in-somatic-and-sensory-motor-development-after-neonatal-anoxia-in-wistar-rats
#4
Amrita Jha Kumar, Silvia Honda Takada, Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Vitor Yonamine Lee, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Maria Inês Nogueira
Currently, one of the important causes of brain injury in new-borns is the neonatal anoxia which impacts the perinatology services worldwide. Animal models of anoxia have been used to assess its effects at cellular and behavioural levels in all ages, but few studies focus on sex differences. This study aimed to investigate some physical parameters of development, sensorimotor alterations, early neurological reflexes as well as the density of cells in motor and sensorimotor cerebral cortex of adolescent rats submitted to neonatal anoxia...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684012/-high-blood-pressure-during-the-autonomic-crises-in-children-in-intensive-care-unit-etiologic-circumstances-and-modality-therapeutic
#5
D D Batouche, M Benatta, R Okbani, N F Benatta
The dysautonomic (DC) or neurovegetative crisis remains an imperfectly known entity; it associates in a paroxysmal manner a reaction of sympathetic hyperreactivity that can lead to the prognosis. Our objective is to specify the etiological circumstances (DC) and their modality of treatment in pediatric intensive care unit. MATERIALS-METHODS: Descriptive study on files of children admitted in the intensive care unit of 2010-2015 who presented a DC acquired during their hospitalization...
June 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678794/ammonium-tetrathiomolybdate-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-chemistry-pharmacology-and-impact-of-a-new-class-of-sulfide-donor-in-preclinical-injury-models
#6
Alex Dyson, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Giovanni Sabbatini, Anna B Lach, Federica Galfo, Juliano Dos Santos Cardoso, Bruna Pescador Mendonça, Iain Hargreaves, Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Daniel I Bromage, John F Martin, Kevin P Moore, Martin Feelisch, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Early revascularization of ischemic organs is key to improving outcomes, yet consequent reperfusion injury may be harmful. Reperfusion injury is largely attributed to excess mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulfide inhibits mitochondria and reduces ROS production. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM), a copper chelator, releases sulfide in a controlled and novel manner, and may offer potential therapeutic utility. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro, ATTM releases sulfide in a time-, pH-, temperature-, and thiol-dependent manner...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518117/simultaneous-evaluation-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-light-scattering-properties-of-the-in-vivo-rat-brain-using-multispectral-diffuse-reflectance-imaging
#7
Izumi Nishidate, Afrina Mustari, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato
The simultaneous evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics and the light scattering properties of in vivo rat brain tissue is demonstrated using a conventional multispectral diffuse reflectance imaging system. This system is constructed from a broadband white light source, a motorized filter wheel with a set of narrowband interference filters, a light guide, a collecting lens, a video zoom lens, and a monochromatic charged-coupled device (CCD) camera. An ellipsoidal cranial window is made in the skull bone of a rat under isoflurane anesthesia to capture in vivo multispectral diffuse reflectance images of the cortical surface...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431445/-near-drowning-with-good-outcome-after-ecmo-therapy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-despite-20-minutes-of-anoxia-and-16-hours-of-hypoxia
#8
Peter Stachon, Johannes Kalbhenn, Stephan Walterspacher, Christoph Bode, Dawid Staudacher
Introduction Drowning with submersion over 10 minutes is associated with a high mortality. Here, we present a case, in which a good neurological outcome was achieved after interdisciplinary, intensive care therapy despite submersion of 20 minutes followed by 16 hours of hypoxia. History A 19 year old man drowned in fresh-water. After 20 minutes submersion he was localized and salvaged from 8 meters depth and primarily resuscitated successfully after 10 minutes. Within the next hour, there condition worsened by respiratory deterioration due to a massive capillary leak syndrome in addition to a disseminated intravascular coagulation...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416561/requirements-for-and-current-provision-of-rehabilitation-services-for-children-after-severe-acquired-brain-injury-in-the-uk-a-population-based-study
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Louise Hayes, Simon Shaw, Mark S Pearce, Rob J Forsyth
OBJECTIVES: Survival with brain injury is an outcome of severe illness that may be becoming more common. Provision for children in this situation has received little attention. We sought to estimate rates of severe paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) requiring rehabilitation and to describe current provision of services for these children in the UK. METHODS: This study conducted an analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics data between April 2003 and March 2012, supplemented by a UK provider survey completed in 2015...
September 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320189/tempol-4-hydroxy-tempo-inhibits-anoxia-induced-progression-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-associated-neurobehavioral-impairment-in-neonatal-rats
#10
Puneet K Samaiya, Gopeshwar Narayan, Ashok Kumar, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND: Anoxia leads to a robust generation of reactive oxygen species/nitrogen species which can result in mitochondrial dysfunction and associated cell death in the cerebral cortex of neonates. AIM: The present study investigated the pharmacological role of tempol in the treatment of rat neonatal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction induced insult progression (day-1 to day-7) and associated neurobehavioral alterations post-anoxia. METHODS: Rat pups of 30h age or postnatal day 2 (PND2) were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=5 per group): (1) Control; (2) Anoxia; (3) Anoxia+Tempol 75mg/kg; (4) Anoxia+Tempol 150mg/kg; and (5) Anoxia+Tempol 300mg/kg, and subjected to two episode of anoxia (10min each) at 24h of time interval in an enclosed chamber supplied with 100% N2...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288937/incidence-of-fatal-snake-bite-in-australia-a-coronial-based-retrospective-study-2000-2016
#11
Ronelle E Welton, Danny Liew, George Braitberg
INTRODUCTION: It has been over 20 years since a national review of recorded deaths from snake envenoming. The present study aimed to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of deaths from snake bites in Australia. METHODS: Deaths were identified from January 2000 to December 2016 from the National Coronial Information System. Cases identified due to snakes were extracted with data on coronial findings, autopsy and police records. RESULTS: Thirty five deaths (2...
June 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153456/perinatal-undernutrition-associated-to-experimental-model-of-cerebral-palsy-increases-adverse-effects-on-chewing-in-young-rats
#12
Diego Cabral Lacerda, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, Diego Bulcão Visco, Paula Brielle Pontes, Wenicius Ferreira Chaves, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Ana Elisa Toscano
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of perinatal undernutrition on the sensorimotor pattern of chewing in rats submitted to cerebral palsy experimental model. A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Nourished/Control (NC, n=15), Nourished/Cerebral Palsy (NCP, n=15); Undernourished/Control (UC, n=15) and Undernourished/Cerebral Palsy (UCP, n=15). Animals of cerebral palsy (CP) group were subjected to an experimental model based on the combination of perinatal anoxia associated with sensorimotor restriction of the hindlimb...
January 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009855/tetramethyl-pyrazine-protects-hippocampal-neurons-against-anoxia-reoxygenation-injury-through-inhibiting-apoptosis-mediated-by-jnk-mark-signal-pathway
#13
Ming Zhong, Wuhua Ma, Xiong Zhang, Yong Wang, Xiaoqiu Gao
BACKGROUND Tetramethyl pyrazine (TMP) is a typical biologically active alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Ligusticum walliichi. It has been reported that TMP shows neuroprotective and stroke injury reductive properties in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) animal models. In the present study we sought to investigate the effect and potential intervention mechanism of TMP in anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) rat hippocampal neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS After being cultured for 7 days, primary hippocampal neurons were randomly assigned into a normal control group (N), a TMP group (C: 0 ug/ml, L: 60 ug/ml, M: 200ug/ml and H: 800 ug/ml), and a JNK inhibitor group (S: SP600125, 10 μmol/L)...
December 23, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879542/central-nervous-system-symptoms-due-to-transient-methemoglobinemia-in-a-child-with-g6pd-deficiency
#14
Shreya Sharma, Rangan Srinivasaraghavan, Sriram Krishnamurthy
The authors herein report a 5-year-old child who presented with massive hemolysis, irritability, and cyanosis. The final diagnosis was glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with associated central nervous system symptoms probably because of concomitantly acquired methemoglobinemia following oxidant drug exposure. The associated acute-onset anemia would have contributed to the development of cerebral anoxia-related seizures and encephalopathy.
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837370/intraocular-pressure-and-cerebral-oxygenation-during-prolonged-headward-acceleration
#15
Ola Eiken, Michail E Keramidas, Nigel A S Taylor, Mikael Grönkvist
PURPOSE: Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i...
January 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676819/consciousness-assessment-by-activated-cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-complemented-with-the-wessex-head-injury-matrix-whim-in-patients-with-disorder-of-consciousness-doc
#16
Laurent Collombier, Vincent Boudousq, Marion Belorgeot, Francesa Ramella, Frédéric Pellas
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral 18F-FDG PET complements bedside examination with behavioural scales in patients with DOC enabling better functional categorization. We realized a resting PET, then another after motor/visual activation, in patients with DOC according to their clinical course. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective mono central study in our acute inpatients rehabilitation unit between 2011 and 2014. Our group consists of 14 patients (whom 5 women) with DOC, 18-70 years old at moment of brain injury (6 severe TBI, 4 anoxia, 3 hemorrhagic and 1 ischemic major strokes)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484878/brainstem-monitoring-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit-a-rationale-for-real-time-automated-neurophysiological-monitoring
#17
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
February 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381353/evaluation-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-tissue-morphology-of-in-vivo-rat-brain-using-spectral-diffuse-reflectance-imaging
#18
Izumi Nishidate, Tomohiro Ishizuka, Afrina Mustari, Keiichiro Yoshida, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato
We investigated a quantitative imaging of reduced scattering coefficients μs'(λ) and the absorption coefficients μa(λ) of in vivo cortical tissues in the range from visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths based on diffuse reflectance spectral imaging technique. In this method, diffuse reflectance images of in vivo cortical tissue are acquired at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm). A multiple regression analysis aided by the Monte Carlo simulation for the absorbance spectra is then utilized to estimate the optical coefficients of cortical tissue...
July 5, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314908/activity-dependent-calcium-oxygen-and-vascular-responses-in-a-mouse-model-of-familial-hemiplegic-migraine-type-1
#19
Lila Khennouf, Bodil Gesslein, Barbara Lykke Lind, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Martin Lauritzen
OBJECTIVE: Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is a subtype of migraine with aura caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV 2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. However, the mechanisms underlying how the disease is brought about and the prolonged aura remain incompletely understood. METHODS: In the anesthetized FHM1 mouse model in vivo, we used two-photon microscopy to measure calcium changes in neurons and astrocytes during somatosensory stimulations and cortical spreading depression (CSD), the putative mechanism of the migraine aura...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280321/phosphorylation-of-the-mitochondrial-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-occurs-independently-of-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-in-turtle-brain
#20
Peter John Hawrysh, Ashley Rebecca Miles, Leslie Thomas Buck
Neurons from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) are remarkably resilient to anoxia. This is partly due to a reduction in the permeability of excitatory glutamatergic ion channels, initiated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mK(+)ATP) channel activation. The aim of this study was to determine if: 1) PKCε, a kinase associated with hypoxic stress tolerance, is more highly expressed in turtle brain than the anoxia-intolerant rat brain; 2) PKCε translocates to the mitochondrial membrane during anoxia; 3) PKCε modulates mK(+)ATP channels at the Thr-224 phosphorylation site on the Kir6...
October 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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