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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545003/adaptation-specialization-and-coevolution-within-phytobiomes
#1
REVIEW
David A Baltrus
Growth patterns of individual plants and evolutionary trajectories of plant communities are intimately linked with and are critically affected by host-associated microbiomes. Research across systems has begun to shed light on how these phytobiomes are established under laboratory and natural conditions, and have cultivated hope that a better understanding of the governing principles for host-microbe interactions can guide attempts to engineer microbiomes to boost agricultural yields. One important, yet relatively understudied, parameter in regards to phytobiome membership is the degree to which specialization and coevolution between plant species and microbes provides structure to these communities...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544944/mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-australia-and-new-zealand-s-indigenous-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Emma Black, Steve Kisely, Karolina Alichniewicz, Maree Toombs
The Indigenous populations of Australia and New Zealand are considered at higher risk of mood and anxiety disorders but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We conducted a systematic search of relevant electronic databases, as well as snowballing and targeted searches of the grey literature. Studies were included for meta-analysis if they compared rates of mood and anxiety disorders between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians or Maori. Seven Australian and 10 NZ studies were included...
May 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544804/longitudinal-patterns-in-objective-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-a-multi-ethnic-sample-of-children-from-the-uk
#3
L Smith, D Aggio, M Hamer
BACKGROUND: Children of South Asian decent born in the UK display lower levels of physical activity than British Caucasians although no longitudinal data are available. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate change in activity levels over 1 year in a diverse ethnic sample of children residing in London, UK. METHODS: Children were categorized into ethnic groups (Caucasian/mixed, Black, South Asian). At baseline and 1-year follow-up, children's objective physical activity was monitored (Actigraph accelerometer) for at least 1 day...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544635/a-robust-water-based-functional-binder-framework-for-high-energy-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#4
Matthew James Lacey, Viking Österlund, Fabian Jeschull, Andreas Bergfelt, Tim Bowden, Daniel Brandell
We report here a water-based functional binder framework for the lithium-sulfur battery system, based on the general combination of a polyether and an amide-containing polymer. These binders are applied here to positive electrodes optimised towards high energy electrochemical performance based only on commercially available materials. Electrodes with up to 4 mAh cm-2 capacity and 97 - 98% coulombic efficiency are achievable in electrodes with a 65% total sulfur content and a poly(ethylene oxide):poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PEO:PVP) binder system...
May 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544520/safety-and-perioperative-adverse-events-in-pediatric-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-an-acs-nsqip-p-analysis
#5
Christopher R Roxbury, Lilun Li, Daniel Rhee, Kris R Jatana, Rahul K Shah, Emily F Boss
INTRODUCTION: This study describes safety outcomes of pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) to identify risk factors for 30-day postoperative adverse events using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) database. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients in the 2012-2015 NSQIP-P database who underwent ESS. Predictors included demographics, comorbidities and surgical acuity. Outcomes included 30-day complications, reoperations, and readmissions...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544478/the-protective-role-of-physical-activity-on-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-of-effect-modification-by-race-ethnicity
#6
William R Boyer, James R Churilla, Samantha F Ehrlich, Scott E Crouter, Lyndsey M Hornbuckle, Eugene C Fitzhugh
BACKGROUND: It is well known physical activity (PA) plays a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the extent to which PA may impact T2D risk among different race-ethnic groups is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effect modification of race-ethnicity on PA and T2D. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched through June 2016. Study assessment for inclusion was conducted in three phases: 1) title review (N = 13,022), 2) abstract review (N = 2,200), and 3) full text review (N = 265)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544453/black-tungsten-nitride-as-metallic-photocatalyst-for-overall-water-splitting-operable-at-up-to-765-nm
#7
Yu Lei Wang, Ting Nie, Yu Hang Li, Xue Lu Wang, Li Rong Zheng, Ai Ping Chen, Xue Qing Gong, Huagui Yang
Semiconductor photocatalysts are hardly to be employed for overall water splitting beyond 700 nm, owing to both thermodynamic aspects and activation barriers. Metallic materials as photocatalysts are known to overcome this limitation through interband transitions for creating electron-hole pairs, however, the application of metallic photocatalysts for overall water splitting has never been fulfilled. Here we report, for the first time, that the black tungsten nitride can be employed as metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting at wavelengths of up to 765 nm...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544396/current-trends-in-racial-ethnic-and-healthcare-disparities-associated-with-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-outcomes
#8
Jennifer K Peterson, Yanjun Chen, Danh V Nguyen, Shaun P Setty
OBJECTIVE: Despite overall improvements in congenital heart disease outcomes, racial and ethnic disparities have continued. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of race and ethnicity, as well as other risk factors on congenital heart surgery length of stay and in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: From the 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids Inpatient Database (KID), we identified 13 130 records with Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery complexity score-eligible procedures...
May 22, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544213/bac-recombineering-of-the-agouti-loci-from-spotted-gar-and-zebrafish-reveals-the-evolutionary-ancestry-of-dorsal-ventral-pigment-asymmetry-in-fish
#9
Laura Cal, Manuel MegÍas, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Josep Rotllant
Dorsoventral pigment patterning, characterized by a light ventrum and a dark dorsum, is one of the most widespread chromatic adaptations in vertebrate body coloration. In mammals, this countershading depends on differential expression of agouti-signaling protein (ASIP), which drives a switch of synthesis of one type of melanin to another within melanocytes. Teleost fish share countershading, but the pattern results from a differential distribution of multiple types of chromatophores, with black-brown melanophores most abundant in the dorsal body and reflective iridophores most abundant in the ventral body...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543821/synthesis-of-a-single-crystalline-macroporous-layered-silicate-from-macroporous-utl-type-zeolite-and-its-accelerated-intercalation
#10
Yusuke Asakura, Naoki Kawaura, Yoshiyuki Kuroda, Masakazu Koike, Hiroaki Wada, Atsushi Shimojima, Kazuyuki Kuroda
A single-crystalline macroporous layered silicate was obtained for the first time. Firstly, UTL-type zeolite with macropores was prepared hydrothermally under the presence of acetylene black as a macropore template and the subsequent calcination to remove the template. Double four-membered ring (d4r) units in the UTL framework were selectively dissolved to yield a layered silicate with macropores. Intercalation of tetrabutylammonium ions into the macroporous layered silicate is accelerated if compared with that into the same silicate without macropores, indicating the effectiveness of macropores due to easy diffusion...
May 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543672/i-do-not-like-green-eggs
#11
William A Burke, Charles M Phillips, Erin M Hurd
Shells of pinworm ova contain chitin, which stains bright green when exposed to chlorazol black E. The objective was to determine whether chlorazol black E could assist in identification of pinworm ova from skin scrapings. Skin scrapings were stained using chlorazol black E and pinworm ova were more easily recognized, staining a blue-green color.
May 23, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543665/immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-epidermal-proliferation-differentiation-and-melanocytic-density-in-symmetrical-acrokeratoderma
#12
P-P Yang, J Peng, Y-Y Wu, Z Liu, P Sheng, Y Zhou, S-J Li, Y-M Fan
BACKGROUND: Symmetrical acrokeratoderma (SAK) is characterized by brown to black hyperkeratotic patches on acral regions. Although epidermal hyperkeratosis and acanthosis are consistent pathological changes, the nature of epidermal hyperplasia is unknown. AIM: To evaluate epidermal proliferation and differentiation and melanocytic density in skin lesions of SAK. METHODS: Expression of keratin 10 (K10), K14, K16, involucrin, filaggrin, Ki-67, and Melan-A was detected by immunohistochemistry in eight patients with SAK, seven patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and six healthy controls (HCs)...
May 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543620/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-the-afro-caribbean-community-an-11-year-retrospective-study
#13
Nadège Cordel, Lucie Bonnecarrère, Benoit Tressières
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered the most frequent skin cancer in black people. Its incidence is not known in the Afro-Caribbean population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of SCC in Guadeloupe, the largest island of the Lesser Antilles (405 000 inhabitants, mostly black people of African and European descent). The second objective was to characterize clinical and histological patterns of SCC occurring in the Afro-Caribbean community. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted over an 11-year period (2000-2010)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543537/evaluation-of-bioactive-compounds-in-black-table-olives-fermented-with-selected-microbial-starters
#14
Miriana Durante, Maria Tufariello, Luca Tommasi, Marcello Salvatore Lenucci, Gianluca Bleve, Giovanni Mita
BACKGROUND: Table olives have been a component of the Mediterranean diet for centuries, with a consumption trend currently increasing worldwide. They are rich in bioactive molecules with nutritional, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or hormone-like properties. In this study, the concentration of phenolics, triterpenic acids, carotenoids, vitamins, as well as the fatty acid profiles and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the edible portion of black table olives (Olea europea L.) from Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars fermented with selected autochthonous starters and in the corresponding monovarietal olive oils...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543406/novel-murine-xenograft-model-for-the-evaluation-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-profound-dysphagia
#15
Maggie A Kuhn, Amanda B Black, M Tausif Siddiqui, Jan A Nolta, Peter C Belafsky
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Dysphagia is common and costly. Treatments are limited and innovative therapies are required. The tongue is essential for safe, effective swallowing and is a natural target for regenerative therapy. Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) hold potential to restore dynamic function, and their application in the damaged tongue is appealing. We examined the safety and efficacy of human MDSC implantation into a novel mouse tongue model. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study...
May 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543401/oral-anticoagulation-management-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-undergoing-cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-implantation
#16
Eric Black-Maier, Sunghee Kim, Benjamin A Steinberg, Gregg C Fonarow, James V Freeman, Peter R Kowey, Jack Ansell, Bernard J Gersh, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Gerald Naccarelli, Elaine M Hylek, Alan S Go, Eric D Peterson, Jonathan P Piccini
BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy is associated with increased periprocedural risks after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation. Patterns of anticoagulation management involving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have not been characterized. HYPOTHESIS: Anticoagulation strategies and outcomes differ by anticoagulant type in patients undergoing CIED implantation. METHODS: Using the nationwide Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, we assessed how atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing CIED implantation were cared for and their subsequent outcomes...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543379/idiopathic-lymphoplasmacellular-mucositis-of-the-lips-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Ren-Feng Liu, Chun-Bing Chen, Tseng-Tong Kuo, Wen-Hung Chung
Idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis (ILPM) is a group of disorders histologically characterized by dense infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells in submucosa. These lesions are initially observed on the glans penis and vulva, and later on buccal mucosa, lips, gingiva, tongue, epiglottis, larynx, and other mucosal surfaces have also been reported. We have reviewed the previously reported cases of ILPM with lip involvement, outlining the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of the entity to date...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543029/temporal-trends-in-craniometric-estimates-of-admixture-for-a-modern-american-sample
#18
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: Temporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture are investigated for three U.S. populations in the FDB. Patterns of association between birth years and posterior probabilities of cluster membership are identified to assess how these proportions of admixture have changed over recent time. Demographic and genetic data correlates, patterns of morphological expression, and shifts in source populations are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimates of three-way admixture were obtained for 1,521 individuals of documented population, sex, and birth years that span the 20th century...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542948/the-capability-of-raman-microspectroscopy-to-differentiate-printing-inks
#19
Chelsea E Johnson, Paul Martin, Katherine A Roberts, Tatiana Trejos, Ruthmara Corzo, Jose R Almirall, Alan M Safer
This study applies Raman microspectroscopy to differentiate the chemical components in printing inks of different brands, colors, and type using the 532 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. Spectra were collected from 319 inks (78 inkjet, 76 toner, 79 offset, and 86 intaglio) representing various colors. Comparisons were performed to calculate discrimination capability percentages for each ink type. Overall, Raman microspectroscopy differentiates according to the following hierarchy: intaglio (96%), inkjet (92%), offset (90%), and toner (61%)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542893/the-burden-of-rare-cancers-in-the-united-states
#20
Carol E DeSantis, Joan L Kramer, Ahmedin Jemal
There are limited published data on the burden of rare cancers in the United States. By using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the authors provide information on incidence rates, stage at diagnosis, and survival for more than 100 rare cancers (defined as an incidence of fewer than 6 cases per 100,000 individuals per year) in the United States. Overall, approximately 20% of patients with cancer in the United States are diagnosed with a rare cancer...
May 19, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
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