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Philippe Desmarais, Catherine Miville, Ángela Milán-Tomás, Quoc Dinh Nguyen, Carmen Ojeda-López, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black, Danielle Molinari Andrade, Nathan Herrmann
OBJECTIVES: To analyze age representation trends over time in antiepileptic drug (AED) trials and to assess trial design elements as possible barriers to enrollment of elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, and meta-analyzed demographic data of cohorts enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of AEDs published since 1991. Data analysis included trends of age representation over time and trial design elements associated with average age of enrolled cohorts...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Riikka Homanen
The multimillion-euro fertility industry increasingly tailors its treatments to infertile people who are willing to travel across national borders for treatments inaccessible at home, especially reproductive tissue donor treatments. Finland is the Nordic destination for access to donor eggs, particularly for Swedes and Norwegians hoping for a donor match that will achieve a child of phenotypically plausible biological descent. Finns are seen as Nordic kin, and the inheritability of "Nordicness" is reinforced at clinics...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Myra Sabir, Margaret A Johnson
We articulate the lifespan theory of change by which an attachment-focused integrative reminiscence intervention, "Life Writing", is expected to interrupt the continuing problem of insecure attachment in adults and reverse associated reduced health and well-being outcomes. Based on preliminary studies and previous research, Life Writing is expected to foster earned-secure attachment in adults who work through subjective memories of unresolved attachment trauma. Roughly two decades of research on integrative reminiscence interventions like Life Writing show their consistent and wide-ranging positive impact...
February 13, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Sophia Y Wang, Mariam S Hamid, David C Musch, Maria A Woodward
Importance: Nearly 2 million patients visit emergency departments (EDs) because of eye concerns annually in the United States. How hospitals currently assign these patients to treatment is important for designing systems that equitably allocate resources for eye care in urgent settings. Objective: To investigate factors associated with ophthalmology consultation for eye-related adult ED encounters to assess possible disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, language preference, or residential distance from the medical center...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
(no author information available yet)
In 2016, men aged ≥18 years were more likely than women to be current regular drinkers of alcohol (62.1% versus 47.2%). Non-Hispanic white men (65.5%) were more likely to be current regular drinkers than Hispanic men (57.8%) and non-Hispanic black men (52.9%). Non-Hispanic white women (55.6%) were more likely to be current regular drinkers than non-Hispanic black women (35.9%) and Hispanic women (31.5%).
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Maria A Morosanova, Zahar V Samodelov, Elena I Morosanova
The interaction of silica-titania xerogel with triphenylmethane dyes (pyrocatechol violet, chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R) has been investigated to create a new sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of food oxalates. The complex forming reaction between xerogel incorporated titanium(IV) and triphenylmethane dyes has been studied; half-reaction periods, complex composition, equilibrium constants, and xerogel sorption capacity have been calculated for each dye. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) is characterized by the shortest half-reaction period, the smallest equilibrium constant, and the greatest capacity; it has been chosen for the sensor material construction because titanium(IV)-ECR complex is formed faster and can be destroyed easier than other studied complexes...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Behjat Javadi
Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Susan Bodnar
When Donald Trump became president of the United States, I discovered that my clients who identified as Black saw me as a White clinician. With that came a host of nefarious attributions. To preserve therapeutic efficacy, and the genuine relationships with people about whom I cared, I had to distinguish myself from the president; thus, I learned not only how it feels to be seen through the bias of skin color but what I needed to do to identify as a person rather than a White person. "Welcome to my world," said one African American client...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Wanfu Shen, Chunguang Hu, Shuchun Huo, Zhaoyang Sun, Shuangqing Fan, Jing Liu, Xiaotang Hu
We report on both the theoretical and experimental design of a black phosphorus (BP)-based reflective linear polarizer on Si/SiO2 substrate in visible range using the Fabry-Perot cavities method. Thanks to the optical anisotropy of BP, polarization wavelength regulation and a high extinction ratio are achievable via optimizing the thickness of BP. Using azimuth-dependent reflectance difference microscopy, we directly measured a huge optical anisotropy of 1.58, corresponding to an extinction ratio of ∼9  dB, from a 96 nm BP on a silicon substrate capped by 260 nm thermally oxidized silicon at a wavelength of 690 nm for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Qinyu Qian, Ying Yan, Chinhua Wang
We report on a monolithic, all-metallic, and flexible metasurface perfect absorber [black nickel (Ni)] based on coupled Mie resonances originated from vertically stepped Ni nanopillars homoepitaxially grown on an Ni substrate. Coupled Mie resonances are generated from Ni nanopillars with different sizes such that Mie resonances of the stepped two sets of Ni nanopillars occur complementarily at different wavelengths to realize polarization-independent broadband absorption over the entire visible wavelength band (400-760 nm) within an ultra-thin surface layer of only 162 nm thick in total...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Elizabeth F Redente, Martin A Aguilar, Bart P Black, Benjamin Edelman, Ali Bahadur, Stephen M Humphries, David A Lynch, Lutz Wollin, David W H Riches
Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) develops in approximately 20% of patients with RA. SKG mice, which are genetically prone to developing autoimmune arthritis, develop a pulmonary interstitial pneumonia that resembles human cellular and fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has been shown to reduce lung function decline. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nintedanib on the development of pulmonary fibrosis and joint disease in female SKG mice with arthritis induced by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (5 mg)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Lintao Peng, Spencer A Wells, Christopher R Ryder, Mark C Hersam, Matthew Grayson
The crystal orientation of an exfoliated black phosphorous flake is determined by purely electrical means. A sequence of three resistance measurements on an arbitrarily shaped flake with five contacts determines the three independent components of the anisotropic in-plane resistivity tensor, thereby revealing the crystal axes. The resistivity anisotropy ratio decreases linearly with increasing temperature T and carrier density reaching a maximum ratio of 3.0 at low temperatures and densities, while mobility indicates impurity scattering at low T and acoustic phonon scattering at high T...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Karl Landsteiner, Esperanza Lopez, Guillermo Milans Del Bosch
In the presence of a gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the chiral magnetic effect induces an energy current proportional to the square of the temperature in equilibrium. In holography the thermal state corresponds to a black hole. We numerically study holographic quenches in which a planar shell of scalar matter falls into a black hole and raises its temperature. During the process the momentum density (energy current) is conserved. The energy current has two components, a nondissipative one induced by the anomaly and a dissipative flow component...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Seong Gi Jeon, Hosun Shin, Yun Hwan Jaung, Jinho Ahn, Jae Yong Song
Thickness effects on thermal conductivities of black phosphorus nanosheets, which are anisotropic in the zigzag and armchair planar directions, are experimentally and theoretically investigated in the thickness range of 13 to 48 nm. The thermal conductivities decrease with the thickness, decreasing from 13 to 8 W m-1 K-1 in the zigzag direction and from 10 to 6 W m-1 K-1 in the armchair direction at 300 K, respectively. The anisotropic thermal conductivities, regardless of the thickness, might result from the anisotropic phonon velocity arising from the hinge-like structure...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Haiguo Hu, Hong Gao, Lili Gao, Feng Li, Na Xu, Xuefeng Long, Yiping Hu, Jun Jin, Jiantai Ma
This work developed a simple and efficient method to covalently functionalize black phosphorus nanoflakes (BPNFs) with carbon free radicals from azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) molecules. BPNFs after successful modification (BPNFs-AIBN) not only had good stability in air and aqueous solution, but also still maintained good optical properties.
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Kacey Y Eichelberger, Julianna G Alson, Kemi M Doll
Racial variations in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes are well described, but causal mechanisms linking race and PTB are not. In clinical research, race is typically treated as representing fixed biological traits. In reality, race is a social construct that approximates lived experiences of historical and ongoing systematic discrimination and, in the case of PTB, particular stressors of black womanhood and reproduction. These experiences are embodied as adverse multigenerational health outcomes. Race thus presents a dilemma for researchers...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Kelley Newlin Lew, Julie Wagner, Omar Braizat
OBJECTIVE: The study's objective is to examine differences in mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics adults with diabetes. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data was conducted. A total of 26 states participated in the 2014 BRFSS core and optional diabetes models (n = 17,923). HRQOL was measured by the number of mentally and physically unhealthy days during the past month, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
David Haro Alonso, Miles N Wernick, Yongyi Yang, Guido Germano, Daniel S Berman, Piotr Slomka
BACKGROUND: We developed machine-learning (ML) models to estimate a patient's risk of cardiac death based on adenosine myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and associated clinical data, and compared their performance to baseline logistic regression (LR). We demonstrated an approach to visually convey the reasoning behind a patient's risk to provide insight to clinicians beyond that of a "black box." METHODS: We trained multiple models using 122 potential clinical predictors (features) for 8321 patients, including 551 cases of subsequent cardiac death...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Rohit Srivastava, Sherin Hassan Bran
Aerosol concentrations and their properties strongly depend on dynamics of atmosphere. Effects of physical and dynamical parameterizations on meteorology and black carbon (BC) mass in Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-CHEM) are investigated over India. Simulations are performed in ten experiments considering two boundary layer, three cumulus parameterization, and five microphysics schemes during winter and monsoon of 2008. Morrison double-moment physical parameterization, Yonsei University boundary layer parameterization with Kain-Fritsch and Grell-Freitas cumulus parameterization schemes are found suitable to simulate meteorology and BC mass over India...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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