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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149598/harnessing-bet-inhibitor-sensitivity-reveals-amigo2-as-a-melanoma-survival-gene
#1
Barbara Fontanals-Cirera, Dan Hasson, Chiara Vardabasso, Raffaella Di Micco, Praveen Agrawal, Asif Chowdhury, Madeleine Gantz, Ana de Pablos-Aragoneses, Ari Morgenstern, Pamela Wu, Dan Filipescu, David Valle-Garcia, Farbod Darvishian, Jae-Seok Roe, Michael A Davies, Christopher R Vakoc, Eva Hernando, Emily Bernstein
Bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitors (BETi) represent promising therapeutic agents for metastatic melanoma, yet their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we interrogated the transcriptional effects of BETi and identified AMIGO2, a transmembrane molecule, as a BET target gene essential for melanoma cell survival. AMIGO2 is upregulated in melanoma cells and tissues compared to human melanocytes and nevi, and AMIGO2 silencing in melanoma cells induces G1/S arrest followed by apoptosis. We identified the pseudokinase PTK7 as an AMIGO2 interactor whose function is regulated by AMIGO2...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142223/active-diffusion-and-advection-in-drosophila-oocytes-result-from-the-interplay-of-actin-and-microtubules
#2
Maik Drechsler, Fabio Giavazzi, Roberto Cerbino, Isabel M Palacios
Transport in cells occurs via a delicate interplay of passive and active processes, including diffusion, directed transport and advection. Despite progress in super-resolution microscopy, discriminating and quantifying these processes is a challenge, requiring tracking of rapidly moving, sub-diffraction objects in a crowded, noisy environment. Here we use differential dynamic microscopy with different contrast mechanisms to provide a thorough characterization of the dynamics in the Drosophila oocyte. We study the movement of vesicles and the elusive motion of a cytoplasmic F-actin mesh, a known regulator of cytoplasmic flows...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136337/production-of-jet-fuel-range-hydrocarbons-from-hydrodeoxygenation-of-lignin-over-super-lewis-acid-combined-with-metal-catalysts
#3
Hongliang Wang, Huamin Wang, Eric Kuhn, Melvin P Tucker, Bin Yang
Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf)4 , Ln(OTf)3 , In(OTf)3 , Al(OTf)3 ] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2 O3 ) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts...
November 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133788/regulation-of-angiotensin-ii-actions-by-enhancers-and-super-enhancers-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Sadhan Das, Parijat Senapati, Zhuo Chen, Marpadga A Reddy, Rituparna Ganguly, Linda Lanting, Varun Mandi, Anita Bansal, Amy Leung, Selena Zhang, Ye Jia, Xiwei Wu, Dustin E Schones, Rama Natarajan
Angiotensin II (AngII) promotes hypertension and atherosclerosis by activating growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Enhancers and super-enhancers (SEs) play critical roles in driving disease-associated gene expression. However, enhancers/SEs mediating VSMC dysfunction remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that AngII alters vascular enhancer and SE repertoires in cultured VSMCs in vitro, ex vivo, and in AngII-infused mice aortas in vivo. AngII-induced enhancers/SEs are enriched in binding sites for signal-dependent transcription factors and dependent on key signaling kinases...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129929/il-2-imprints-human-naive-b-cell-fate-towards-plasma-cell-through-erk-elk1-mediated-bach2-repression
#5
Nicolas Hipp, Hannah Symington, Cédric Pastoret, Gersende Caron, Céline Monvoisin, Karin Tarte, Thierry Fest, Céline Delaloy
Plasma cell differentiation is a tightly regulated process that requires appropriate T cell helps to reach the induction threshold. To further understand mechanisms by which T cell inputs regulate B cell fate decision, we investigate the minimal IL-2 stimulation for triggering human plasma cell differentiation in vitro. Here we show that the timed repression of BACH2 through IL-2-mediated ERK/ELK1 signalling pathway directs plasma cell lineage commitment. Enforced BACH2 repression in activated B cells unlocks the plasma cell transcriptional program and induces their differentiation into immunoglobulin M-secreting cells...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127383/tunable-mid-ir-focusing-in-inas-based-semiconductor-hyperbolic-metamaterial
#6
Mai Desouky, Ahmed M Mahmoud, Mohamed A Swillam
Noble Metals such as Gold and Silver demonstrated for mid IR metamaterials have suffered many obstacles such as: high losses and lack of tunability. The application of doped semiconductors has allowed overcoming the tunability restriction, besides, possessing lower losses as compared to metals. In addition, doped semiconductors have small magnitude of negative real permittivity which is required to realize mid IR Hyperbolic Metamaterials (HMMs). We theoretically demonstrate super focusing based on an all Semiconductor planar HMM using InAs heterostructure...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125169/substrate-free-copper-nanoclusters-exhibit-super-diamagnetism-and-surface-based-soft-ferromagnetism
#7
Yuvaraja Raju, Pattabiraman Krishnamurthi, P L Paulose, Periakaruppan T Manoharan
Pure metallic copper nanoparticles free of any substrate were synthesized by the thermo-chemical reduction of copper acetate using triethanolamine as a reducing-cum-protection agent. The structure and physical and magnetic properties of the Cu NPs were analysed physicochemically. Microscopic analysis reveals the formation of particles of size of 3-5 nm as seen by TEM but present as a large agglomeration as identified by SEM. A structure of Cu9 is predicted for the Cu NPs on the basis of investigations using XPS, MALDI, EPR, and magnetic measurements and supported by the prediction of DFT calculation from an earlier work...
November 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119742/super-resolution-structured-illumination-in-optically-thick-specimens-without-fluorescent-tagging
#8
Zachary R Hoffman, Charles A DiMarzio
This research extends the work of Hoffman et al. to provide both sectioning and super-resolution using random patterns within thick specimens. Two methods of processing structured illumination in reflectance have been developed without the need for a priori knowledge of either the optical system or the modulation patterns. We explore the use of two deconvolution algorithms that assume either Gaussian or sparse priors. This paper will show that while both methods accomplish their intended objective, the sparse priors method provides superior resolution and contrast against all tested targets, providing anywhere from ∼1...
November 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118259/matrix-binding-checkpoint-immunotherapies-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-and-reduce-adverse-events
#9
Jun Ishihara, Kazuto Fukunaga, Ako Ishihara, Hans M Larsson, Lambert Potin, Peyman Hosseinchi, Gabriele Galliverti, Melody A Swartz, Jeffrey A Hubbell
Immune checkpoint blockade exhibits considerable antitumor activity, but previous studies have reported instances of severe treatment-related adverse events. We sought to explore local immune checkpoint blockade, with an antibody (Ab) form that would be retained intra- or peritumorally, limiting systemic exposure. To accomplish this, we conjugated the checkpoint blockade Abs to an extracellular matrix (ECM)-super-affinity peptide derived from placenta growth factor-2 (PlGF-2123-144). We show enhanced tissue retention and lower Ab concentrations in blood plasma after PlGF-2123-144 conjugation, reducing systemic side effects such as the risk of autoimmune diabetes...
November 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116751/discovery-of-high-temperature-superconductivity-tc-55-k-in-b-doped-q-carbon
#10
Anagh Bhaumik, Ritesh Sachan, Siddharth Gupta, Jagdish Narayan
We have achieved a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of 55 K in 27 at% B-doped Q-carbon. This value represents a significant improvement over previously reported Tc of 36 K in B-doped Q-carbon and is the highest Tc for conventional BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) superconductivity in bulk carbon-based materials. The B-doped Q-carbon exhibits type-II superconducting characteristics with Hc2(0) ∼ 10.4 T, consistent with the BCS formalism. The B-doped Q-carbon is formed by nanosecond laser melting of B/C multilayered films in a super undercooled state and subsequent quenching...
November 10, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113362/plga-nanoparticles-modified-with-a-bbb-penetrating-peptide-co-delivering-a%C3%AE-generation-inhibitor-and-curcumin-attenuate-memory-deficits-and-neuropathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#11
Na Huang, Shuai Lu, Xiao-Ge Liu, Jie Zhu, Yu-Jiong Wang, Rui-Tian Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by the formation of extracellular senile plaques and neuronal loss caused by amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates in the brains of AD patients. Conventional strategies failed to treat AD in clinical trials, partly due to the poor solubility, low bioavailability and ineffectiveness of the tested drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, AD is a complex, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease; one-target strategies may be insufficient to prevent the processes of AD...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113104/super-resolution-of-plant-disease-images-for-the-acceleration-of-image-based-phenotyping-and-vigor-diagnosis-in-agriculture
#12
Kyosuke Yamamoto, Takashi Togami, Norio Yamaguchi
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture-in cooperation with image processing technologies-for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs...
November 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110465/rayleigh-instability-assisted-satellite-droplets-elimination-in-inkjet-printing
#13
Qiang Yang, Huizeng Li, Mingzhu Li, Yanan Li, Shuoran Chen, Bin Bao, Yanlin Song
Elimination of satellite droplets in inkjet printing has long been desired for high-resolution and precision printing of functional materials and tissues. Generally, the strategy to suppress satellite droplets is to control ink properties, such as viscosity or surface tension, to assist ink filaments in retracting into one drop. However, this strategy brings new restrictions to the ink, such as ink viscosity, surface tension, and concentration. Here, we report an alternative strategy that the satellite droplets are eliminated by enhancing Rayleigh instability of filament at the break point to accelerate pinch-off of the droplet from the nozzle...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109421/high-level-heterologous-production-and-functional-secretion-by-recombinant-pichia-pastoris-of-the-shortest-proline-rich-antibacterial-honeybee-peptide-apidaecin
#14
Ximing Chen, Juan Li, Haili Sun, Shiweng Li, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Paul Dyson
Drug resistance is a major problem in antibacterial chemotherapy. Apidaecins, which refer to a series of small, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides, are predominantly active against many drug-resistant bacteria. The apidaecins have special antibacterial mechanisms, and are non-toxic for human cells, a prerequisite for using them as novel antibiotic drugs. However, no efficient non-tagged apidaecin expression system has been reported, which is the limiting factor for their application. Here we successfully generated a Pichia pastoris transformant expressing and secreting apidaecin...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109022/electrically-controlled-release-of-ibuprofen-from-conductive-poly-3-methoxydiphenylamine-crosslinked-pectin-hydrogel
#15
Sirivipa Mongkolkitikul, Nophawan Paradee, Anuvat Sirivat
The pristine pectin hydrogels and conductive polymer/hydrogel blends were prepared by the solution casting using ferrous chloride (FeCl2) and citric acid as the crosslinking agents, and ibuprofen as the model drug and the doping agent. A conductive polymer, poly(3-methoxydiphenylamine), was successfully synthesized and embedded into the pristine pectin hydrogels as the drug encapsulation host. The in-vitro release of ibuprofen from the hydrogels was investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell filled with a MES buffer solution, with pH of 5...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102610/systematic-analysis-of-the-determinants-of-gene-expression-noise-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#16
Andre J Faure, Jörn M Schmiedel, Ben Lehner
Isogenic cells in a common environment show substantial cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, often referred to as "expression noise." Here, we use multiple single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets to identify features associated with high or low expression noise in mouse embryonic stem cells. These include the core promoter architecture of a gene, with CpG island promoters and a TATA box associated with low and high noise, respectively. High noise is also associated with "conflicting" chromatin states-the absence of transcription-associated histone modifications or the presence of repressive ones in active genes...
October 31, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101181/endothelial-dysfunction-is-a-super-inducer-of-syndecan-4-fibrogenic-role-of-its-ectodomain
#17
Mark Lipphardt, Jong W Song, Brian B Ratliff, Hassan Dihazi, Gerhard A Müller, Michael S Goligorsky
Syndecan 4 (Synd4) is a member of membrane-spanning, glycocalyx-forming proteoglycan family. It has been suggested that Synd4 participates in renal fibrosis. We compared wild type and fibrosis-prone endothelial sirtuin1-deficient (Sirt1(endo)-/-) mice, the latter being a model of global endothelial dysfunction. We performed mass-spectrometry analysis, which revealed that Synd4 was highly enriched in the secretome of renal microvascular endothelial cells (RMVEC) obtained from Sirt1(endo)-/- mice upon stimulation with TGFβ1; notably all detectable peptides were confined to the ectodomain of Synd4...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092931/cistrome-cancer-a-web-resource-for-integrative-gene-regulation-modeling-in-cancer
#18
Shenglin Mei, Clifford A Meyer, Rongbin Zheng, Qian Qin, Qiu Wu, Peng Jiang, Bo Li, Xiaohui Shi, Binbin Wang, Jingyu Fan, Celina Shih, Myles Brown, Chongzhi Zang, X Shirley Liu
Cancer results from a breakdown of normal gene expression control, so the study of gene regulation is critical to cancer research. To gain insight into the transcriptional and epigenetic factors regulating abnormal gene expression patterns in cancers, we developed the Cistrome Cancer web resource (http://cistrome.org/CistromeCancer/). We conducted the systematic integration and modeling of over 10,000 tumor molecular profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with over 23,000 ChIP-seq and chromatin accessibility profiles from our Cistrome collection...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091397/nanoscale-properties-of-human-telomeres-measured-with-a-dual-purpose-x-ray-fluorescence-and-super-resolution-microscopy-gold-nanoparticle-probe
#19
J Charles G Jeynes, Kalotina Geraki, Christopher Jeynes, Mi Zhaohong, Andrew A Bettiol, Eva Latorre, Lorna Wendy Harries, Christian Soeller
Techniques to analyze human telomeres are imperative in studying the molecular mechanism of aging and related diseases. Two important aspects of telomeres are their length in DNA base pairs (bps) and their biophysical nanometer dimensions. However, there are currently no techniques that can simultaneously measure these quantities in individual cell nuclei. Here, we develop and evaluate a telomere "dual" gold nanoparticle-fluorescent probe simultaneously compatible with both X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and super resolution microscopy...
November 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091031/inter-species-population-dynamics-enhance-microbial-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance
#20
Robert M Cooper, Lev Tsimring, Jeff Hasty
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Of particular concern are Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria, which recently emerged as global pathogens, with nosocomial mortality rates reaching 19-54% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013; Joly Guillou, 2005; Talbot et al., 2006). Acinetobacter gains antibiotic resistance remarkably rapidly (Antunes et al., 2014; Joly Guillou, 2005), with multi drug-resistance (MDR) rates exceeding 60% (Antunes et al., 2014; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013)...
November 1, 2017: ELife
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