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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917852/bio-responsive-alginate-keratin-composite-nanogels-with-enhanced-drug-loading-efficiency-for-cancer-therapy
#1
Zhe Sun, Zeng Yi, Huaiying Zhang, Xiaomin Ma, Wen Su, Xiaoyu Sun, Xudong Li
This article presents a novel dual-stimuli responsive nanogel prepared from human hair keratin and alginate through simple crosslinking method. Keratin offer the crosslinking structure and bio-responsive ability and alginate ameliorated properties of nanogels including particle size, stability and drug loading capacity. The resultant keratin-alginate nanogels (KSA-NGs) could function as promising vectors for doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) with a super-high drug-loading rate of 52.9% (w/w) and dual-stimuli responsive behavior to GSH and trypsin...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916725/characterization-of-enhancers-and-the-role-of-the-transcription-factor-klf7-in-regulating-corneal-epithelial-differentiation
#2
Rachel Herndon Klein, William Hu, Ghaidaa Kashgari, Ziguang Lin, Tuyen Nguyen, Michael Doan, Bogi Andersen
During tissue development, transcription factors bind regulatory DNA regions called enhancers, often located at great distances from the genes they regulate, to control gene expression. The enhancer landscape during embryonic stem cell differentiation has been well characterized. By contrast, little is known about the shared and unique enhancer regulatory mechanisms in different ectodermally derived epithelial cells. Here, we use ChIP-seq to identify domains enriched for histone marks H3K4me3, H3K4me1, and H3K27ac, and define for the first time the super enhancers and typical enhancers active in primary human corneal epithelial cells...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910751/chromatin-reorganisation-in-epstein-barr-virus-infected-cells-and-its-role-in-cancer-development
#3
REVIEW
Michelle J West
The oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth transforms B cells and drives lymphoma and carcinoma development. The virus encodes four key transcription factors (EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3B and EBNA3C) that hijack host cell factors to bind gene control elements and reprogramme infected B cells. These viral factors predominantly target long-range enhancers to alter the expression of host cell genes that control B cell growth and survival and facilitate virus persistence. Enhancer and super-enhancer binding by these EBNAs results in large-scale reorganisation of three-dimensional enhancer-promoter architecture to drive the overexpression of oncogenes, the silencing of tumour suppressors and the modulation of transcription, cell-cycle progression, migration and adhesion...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904125/enhancing-vaccine-efficacy-by-engineering-a-complex-synthetic-peptide-to-become-a-super-immunogen
#4
Therése Nordström, Manisha Pandey, Ainslie Calcutt, Jessica Powell, Zachary N Phillips, Grace Yeung, Ashwini K Giddam, Yun Shi, Thomas Haselhorst, Mark von Itzstein, Michael R Batzloff, Michael F Good
Peptides offer enormous promise as vaccines to prevent and protect against many infectious and noninfectious diseases. However, to date, limited vaccine efficacy has been reported and none have been licensed for human use. Innovative ways to enhance their immunogenicity are being tested, but rational sequence modification as a means to improve immune responsiveness has been neglected. Our objective was to establish a two-step generic protocol to modify defined amino acids of a helical peptide epitope to create a superior immunogen...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895740/fluorine-functionalized-graphene-nano-platelets-for-highly-stable-inverted-perovskite-solar-cells
#5
Gi-Hwan Kim, Hyungsu Jang, Yung Jin Yoon, Jaeki Jeong, Song Yi Park, Bright Walker, In-Yup Jeon, Yimhyun Jo, Hyun Yoon, Minjin Kim, Jong-Beom Baek, Dong Suk Kim, Jin Young Kim
Edged-selectively fluorine (F) functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (EFGnPs-F) with a p-i-n structure of perovskite solar cells achieved 82% stability relative to initial performance over 30 days of air exposure without encapsulation. The enhanced stability stems from F-substitution on EFGnPs; fluorocarbons such as polytetrafluoroethylene are well-known for their superhydrophobic properties and being impervious to chemical degradation. These hydrophobic moieties tightly protect perovskite layers from air degradation...
September 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893800/vhl-deficiency-drives-enhancer-activation-of-oncogenes-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Xiaosai Yao, Jing Tan, Kevin Junliang Lim, Joanna Koh, Wen Fong Ooi, Zhimei Li, Dachuan Huang, Manjie Xing, Yang Sun Chan, James Zhengzhong Qu, Su Ting Tay, Giovani Wijaya, Yue Ning Lam, Jing Han Hong, Ai Ping Lee-Lim, Peiyong Guan, Michelle Shu Wen Ng, Cassandra Zhengxuan He, Joyce Suling Lin, Tannistha Nandi, Aditi Qamra, Chang Xu, Swe Swe Myint, James O J Davies, Jian Yuan Goh, Gary Loh, Bryan C Tan, Steven G Rozen, Qiang Yu, Iain Bee Huat Tan, Christopher Wai Sam Cheng, Shang Li, Kenneth Tou En Chang, Puay Hoon Tan, David Lawrence Silver, Alexander Lezhava, Gertrud Steger, Jim R Hughes, Bin Tean Teh, Patrick Tan
Protein-coding mutations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have been extensively characterized, frequently involving inactivation of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor. Roles for non-coding cis-regulatory aberrations in ccRCC tumorigenesis, however, remain unclear. Analyzing 10 primary tumor/normal pairs and 9 cell lines across 79 chromatin profiles, we observed pervasive enhancer malfunction in ccRCC, with cognate enhancer-target genes associated with tissue-specific aspects of malignancy...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892470/different-molecular-complexes-that-mediate-transcriptional-induction-and-repression-by-foxp3
#7
Ho-Keun Kwon, Hui-Min Chen, Diane Mathis, Christophe Benoist
FoxP3 conditions the transcriptional signature and functional facets of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Its mechanism of action, whether as an activator or a repressor, has remained unclear. Here, chromatin analysis showed that FoxP3 bound active enhancer elements, not repressed chromatin, around loci over- or under-expressed in Treg cells. We evaluated the impact of a panel of FoxP3 mutants on its transcriptional activity and interactions with DNA, transcriptional cofactors and chromatin. Computational integration, confirmed by biochemical interaction and size analyses, showed that FoxP3 existed in distinct multimolecular complexes...
September 11, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887671/histamine-2-receptor-antagonism-elicits-protection-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rodent-model
#8
Sundar Kumar Kondru, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, Lingesh Allakonda, Prasad Konduri
Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline-based antibiotic, is regularly used in the management of carcinomas, and haematological malignancies have been downplayed in chemotherapy because of its ability to induce dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Dexrazoxane is approved to combat the cardiotoxicity, but limited by its adverse effects. Redox imbalance and reactive oxygen species generation plays major role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Histamine, known to mediate various cardiovascular effects, but nevertheless the role of histamine or its receptors in DOX-induced DCM is remained obscure...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883489/sliding-friction-of-graphene-hexagonal-boron-nitride-heterojunctions-a-route-to-robust-superlubricity
#9
D Mandelli, I Leven, O Hod, M Urbakh
The origin of ultra-low friction exhibited by heterogeneous junctions of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is revealed. For aligned interfaces, we identify a characteristic contact size, below which the junction behaves like its homogeneous counterparts with friction forces that grow linearly with the contact area. Superlubricity sets in due to the progressive appearance of Moiré patterns resulting in a collective stick-slip motion of the elevated super-structure ridges that turns into smooth soliton-like gliding with increasing contact size...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876055/supramolecular-assembly-of-peptide-amphiphiles
#10
Mark P Hendricks, Kohei Sato, Liam C Palmer, Samuel I Stupp
Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are small molecules that contain hydrophobic components covalently conjugated to peptides. In this Account, we describe recent advances involving PAs that consist of a short peptide sequence linked to an aliphatic tail. The peptide sequence can be designed to form β-sheets among the amino acids near the alkyl tail, while the residues farthest from the tail are charged to promote solubility and in some cases contain a bioactive sequence. In water, β-sheet formation and hydrophobic collapse of the aliphatic tails induce assembly of the molecules into supramolecular one-dimensional nanostructures, commonly high-aspect-ratio cylindrical or ribbonlike nanofibers...
September 6, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874783/hyperactive-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-smooth-muscle-cells-exposed-to-hiv-protein-s-and-cocaine-role-in-pulmonary-vasculopathy
#11
Pranjali Dalvi, Himanshu Sharma, Tomara Konstantinova, Miles Sanderson, Amy O' Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
We earlier demonstrated synergistic increase in the proliferation of pulmonary smooth muscle cells on exposure to HIV-proteins and/or cocaine due to severe down-modulation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) axis: the anti-proliferative arm of TGF-β super family of receptors. Here, now we demonstrate the effect of HIV-Tat and cocaine on the proliferative TGF-β signaling cascade. We observed a significant increase in the secretion of TGF-β1 ligand along with enhanced protein expression of TGFβ Receptor (TGFβR)-1, TGFβR-2 and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells on treatment with cocaine and Tat...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872050/super-resolution-reconstruction-of-4d-ct-lung-data-via-patch-based-low-rank-matrix-reconstruction
#12
Shiting Fang, Huafeng Wang, Yueliang Liu, Minghui Zhang, Wei Yang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen, Yu Zhang
Lung 4D computed tomography (4D-CT), which is a time-resolved CT data acquisition, performs an important role in explicitly including respiratory motion in treatment planning and delivery. However, the radiation dose is usually reduced at the expense of inter-slice spatial resolution to minimize radiation-related health risk. Therefore, resolution enhancement along the superior-inferior direction is necessary. Methods: In this paper, a super-resolution (SR) reconstruction method based on a patch low-rank matrix reconstruction is proposed to improve the resolution of lung 4D-CT images...
September 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863500/implementation-of-dynamic-dual-input-multiple-output-logic-gate-via-resonance-in-globally-coupled-duffing-oscillators
#13
P R Venkatesh, A Venkatesan, M Lakshmanan
We have used a system of globally coupled double-well Duffing oscillators under an enhanced resonance condition to design and implement Dual Input Multiple Output (DIMO) logic gates. In order to enhance the resonance, the first oscillator in the globally coupled system alone is excited by two forces out of which one acts as a driving force and the other will be either sub-harmonic or super-harmonic in nature. We report that for an appropriate coupling strength, the second force coherently drives and enhances not only the amplitude of the weak first force to all the coupled systems but also drives and propagates the digital signals if any given to the first system...
August 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860350/identification-of-distinct-mutational-patterns-and-new-driver-genes-in-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinomas-and-adenocarcinomas
#14
De-Chen Lin, Huy Q Dinh, Jian-Jun Xie, Anand Mayakonda, Tiago Chedraoui Silva, Yan-Yi Jiang, Ling-Wen Ding, Jian-Zhong He, Xiu-E Xu, Jia-Jie Hao, Ming-Rong Wang, Chunquan Li, Li-Yan Xu, En-Min Li, Benjamin P Berman, H Phillip Koeffler
OBJECTIVES: Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and adenocarcinoma (OAC) are distinct cancers in terms of a number of clinical and epidemiological characteristics, complicating the design of clinical trials and biomarker developments. We analysed 1048 oesophageal tumour-germline pairs from both subtypes, to characterise their genomic features, and biological and clinical significance. DESIGN: Previously exome-sequenced samples were re-analysed to identify significantly mutated genes (SMGs) and mutational signatures...
August 31, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854182/expanding-the-effects-of-erg-on-chromatin-landscapes-and-dysregulated-transcription-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Deepak Babu, Melissa J Fullwood
ERG overexpression in prostate cancers promotes the development of widespread changes in gene expression and chromatin landscapes, leading to redistribution of key transcription factors in prostate cancers positive for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene. The overexpression of ERG is further assisted by the development of a super-enhancer in the ERG locus.
August 30, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853546/highly-sensitive-uniform-and-reproducible-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-substrate-with-nanometer-scale-quasi-periodic-nanostructures
#16
Yuanhao Jin, Yingcheng Wang, Mo Chen, Xiaoyang Xiao, Tianfu Zhang, Jiaping Wang, Kaili Jiang, Shoushan Fan, Qunqing Li
We introduce a simple and cost-effective approach for fabrication of effective surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. It is shown that the as-fabricated substrates show excellent SERS effects in various probe molecules with high sensitivity, that is, picomolar level detection, and also good reliability. With a SERS enhancement factor beyond 10(8) and excellent reproducibility (deviation less than 5%) of signal intensity, the fabrication of the SERS substrate is realized on a four-inch wafer and proven to be effective in pesticide residue detection...
September 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852097/enhanced-second-harmonic-generation-by-mode-matching-in-gain-assisted-double-plasmonic-resonance-nanostructure
#17
Gui-Ming Pan, Da-Jie Yang, Li Zhou, Zhong-Hua Hao, Qu-Quan Wang
We theoretically study the gain-assisted double plasmonic resonances to enhance second harmonic generation (SHG) in a centrosymmetric multilayered silver-dielectric-gold-dielectric (SDGD) nanostructure. Introducing gain media into the dielectric layers can not only compensate the dissipation and lead to giant amplification of surface plasmons (SPs), but also excite local quadrupolar plasmon which can boost SHG by mode matching. Specifically, as the quadrupolar mode dominates SHG in our nanostructure, under the mode matching condition, the intensity of second harmonic near-field can be enhanced by 4...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841410/in-situ-capture-of-chromatin-interactions-by-biotinylated-dcas9
#18
Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Yong Chen, Mushan Li, Feng Zhou, Kailong Li, Hui Cao, Min Ni, Yuxuan Liu, Zhimin Gu, Kathryn E Dickerson, Shiqi Xie, Gary C Hon, Zhenyu Xuan, Michael Q Zhang, Zhen Shao, Jian Xu
Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are commonly recognized by correlative chromatin features, yet the molecular composition of the vast majority of CREs in chromatin remains unknown. Here, we describe a CRISPR affinity purification in situ of regulatory elements (CAPTURE) approach to unbiasedly identify locus-specific chromatin-regulating protein complexes and long-range DNA interactions. Using an in vivo biotinylated nuclease-deficient Cas9 protein and sequence-specific guide RNAs, we show high-resolution and selective isolation of chromatin interactions at a single-copy genomic locus...
August 24, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839111/super-lncrnas-identification-of-lncrnas-that-target-super-enhancers-via-rna-dna-dna-triplex-formation
#19
Benjamin Soibam
Super-enhancers are characterized by high levels of Mediator binding and are major contributors to the expression of their associated genes. They exhibit high levels of local chromatin interactions and higher order of local chromatin organization. On the other hand, LncRNAs can localize to specific DNA sites by forming a RNA:DNA:DNA triplex, which in turn can contribute to local chromatin organization. In this paper, we characterize a new class of lncRNAs called super-lncRNAs that target super-enhancers and which can contribute to the local chromatin organization of the super-enhancers...
August 24, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831104/chemically-imaging-bacteria-with-super-resolution-sers-on-ultra-thin-silver-substrates
#20
Aeli P Olson, Kelsey B Spies, Anna C Browning, Paula A G Soneral, Nathan C Lindquist
Plasmonic hotspots generate a blinking Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) effect that can be processed using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) algorithms for super-resolved imaging. Furthermore, by imaging through a diffraction grating, STORM algorithms can be modified to extract a full SERS spectrum, thereby capturing spectral as well as spatial content simultaneously. Here we demonstrate SERS and STORM combined in this way for super-resolved chemical imaging using an ultra-thin silver substrate...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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