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kinematics pipefish

Sam Van Wassenbergh, Billy Dries, Anthony Herrel
Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture...
2014: PloS One
Heleen Leysen, Gert Roos, Dominique Adriaens
The feeding apparatus of Syngnathidae, with its elongate tubular snout and tiny, toothless jaws, is highly specialized for performing fast and powerful pivot feeding. In addition, the prolonged syngnathid parental care probably enables the juveniles to be provided with a feeding apparatus that resembles the one in adults, both in morphology and function. In this study, a landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on the head of syngnathid representatives in order to (1) examine to what degree pipefish shape variation is different from that of seahorses; (2) determine whether the high level of specialization reduces the amount of intraspecific morphological variation found within the family; and (3) elucidate whether or not important shape changes occur in the seahorse head during postrelease ontogeny...
October 2011: Journal of Morphology
Sam Van Wassenbergh, Gert Roos, Lara Ferry
The body shape of seahorses resembles the head and neck of horses because of their curved trunk, their ventrally bent head and their long snout. Seahorses evolved from ancestral, pipefish-like species, which have a straight body. Here, we use a biomechanical analysis and show that the seahorse's peculiar head, neck and trunk posture allows for the capture of small shrimps at larger distances from the eyes compared with pipefish. The results from the mathematical modelling were confirmed by kinematic data of prey-capturing syngnathids: compared with straight-bodied pipefish, all seahorse species studied consistently show an additional forward-reaching component in the path travelled by the mouth during their strikes at prey...
January 25, 2011: Nature Communications
Gert Roos, Heleen Leysen, Sam Van Wassenbergh, Anthony Herrel, Patric Jacobs, Manuel Dierick, Peter Aerts, Dominique Adriaens
Syngnathid fishes (seahorses, pipefish, and sea dragons) possess a highly modified cranium characterized by a long and tubular snout with minute jaws at its end. Previous studies indicated that these species are extremely fast suction feeders with their feeding strike characterized by a rapid elevation of the head accompanied by rotation of the hyoid. A planar four-bar model is proposed to explain the coupled motion of the neurocranium and the hyoid. Because neurocranial elevation as well as hyoid rotation are crucial for the feeding mechanism in previously studied Syngnathidae, a detailed evaluation of this model is needed...
January 2009: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Brooke E Flammang, Lara A Ferry-Graham, Christopher Rinewalt, Daniele Ardizzone, Chante Davis, Tonatiuh Trejo
Because of their modified cranial morphology, syngnathid pipefishes have been described as extreme suction feeders. The presumption is that these fishes use their elongate snout much like a pipette in capturing planktonic prey. In this study, we quantify the contribution of suction to the feeding strike and quantitatively describe the prey capture mechanics of the bay pipefish Syngnathus leptorhynchus, focusing specifically on the role of both cranial elevation and snout movement. We used high-speed video to capture feeding sequences from nine individuals feeding on live brine shrimp...
2009: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Sam Van Wassenbergh, James A Strother, Brooke E Flammang, Lara A Ferry-Graham, Peter Aerts
The exceptionally high speed at which syngnathid fishes are able to rotate their snout towards prey and capture it by suction is potentially caused by a catapult mechanism in which the energy previously stored in deformed elastic elements is suddenly released. According to this hypothesis, tension is built up in tendons of the post-cranial muscles before prey capture is initiated. Next, an abrupt elastic recoil generates high-speed dorsal rotation of the head and snout, rapidly bringing the mouth close to the prey, thus enabling the pipefish to be close enough to engulf the prey by suction...
March 6, 2008: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Marc H E de Lussanet, M Muller
Like most ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), pipefishes (Syngnathoidei) feed by suction. Most pipefishes reach their prey by a rapid dorso-rotation of the head. In the present study, we analysed the feeding kinematics of the razor fish, Centriscus scutatus, and of the greater pipefish, Syngnathus acus in detail. We found capture times of as little as 4-6ms for C. scutatus and 6-8ms for S. acus. We then hypothesized that the long snout of pipefishes is optimal for such fast feeding. To test this, we implemented in a mathematical model the following considerations...
June 22, 2007: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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