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Maja Bech Juul, Pernille Hammershoej Jensen, Henriette Engberg, Sonja Wehberg, Andriette Dessau-Arp, Donika Haziri, Helene Bjoerg Kristensen, Joachim Baech, Lene Schurmann, Michael Roost Clausen, Rebecca Valentin, Lene Meldgaard Knudsen, Lars Munksgaard, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Henrik Frederiksen, Thomas Stauffer Larsen
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment strategy for the oldest patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains controversial, as this group often is precluded from clinical trials, and population-based studies are limited. METHODS: All Danish DLBCL-patients ≥75 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 were identified, using the Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO). Information regarding baseline characteristics, treatment, comorbidities and outcomes was retrieved from LYFO, the Danish National health registries and medical records...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Gulay Erdogan Kayhan, Mukadder Sanli, Ulku Ozgul, Ramazan Kirteke, Saim Yologlu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Multimodal analgesic strategies are recommended to decrease opioid requirements and opioid-induced respiratory complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous ibuprofen decreases opioid consumption compared with placebo. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effect of intravenous ibuprofen and intravenous acetaminophen on opioid consumption. We also aimed to compare postoperative pain levels and side effects of the drugs...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Inga Korolczuk, Boris Burle, Jennifer T Coull
While the benefit of temporal predictability on sensorimotor processing is well established, it is still unknown whether this is due to efficient execution of an appropriate response and/or inhibition of an inappropriate one. To answer this question, we examined the effects of temporal predictability in tasks that required selective (Simon task) or global (Stop-signal task) inhibitory control of prepotent responses. We manipulated temporal expectation by presenting cues that either predicted (temporal cues) or not (neutral cues) when the target would appear...
June 20, 2018: Cognition
Roghayeh Mousavi-Khatir, Saeed Talebian, Nima Toosizadeh, Gholam Reaza Olyaei, Nader Maroufi
The highly complex proprioceptive system provides neuromuscular control of the mobile cervical spine. Static neck flexion can induce the elongation of posterior tissues and altered afferent input from the mechanoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of prolonged static neck flexion on neck proprioception and anticipatory postural adjustments. Thirty-eight healthy participants (20 females and 18 males) between the ages of 20-35 years with no history of neck, low back, and shoulder pain enrolled in this study...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Timothy M Frayling, Charli E Stoneman
Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and hypertension are associated with anthropometric and biomarker traits, including waist-to-hip-ratio, body mass index and altered glucose and insulin levels. Clinical trials, for example of weight-loss interventions, show these factors are causal, but lifelong impact of subtle changes in body mass index and body fat distribution are less clear. The use of human genetics can quantify the causal effects of long-term exposure to subtle changes of modifiable risk factors...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Carolina Madeira, Vanessa Mendonça, Miguel C Leal, Augusto A V Flores, Henrique N Cabral, Mário S Diniz, Catarina Vinagre
According to climate science, ocean warming is one of the current and future greatest threats to coastal ecosystems. Projection scenarios for the end of this century show that tropical intertidal ecosystems are particularly at risk. In this study we optimized and tested a holistic method for bio-monitoring present and projected thermal pressure in such ecosystems, in order to assess organism vulnerability to ocean warming. Several species representative of different animal groups (fish, crustaceans and gastropods) were collected from the field and subjected to an experimental trial for 28 days, testing two temperatures: control (present seawater summer temperature) and elevated temperature (+3 °C, projected seawater temperature anomaly for 2100)...
June 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jacob Robson, Molly O'Gorman, Amber McClain, Krishna Mutyala, Cassandra Davis, Carlos Barbagelata, Justin Wheeler, Rafael Firszt, Ken Smith, Raza Patel, Kathryn Peterson, Amy Lowichik, Stephen Guthery
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is often detected in children and is considered to be a rare disease, with prevalence values reported to be below 60 cases per 100,000 persons. To determine whether the incidence of EoE in children in Utah exceeds estimates from regional reports, we calculated incidence and prevalence values over a 5-year period. METHODS: Using consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of EoE, we reviewed pathology records from in the Intermountain Healthcare pathology database, from July 1, 2011 through June 31, 2016...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Trilokesh D Kidambi, Jonathan P Terdiman, Najwa El-Nachef, Aparajita Singh, Michael G Kattah, Jeffrey K Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: I-scan is an electronic chromoendoscopy technology that improves resolution of epithelial and mucosal surfaces and vessels. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare detection of adenomas by i-scan vs standard high-definition white-light (HDWL) colonoscopy. METHODS: From February 1 through December 31, 2017, 740 outpatients (50-75 years old) undergoing screening and surveillance for colorectal neoplasia were randomly assigned to groups that received colonoscopies with i-scan 1 (surface and contrast enhancement) or HDWL...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Isabel M Feven-Parsons, Jeremy Goslin
If our central representation of an object is defined through embodied experience, we might expect access to action affordances to be privileged over more abstract concepts. We used event-related potentials to examine the relative time course of access to affordances. Written object names were primed with the name of an object sharing the same affordance as the target (e.g. precision-grip: "grape" primed by "tweezers") or the same taxonomic category (e.g. fruit: "grape" primed by "apple")...
June 20, 2018: Brain and Language
Gabriel Loor
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) implies perfusion and ventilation of a donor lung outside of the human body. The 2 most clinically relevant and commercially available devices currently in clinical trials are XVIVO Perfusion System (XPSTM ) (XPS Perfusion, Goteborg, Sweden) and Organ Care System (OCSTM ) (Transmedics, Andover, MA). Our review focuses on the needs met by EVLP, and the clinical literature on both devices.
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
María Florencia Scaia, Leonel Morandini, CristobalAlejandro Noguera, Vance L Trudeau, Gustavo Manuel Somoza, Matías Pandolfi
Territorial aggression has been widely studied in males and it has been historically suggested that androgens are key mediators of this behavior. However, more recent evidence suggests that it is the aromatization to estrogens, rather than androgens themselves, that is key to regulating this behavior. Females also display aggressive behaviors, but the physiological regulation of female aggression is still understudied when compared to males. In this context, the challenge hypothesis postulates that male-male aggressive interactions stimulate the production of androgens in males in periods of social instability...
June 20, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Qian Wang, Lu Liu, Ling Gao, Qiu Li
AIM: To show long-term cardiovascular safety of the GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetes patients with cardiovascular risk. METHODS: For cardiovascular outcomes, the association between treatment and outcomes was estimated using the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. I2 test was adopted to assess the magnitude of heterogeneity between studies, with values more than 25%, 50%, and 75% defined as low, moderate, or high heterogeneity. RESULTS: We combined data from four cardiovascular outcomes trials and prospectively blinded endpoint adjudication...
June 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Eric Rawls, Mejdy M Jabr, Shannin N Moody, Connie Lamm
Aggression and violence are social behaviors that exact a significant toll on human societies. Individuals with aggressive tendencies display deficits in effortful control, particularly in affectively charged situations. However, not all individuals with poor effortful control are aggressive. This study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from a large sample (n = 75 undergraduates) to decompose the chronology of neural mechanisms underlying the ability to effortfully-control behavior, and then explores whether deficits in these cognitive functions might then lead to aggressive behavior...
June 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yuichi Hattori, Kohshi Hattori, Tokiko Suzuki, Sailesh Palikhe, Naoyuki Matsuda
Despite advances in overall medical care, sepsis and its sequelae continue to be an embarrassing clinical entity with an unacceptably high mortality rate. The central reason for high morbidity and high mortality of sepsis and its sequelae is the lack of an effective treatment. Previous clinical trials have largely failed to identify an effective therapeutic target to improve clinical outcomes in sepsis. Thus, the key goal favoring the outcome of septic patients is to devise innovative and evolutionary therapeutic strategies...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Carlo Ammendolia, Pierre Côté, Danielle Southerst, Michael Schneider, Brian Budgell, Claire Bombardier, Gillian Hawker, Y Raja Rampersaud
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of a comprehensive non-surgical training program to a self-directed approach in improving walking ability in lumbar spinal stenosis. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Academic hospital outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 104 participants with neurogenic claudication and imaging confirmed LSS were randomized. The mean age was 70.6 years, 57% were female, 84% had leg symptoms for more than 12-months and the mean maximum walking capacity was 328...
June 20, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Paul F Pinsky, Magnus Loberg, Carlo Senore, Kate Wooldrage, Wendy Atkin, Michael Bretthauer, Amanda J Cross, Geir Hoff, Oyvind Holme, Mette Kalager, Nereo Segnan, Robert E Schoen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) with sigmoidoscopy reduces CRC incidence by detecting and removing adenomas. The number needed to screen is a measure of screening efficiency, but is not directly associated with adenoma removal. We propose 2 new metrics for quantifying the relationship between adenoma removal and CRC prevented: number of adenomas needed to remove (NNR) and adenoma dwell time avoided (DTA). METHODS: We collected data from 4 randomized trials of sigmoidoscopy screening (in the United States and 3 in Europe) to assess NNR and DTA...
June 20, 2018: Gastroenterology
Neil B Marya, Salmaan Jawaid, Anne Foley, Samuel Han, Krunal Patel, Louise Maranda, Daniel Kaufman, Kanishka Bhattacharya, Christopher Marshall, Joseph Tennyson, David R Cave
OBJECTIVE: Patients presenting with non-hematemesis GI bleeding represent a diagnostic challenge for physicians. We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the benefits of deployment of a video capsule soon after admission in the management of patients presenting with melena, hematochezia, or severe anemia compared with standard of care management. DESIGN: Patients admitted with non-hematemesis GI bleeding were randomized and placed into one of 2 study groups...
June 20, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Mark G Swain, David E J Jones
The management of fatigue associated with chronic liver disease is a complex and major clinical challenge. Although fatigue can complicate many chronic diseases, it is particularly common in diseases with an inflammatory component. Fatigue can have both peripheral (i.e., neuromuscular) and central (i.e., resulting from changes in neurotransmission within the brain) causes. However, fatigue in chronic liver disease has strong social/contextual components and is often associated with behavioural alterations including depression and anxiety...
June 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Cathy Lau-Barraco, Abby L Braitman, Ashley Linden-Carmichael, Amy L Stamates
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to test proposed mediators and moderators of a personalized feedback alcohol intervention (PFI) on alcohol use. Data for the current investigation came from an earlier randomized controlled trial of a PFI targeted for nonstudent heavy drinkers between 18-25 years. METHOD: Participants were 164 (65.9% men) drinkers recruited from the community. They were randomly assigned to either a single-session PFI or an assessment-only (AO) control group...
June 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lucia Mergola, Ciriana Orabona, Elisa Albini, Giuseppe Vasapollo, Sonia Scorrano, Roberta Del Sole
l-Kynurenine is an endogenous metabolite generated by the catabolic pathway of l-tryptophan and it could be a potential biomarker to test the efficacy of several checkpoint inhibitors that have already reached the clinical trials in the antitumor therapy. Thus, a molecularly imprinted polymer specific for the recognition of this metabolite was synthesized and used as innovative system in solid-phase extraction technique for the specific extraction and quantification of l-kynurenine in human urine. The off-line system was firstly tested on l-kynurenine standard solutions, allowing recoveries up to 97...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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