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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444553/evaluation-of-biomarkers-for-treatment-selection-using-individual-participant-data-from-multiple-clinical-trials
#1
Chaeryon Kang, Holly Janes, Parvin Tajik, Henk Groen, Ben Mol, Corine Koopmans, Kim Broekhuijsen, Eva Zwertbroek, Maria van Pampus, Maureen Franssen
Biomarkers that predict treatment effects may be used to guide treatment decisions, thus improving patient outcomes. A meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) is potentially more powerful than a single-study data analysis in evaluating markers for treatment selection. Our study was motivated by the IPD that were collected from 2 randomized controlled trials of hypertension and preeclampsia among pregnant women to evaluate the effect of labor induction over expectant management of the pregnancy in preventing progression to severe maternal disease...
February 14, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444547/laparoscopic-surgery-with-urinary-tract-reconstruction-and-bowel-endometriosis-resection-for-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis
#2
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Ota, Masaaki Andou, Ikuko Ota
Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is the most severe form of endometriosis. It causes chronic pelvic pain, severe dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and dysuria, markedly impairing the quality of life of women of reproductive age. A number of randomized controlled trials on surgical and medical treatments to reduce the pain associated with endometriosis have been reported, but few have focused on this in DIE. DIE causes not only pain but also functional invasion to the urinary organs and bowel, such as hydronephrosis and bowel stenosis...
February 14, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444546/simultaneous-small-sample-comparisons-in-longitudinal-or-multi-endpoint-trials-using-multiple-marginal-models
#3
Philip Pallmann, Christian Ritz, Ludwig A Hothorn
Simultaneous inference in longitudinal, repeated-measures, and multi-endpoint designs can be onerous, especially when trying to find a reasonable joint model from which the interesting effects and covariances are estimated. A novel statistical approach known as multiple marginal models greatly simplifies the modelling process: the core idea is to "marginalise" the problem and fit multiple small models to different portions of the data, and then estimate the overall covariance matrix in a subsequent, separate step...
February 14, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444537/a-novel-patient-recruitment-strategy-patient-selection-directly-from-the-community-through-linkage-to-clinical-data
#4
Lindsay P Zimmerman, Satyender Goel, Shazia Sathar, Charon E Gladfelter, Alejandra Onate, Lindsey L Kane, Shelly Sital, Jasmin Phua, Paris Davis, Helen Margellos-Anast, David O Meltzer, Tamar S Polonsky, Raj C Shah, William E Trick, Faraz S Ahmad, Abel N Kho
OBJECTIVE:  This article presents and describes our methods in developing a novel strategy for recruitment of underrepresented, community-based participants, for pragmatic research studies leveraging routinely collected electronic health record (EHR) data. METHODS:  We designed a new approach for recruiting eligible patients from the community, while also leveraging affiliated health systems to extract clinical data for community participants. The strategy involves methods for data collection, linkage, and tracking...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444522/psychotic-symptoms-and-attitudes-toward-medication-mediate-the-effect-of-insight-on-personal-social-functions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial-and-follow-up
#5
Yingjun Zheng, Yuping Ning, Shenglin She, Yongjie Deng, Yuwei Chen, Wenying Yi, Xiaodan Lu, Xinrui Chen, Juanhua Li, Ruikeng Li, Jie Zhang, Di Xiao, Haibo Wu, Chao Wu
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the mediating pathway of 3 factors (psychotic symptoms, attitude toward medication, and cognitive processing speed) on the effect of insight on personal-social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 168; mean age 18 ± 50 years) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV were randomly assigned to treatment with antipsychotic medication alone or combined treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI), Assessment of Insight (SAI), and Social-Personal Performance Scale (PSPS) scores were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months...
February 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444478/detection-of-drug-safety-signals-from-clinical-trials-data-role-of-susars
#6
Christelle Perez, Pascale Olivier, Barbara Lortal, Sophie Duranton, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Anne-Laurène Colin, Emilie Toulza, Madlyne Becker, Laura Hamy, Sabrina Crepin, Caroline Roussillon, Anne Gimbert, Nadine Petitpain, Francesco Salvo
One of the main goals of safety management in clinical trials is to detect suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs). The unexpectedness concerns the nature, frequency or severity of an adverse reaction. Drug safety signals could thus be retrieved, and a study was performed to investigate whether SUSARs allow signal detection in pharmacovigilance. Data from six academic safety units were collected from 2005 to 2016. Characteristics of SUSARs were analysed and signals were identified i) by evaluating the presence of other causes, ii) by assessing the summary of product characteristics (SPC), iii) by searching for specific safety information in Pubmed and health agencies, and iv) by investigating the narrative of each case...
February 11, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444414/no-individual-or-combined-effects-of-caffeine-and-beetroot-juice-supplementation-during-submaximal-or-maximal-running
#7
Johanna Oskarsson, Kerry McGawley
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements such as caffeine and beetroot juice are used by athletes in an attempt to optimize performance and therefore gain an advantage in competition. AIM: To investigate the individual and combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal and maximal treadmill running. METHODS: Seven males (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 59.0 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min) and two females (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 53...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444376/secukinumab-demonstrates-high-sustained-efficacy-and-a-favorable-safety-profile-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-through-5-years-of-treatment-sculpture-extension-study
#8
R Bissonnette, T Luger, D Thaçi, D Toth, A Lacombe, S Xia, R Mazur, M Patekar, P Charef, M Milutinovic, C Leonardi, U Mrowietz
BACKGROUND: Secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes IL-17A, has been shown to have significant efficacy and a favorable safety profile in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of secukinumab through 5 years of treatment in moderate to severe psoriasis. METHODS: In the core SCULPTURE study, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 responders at Week 12 continued receiving subcutaneous secukinumab until Year 1...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444375/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-non-pharmacological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-acne-vulgaris-a-systematic-review-and-best-evidence-synthesis
#9
F M C de Vries, A M Meulendijks, R J Driessen, A A van Dooren, E P M Tjin, P C M van de Kerkhof
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a multifaceted skin disorder, affecting more than 85% of young individuals worldwide. Pharmacological therapy is not always desirable because of the development of antibiotic resistance or the potential risk of adverse effects. Non-pharmacological therapies can be viable alternatives for conventional therapies. However, sufficient evidence based support in the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological therapies is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of several non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444335/effectiveness-of-mobile-cooperation-intervention-on-students-clinical-learning-outcomes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Camilla Strandell-Laine, Mikko Saarikoski, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Riitta Meretoja, Leena Salminen, Helena Leino-Kilpi
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of the mobile cooperation intervention in improving the competence and self-efficacy of students and the quality of the clinical learning environment. BACKGROUND: For students, the clinical practicum is challenging as such and moreover the student - teacher cooperation, which supports the clinical learning of the students, has become complicated. Mobile applications have potential but their role in facilitating this cooperation remains unknown...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444300/deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-disease-does-not-worsen-or-improve-postural-instability-a-prospective-cohort-trial
#11
Nicholas J Brandmeir, Cheryl L Brandmeir, David Carr, Kristine Kuzma, James McInerney
BACKGROUND: Falls and postural instability (PI) are major sources of morbidity in Parkinson disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a major therapy for PD. The effects of DBS on PI and falls remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: To study if DBS worsens PI, validated measures of PI (Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale 3.12 [Pull Test], and the Biodex Sway Index with eyes closed on a firm and soft surface) and reported falls were used to prospectively evaluate the effect of DBS on PI at 3 and 12 mo postoperatively compared to baseline measurements...
February 10, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444290/impact-of-renal-allograft-nephrectomy-on-graft-and-patient-survival-following-retransplantation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Jinwen Lin, Rending Wang, Ying Xu, Jianghua Chen
Background: It is not clear whether renal allograft removal affects the outcome of renal retransplantation. This study aimed to determine the effect of allograft nephrectomy (AN) and no-AN (No AN) on renal retransplantation. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Observational studies or randomized controlled trials including renal retransplantation recipients with AN or No-AN were included. The primary outcomes were graft survival, patient survival, acute rejection (AR) and delayed graft dysfunction; the secondary outcomes were positive panel reactive antibody rate and serum creatinine level at 1 year after retransplantation, cold ischemia time and time of hemodialysis before recent transplantation...
February 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444268/advancing-tobacco-product-warning-labels-research-methods-and-theory-a-summary-of-a-grantee-meeting-held-by-the-us-national-cancer-institute
#13
James F Thrasher, Noel T Brewer, Jeff Niederdeppe, Ellen Peters, Andrew A Strasser, Rachel Grana, Annette R Kaufman
Background: The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends prominent pictorial health warnings on tobacco products. To advance research methods, theory and understanding of how tobacco product warning labels (TPWLs) work, the US National Cancer Institute convened a grantee meeting. Our article describes the key insights that emerged from the meeting, situated within the context of the scientific literature. Results & Recommendations: First, presentations confirmed that large, pictorial TPWLs motivate people to try to quit and encourage smoking cessation...
February 10, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444239/therapeutic-efficacy-of-microtube-embedded-chondroitinase-abc-in-a-canine-clinical-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Hilary Z Hu, Nicolas Granger, S Balakrishna Pai, Ravi V Bellamkonda, Nick D Jeffery
Many hundreds of thousands of people around the world are living with the long-term consequences of spinal cord injury and they need effective new therapies. Laboratory research in experimental animals has identified a large number of potentially translatable interventions but transition to the clinic is not straightforward. Further evidence of efficacy in more clinically-relevant lesions is required to gain sufficient confidence to commence human clinical trials. Of the many therapeutic candidates currently available, intraspinally applied chondroitinase ABC has particularly well documented efficacy in experimental animals...
February 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444231/phase-iia-study-of-the-cd19-antibody-mor208-in-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-b-cell-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#15
W Jurczak, P L Zinzani, G Gaidano, A Goy, M Provencio, Z Nagy, T Robak, K Maddocks, C Buske, S Ambarkhane, M Winderlich, M Dirnberger-Hertweck, R Korolkiewicz, K A Blum
Background: This two-stage, phase IIa study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01685008) investigated the antitumor activity and safety of MOR208, an Fc-engineered, humanized, CD19 antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory (R-R) B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). CD19 is broadly expressed across the B-lymphocyte lineage, including in B-cell malignancies, but not by hematological stem cells. Patients and methods: Patients aged ≥18 years, with R-R NHL progressing after ≥1 prior rituximab containing regimen were enrolled into subtype-specific cohorts: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), other indolent (i)NHL and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL)...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444159/antitumor-effects-of-metformin-via-indirect-inhibition-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-in-patients-with-endometrial-cancer
#16
Shinsuke Hanawa, Akira Mitsuhashi, Makio Shozu
OBJECTIVE: Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, inhibits the endometrial cancer cell growth in vivo by improving the insulin resistance; however, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and its inhibition restores the insulin resistance. This study investigated the antitumor effect of metformin on endometrial cancer with a focus on PP2A. METHODS: Metformin (1,500-2,250 mg/day) was preoperatively administered to patients with endometrial cancer for 4 to 6 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444153/head-movements-and-postures-as-pain-behavior
#17
Philipp Werner, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Kerstin Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Steffen Walter, Harald C Traue
Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444123/survival-from-alcoholic-hepatitis-has-not-improved-over-time
#18
Emily Hughes, Laurence J Hopkins, Richard Parker
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe changes in survival in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) over time by examining published data. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Ovid Embase and PubMed was undertaken using the MESH terms 'hepatitis, alcoholic' to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies (OS) in alcoholic hepatitis. Data were extracted from included studies regarding 28-day, 90-day, 180-day mortality, as well as biochemical and clinical data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444102/parallel-behavioral-and-morphological-divergence-in-fence-lizards-on-two-college-campuses
#19
Amanda Sparkman, Stephen Howe, Stephanie Hynes, Brooke Hobbs, Karina Handal
The spread of urban development has dramatically altered natural habitats, modifying community relationships, abiotic factors, and structural features. Animal populations living in these areas must perish, emigrate, or find ways to adjust to a suite of new selective pressures. Those that successfully inhabit the urban environment may make behavioral, physiological, and/or morphological adjustments that represent either evolutionary change and/or phenotypic plasticity. We tested for effects of urbanization on antipredator behavior and associated morphology across an urban-wild gradient in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) in two California counties, Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444096/invasive-african-clawed-frogs-in-california-a-reservoir-for-or-predator-against-the-chytrid-fungus
#20
Emily A Wilson, Cheryl J Briggs, Tom L Dudley
Amphibian species are experiencing population declines due to infection by the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), an asymptomatic carrier of Bd, has been implicated in the spread of this pathogen through global trade and established invasive populations on several continents. However, research has not explored the relationships of both life stages of this amphibian with Bd. While the post-metamorphic individuals may act as a reservoir, spreading the infection to susceptible species, the filter-feeding larvae may consume the motile Bd zoospores from the water column, potentially reducing pathogen abundance and thus the likelihood of infection...
2018: PloS One
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