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5 Hydroxy Tryptophan

Deepti Ahuja, Sachidanand J Bharati, Nishkarsh Gupta, Ritesh Kumar, Sushma Bhatnagar
Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) is one of the most distressing symptoms that adversely affects quality of life (QOL) as well as the ongoing management plan of cancer patients. Although there are protocols for management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) but such guidelines are still lacking for RINV. Various agents like 5-hydroxy tryptophan 3 (5-HT3) antagonist, dexamethasone, metoclopramide and haloperidol are used in clinical practice for RINV but the results are not very encouraging...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Caroline M Forrest, Peter G E Kennedy, Jean Rodgers, R Neil Dalton, Charles Turner, L Gail Darlington, Stuart R Cobb, Trevor W Stone
To quantify the full range of tryptophan metabolites along the kynurenine pathway, a liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and used to analyse brain extracts of rodents treated with the kynurenine-3-mono-oxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro61-8048 during pregnancy. There were significant increases in the levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxy-kynurenine (3-HK) in the maternal brain after 5 h but not 24 h, while the embryos exhibited high levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid after 5 h which were maintained at 24 h post-treatment...
September 10, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Sara Poletti, Aye Mu Myint, Gregor Schüetze, Irene Bollettini, Elena Mazza, Doris Grillitsch, Clara Locatelli, Markus Schwarz, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Decreased availability of serotonin in the central nervous system has been suggested to be a central factor in the pathogenesis of depression. Activation of indoleamine 2-3 dioxygenase following a pro-inflammatory state could reduce the amount of tryptophan converted to serotonin and increase the production of tryptophan catabolites such as kynurenic acid, an antagonist of ionotropic excitatory aminoacid receptors, whose levels are reduced in bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in white matter (WM) integrity have been widely reported in BD...
September 12, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
F F Mo, X Wang, X L Wang, H W Zhang, M Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the levels of human blood nutritious metabolites and its major regulating factors after exposure to abnormal acceleration of sea state, and to provide clues for further investigating the mechanism of fatigue due to maritime operations. METHODS: Using randomly sampling method, 60 healthy male adults from one troop were selected as the subjects on April 20, 2010. All subjects were exposed to six degrees of freedom motion simulator ship for 15 min...
April 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Noble Kumar Talari, Manas Panigrahi, Sailaja Madigubba, Sundaram Challa, Prakash Babu Phanithi
Meningiomas are the neoplasms that arise from the arachnoid cells of the meninges. It was reported that cancer cells escape from immune system through the metabolism of an aromatic essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) via Kynurenine (KYN) pathway. However, the role of TRP metabolites such as, 5-Hydroxy tryptophan (5-HTP), 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), N-acetyl serotonin (NAS), Melatonin (MEL), KYN, N-acetyl tryptamine, 5-Hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-Methoxy indole acetic acid is not yet evaluated in human meningioma...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Trevor W Stone
The role of the amino acid tryptophan in the generation of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) has been expanded over the past 30 years with recognition that its oxidation by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) results in the formation of kynurenine and metabolites which regulate neuronal excitability, psychiatric status, immune cell activity and balance, and probably implantation and the development of embryos. While the amount of work on this kynurenine pathway continues to accelerate, it is important that disagreements about results, differences of interpretation or problems with technical issues are presented openly and discussed thoroughly so that new research is not mis-led in ways that could have been foreseen...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Olof Eriksson, Ramkumar Selvaraju, Torsten Eich, Mariam Willny, Torkel B Brismar, Lina Carlbom, Håkan Ahlström, Gunnar Tufvesson, Torbjörn Lundgren, Olle Korsgren
No imaging methodology currently exists to monitor viable islet mass after clinical intraportal islet transplantation. We investigated the potential of the endocrine positron emission tomography (PET) marker [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) for this purpose. In a preclinical proof-of-concept study, the ex vivo and in vivo [(11)C]5-HTP signal was compared with the number of islets transplanted in rats. In a clinical study, human subjects with an intraportal islet graft (n = 8) underwent two [(11)C]5-HTP PET and MRI examinations 8 months apart...
September 2016: Diabetes
Jürgen Arund, Merike Luman, Fredrik Uhlin, Risto Tanner, Ivo Fridolin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution and removal dynamics of the main fluorophores during dialysis by analyzing the spent dialysate samples to prove the hypothesis whether the fluorescence of spent dialysate can be utilized for monitoring removal of any of the protein bound uremic solute. A high performance liquid chromatography system was used to separate and quantify fluorophoric solutes in the spent dialysate sampled at the start and the end of 99 dialysis sessions, including 57 hemodialysis and 42 hemodiafiltration treatments...
2016: PloS One
Torben Stemme, Michael Stern, Gerd Bicker
The ventral nerve cord of Tetraconata contains a comparably low number of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, facilitating individual identification of cells and their characteristic neurite morphology. This offers the rather unique possibility of establishing homologies at single cell level. Since phylogenetic relationships within Tetraconata are still discussed controversially, comparisons of individually identifiable neurons can help to unravel these issues. Serotonin immunoreactivity has been investigated in numerous tetraconate taxa, leading to reconstructions of hypothetical ground patterns for major lineages...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Aristeidis Chiotellis, Adrienne Müller Herde, Simon L Rössler, Ante Brekalo, Erika Gedeonova, Linjing Mu, Claudia Keller, Roger Schibli, Stefanie D Krämer, Simon M Ametamey
Aiming at developing mechanism-based amino acid (18)F-PET tracers for tumor imaging, we synthesized two (18)F-labeled analogues of 5-hydroxy-l-[β-(11)C]tryptophan ([(11)C]5HTP) whose excellent in vivo performance in neuroendocrine tumors is mainly attributed to its decarboxylation by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), an enzyme overexpressed in these malignancies. Reference compounds and precursors were synthesized following multistep synthetic approaches. Radiosynthesis of tracers was accomplished in good radiochemical yields (15-39%), high specific activities (45-95 GBq/μmol), and excellent radiochemical purities...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tomas Furmark, Ina Marteinsdottir, Andreas Frick, Kerstin Heurling, Maria Tillfors, Lieuwe Appel, Gunnar Antoni, Per Hartvig, Håkan Fischer, Bengt Långström, Elias Eriksson, Mats Fredrikson
It is disputed whether anxiety disorders, like social anxiety disorder, are characterized by serotonin over- or underactivity. Here, we evaluated whether our recent finding of elevated neural serotonin synthesis rate in patients with social anxiety disorder could be reproduced in a separate cohort, and whether allelic variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703T polymorphism relates to differences in serotonin synthesis assessed with positron emission tomography. Eighteen social anxiety disorder patients and six healthy controls were scanned during 60 minutes in a resting state using positron emission tomography and 5-hydroxy-L-[β -(11)C]tryptophan, [(11)C]5-HTP, a substrate of the second enzymatic step in serotonin synthesis...
October 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Martina Curto, Luana Lionetto, Andrea Negro, Matilde Capi, Francesca Perugino, Francesco Fazio, Maria Adele Giamberardino, Maurizio Simmaco, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Paolo Martelletti
BACKGROUND: The reported efficacy of memantine in the treatment of patients with cluster headache (CH) suggests that NMDA receptors are involved in mechanisms of nociceptive sensitization within the trigeminal system associated with CH. NMDA receptors are activated or inhibited by neuroactive compounds generated by tryptophan metabolism through the kynurenine pathway. In the accompanying manuscript, we have found that serum levels of all kynurenine metabolites are altered in patients with chronic migraine...
2015: Journal of Headache and Pain
A Ventzke, J Hoffmann, E Crushell, A Monavari, P D Mayne, I Knerr
DHPR deficiency is a rare autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) regeneration. Clinical symptoms may comprise microcephaly, developmental delay, ataxia and seizures. BH4 is the cofactor for the enzyme phenylalanine (Phe)hydroxylase (PAH), and for tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylases, both of which are essential for serotonin and dopamine biosynthesis. We present four patients in two families who are being treated at the National Centre for Inherited Metabolic Disorders (NCIMD)...
November 2015: Irish Medical Journal
Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Neelam Singh Sangwan, Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya, Sandhya Tripathi, Rajender Singh Sangwan
Tryptophan decarboxylase (EC catalyzes pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent decarboxylation of tryptophan to produce tryptamine for recruitment in a myriad of biosynthetic pathways of metabolites possessing indolyl moiety. A recent report of certain indolyl metabolites in Withania species calls for a possible predominant functional role of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) in the genome of Withania species to facilitate production of the indolyl progenitor molecule, tryptamine. Therefore, with this metabolic prospection, we have identified and cloned a full-length cDNA sequence of TDC from aerial tissues of Withania coagulans...
January 21, 2016: Protoplasma
Bożena Muszyńska, Katarzyna Kała, Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja, Agata Krakowska, Włodzimierz Opoka
The popularity of Agaricus bisporus results not only from the quality of the flavors, but also from the content of many substances of therapeutic properties. This paper presents a study on RP-HPLC determination of the content of indole compounds released from the lyophilized biomass from in vitro cultures of A. bisporus into artificial digestive juices at 37°C. A. bisporus in vitro cultures were grown on media enriched with zinc salts. The release of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-tryptophan was found in the greatest number of samples...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Susanne M Germann, Simo A Baallal Jacobsen, Konstantin Schneider, Scott J Harrison, Niels B Jensen, Xiao Chen, Steen G Stahlhut, Irina Borodina, Hao Luo, Jiangfeng Zhu, Jérôme Maury, Jochen Forster
Melatonin is a natural mammalian hormone that plays an important role in regulating the circadian cycle in humans. It is a clinically effective drug exhibiting positive effects as a sleep aid and a powerful antioxidant used as a dietary supplement. Commercial melatonin production is predominantly performed by complex chemical synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate microbial production of melatonin and related compounds, such as serotonin and N-acetylserotonin. We generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that comprise heterologous genes encoding one or more variants of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylase, a serotonin acetyltransferase, an acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase, and means for providing the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin via heterologous biosynthesis and recycling pathways...
May 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Kazuyoshi Sakai, Ryuji Nomura, Yoshimi Hasegawa, Masanori Sinzato, Kazuhiro Nishii, Yoshimitsu Katoh, Kouji Yamada
In order to elucidate the function of anti-aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC)-only-positive cells in the alimentary canal, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) was intraperitoneally injected into the laboratory shrew, Suncus murinus, and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on continuous sections of the alimentary canal using specific antisera against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), AADC, dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT). AADC-only-positive cells localized to the epithelial layer of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the large intestine...
2015: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Daniel Kalb, Julia Gressler, Dirk Hoffmeister
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) catalyze the release of CO2 from proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic L-amino acid substrates and are involved in pathways that biosynthesize neurotransmitters or bioactive natural products. In contrast to AADCs from animals and plants, fungal AADCs have received very little attention. Here, we report on the in vitro characterization of heterologously produced Ceriporiopsis subvermispora AADC, now referred to as CsTDC, which is the first characterized basidiomycete AADC...
January 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Daniel A Enquobahrie, Marie Denis, Mahlet G Tadesse, Bizu Gelaye, Habtom W Ressom, Michelle A Williams
CONTEXT: Significant gaps remain in the understanding of genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as related mechanisms that contribute to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate early pregnancy maternal serum metabolites and subsequent risk of GDM. DESIGN: Information on participant characteristics and GDM diagnosis was collected using in-person interviews and medical record abstraction, respectively...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Riccardo Castelli, Massimiliano Tognolini, Federica Vacondio, Matteo Incerti, Daniele Pala, Donatella Callegari, Simona Bertoni, Carmine Giorgio, Iftiin Hassan-Mohamed, Ilaria Zanotti, Antonella Bugatti, Marco Rusnati, Claudio Festuccia, Silvia Rivara, Elisabetta Barocelli, Marco Mor, Alessio Lodola
The Eph receptor-ephrin system is an emerging target for the development of novel anti-angiogenic therapies. Research programs aimed at developing small-molecule antagonists of the Eph receptors are still in their initial stage as available compounds suffer from pharmacological drawbacks, limiting their application in vitro and in vivo. In the present work, we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of structure-activity relationships of a class of Δ(5)-cholenoyl-amino acid conjugates as Eph-ephrin antagonists...
October 20, 2015: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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