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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326151/chronic-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-accelerates-the-occurrence-of-age-related-granules-in-apoe-mice-brains
#1
Sim K Singhrao, Sasanka Chukkapalli, Sophie Poole, Irina Velsko, St John Crean, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
This study explored the origin of age-related granules in the apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE(-/-)) B6 background mice brains following chronic gingival infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 24 weeks. Intracerebral localization of P. gingivalis was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its protease by immunohistochemistry. The age-related granules were observed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), silver impregnation, and immunostaining. FISH showed intracerebral dissemination of P...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323400/stepwise-loop-insertion-strategy-for-active-site-remodeling-to-generate-novel-enzyme-functions
#2
Md Anarul Hoque, Yong Zhang, Liuqing Chen, Guang-Yu Yang, Mst Afroza Khatun, Hai-Feng Chen, Liu Hao, Yan Feng
The remodeling of active sites to generate novel biocatalysts is an attractive and challenging task. We developed a stepwise loop insertion strategy (StLois), in which randomized residue pairs are inserted into active site loops. The phosphotriesterase-like lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus (GkaP-PLL) was used to investigate StLois's potential for changing enzyme function. By inserting 6 residues into active site loop7, the best variant ML7-B6 demonstrated a 16 fold further increase in catalytic efficiency toward ethyl-paraoxon compared with its initial template, that is a 609-fold higher, >107 fold substrate specificity shift relative to that of wild-type lactonase...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323116/the-effect-of-g3-pamam-dendrimer-conjugated-with-b-group-vitamins-on-cell-morphology-motility-and-atp-level-in-normal-and-cancer-cells
#3
Łukasz Uram, Magdalena Szuster, Maria Misiorek, Aleksandra Filipowicz, Stanisław Wołowiec, Elżbieta Wałajtys-Rode
In a search for the safe vitamin carrier the PAMAM G3 dendrimer covalently substituted with 9 and 10 molecules of vitamin B7 (biotin) and B6 (pyridoxal), respectively (BC-PAMAM) was investigated. Dendrimer substitution with B-group vitamins significantly alters its biological properties as compared to native form. Observed effects on investigated cell parameters including morphology, adhesion, migration and ATP level were different for normal human fibroblasts (BJ) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-15) cell lines...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320887/hip-region-muscular-dystrophy-and-emergence-of-motor-deficits-in-dysferlin-deficient-bla-j-mice
#4
Nadia Nagy, Randal J Nonneman, Telmo Llanga, Catherine F Dial, Natallia V Riddick, Tom Hampton, Sheryl S Moy, Kimmo K Lehtimäki, Toni Ahtoniemi, Jukka Puoliväli, Hillarie Windish, Douglas Albrecht, Isabelle Richard, Matthew L Hirsch
The identification of a dysferlin-deficient animal model that accurately displays both the physiological and behavior aspects of human dysferlinopathy is critical for the evaluation of potential therapeutics. Disease progression in dysferlin-deficient mice is relatively mild, compared to the debilitating human disease which manifests in impairment of particular motor functions. Since there are no other known models of dysferlinopathy in other species, locomotor proficiency and muscular anatomy through MRI (both lower leg and hip region) were evaluated in dysferlin-deficient B6...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319565/bone-marrow-graft-versus-host-disease-in-major-histocompatibility-complex-matched-murine-reduced-intensity-allogeneic-hemopoietic-cell-transplantation
#5
Kifah Shahin, Zamil Mattar, Pablo Silveira, Wei-Hsun Hsu, Linda Bendall, Derek Hart, Kenneth F Bradstock
BACKGROUND: Most clinical allogeneic hemopoietic cell transplants (alloHCT) are now performed using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) instead of myeloablative (MAC) conditioning, however, the biology underlying this treatment remains incompletely understood. METHODS: We investigated a murine model of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched multiple minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched alloHCT, using bone marrow (BM) cells and splenocytes from B6 (H-2) donor mice transplanted into BALB...
March 18, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319118/functional-mri-for-characterization-of-renal-perfusion-impairment-and-edema-formation-due-to-acute-kidney-injury-in-different-mouse-strains
#6
Susanne Tewes, Faikah Gueler, Rongjun Chen, Marcel Gutberlet, Mi-Sun Jang, Martin Meier, Michael Mengel, Dagmar Hartung, Frank Wacker, Song Rong, Katja Hueper
PURPOSE: The purpose was to characterize acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6)- and 129/Sv (Sv)-mice by noninvasive measurement of renal perfusion and tissue edema using functional MRI. METHODS: Different severities of AKI were induced in B6- and Sv-mice by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI) or 45 min (severe AKI) was done. MRI (7-Tesla) was performed 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery using a flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319053/alternatively-spliced-mu-opioid-receptor-c-termini-impact-the-diverse-actions-of-morphine
#7
Jin Xu, Zhigang Lu, Ankita Narayan, Valerie P Le Rouzic, Mingming Xu, Amanda Hunkele, Taylor G Brown, William F Hoefer, Grace C Rossi, Richard C Rice, Arlene Martínez-Rivera, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha, Luca Cartegni, Daniel L Bassoni, Gavril W Pasternak, Ying-Xian Pan
Extensive 3' alternative splicing of the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 creates multiple C-terminal splice variants. However, their behavioral relevance remains unknown. The present study generated 3 mutant mouse models with truncated C termini in 2 different mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and 129/SvEv (129). One mouse truncated all C termini downstream of Oprm1 exon 3 (mE3M mice), while the other two selectively truncated C-terminal tails encoded by either exon 4 (mE4M mice) or exon 7 (mE7M mice). Studies of these mice revealed divergent roles for the C termini in morphine-induced behaviors, highlighting the importance of C-terminal variants in complex morphine actions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317478/homocysteine-and-non-cardiac-vascular-disease
#8
Niki Katsiki, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels are predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hyperhomocysteinemia has also been associated with total and CVD mortality. However, whether Hcy is just a marker or plays a causal role in CVD remains to be elucidated. In this narrative review, we discuss the associations between Hcy and non-cardiac vascular diseases, namely stroke, peripheral artery disease (PAD), carotid artery disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and erectile dysfunction (ED)...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304247/effects-of-chronic-diurnal-disruption-and-acute-inflammatory-challenge-on-mice-with-latent-murine-gammaherpesvirus-infection
#9
Rita A Trammell, Linda A Toth
People who engage in shift work (SW) have increased risk of developing illnesses, including infectious diseases and various inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that exposure to repeated cycles of diurnal disruption, mimicking SW, influences viral clearance, latent viral load, or viral reactivation from latency in mice infected with murine gammaherpesvirus (MuGHV). To test this idea, we inoculated BALB/cByJ and C.129S7(B6)-Ifng tm1Ts/J (IFNgKO) mice with MuGHV and housed them under either a stable light:dark (LD) cycle or one mimicking SW...
December 1, 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303957/astragalus-polysaccharides-exerts-immunomodulatory-effects-via-tlr4-mediated-myd88-dependent-signaling-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Lijing Zhou, Zijing Liu, Zhixue Wang, Shuang Yu, Tingting Long, Xing Zhou, Yixi Bao
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), which is widely used as a remedy to promote immunity of breast cancer patients, can enhance immune responses and exert anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of APS on macrophage RAW 264.7 and EAC tumor-bearing mice. Griess reaction and ELISA assays revealed that the concentrations of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased by APS. However, this effect was diminished in the presence of TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) or ST-2825(MyD88 inhibitor)...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303703/assessment-of-dietary-choices-of-young-women-in-the-contexts-of-hormonal-contraceptives
#11
Mariola Friedrich, Magdalena Junak
Background: Metabolic changes caused by hormonal contraception combined with unbalanced diet may pose many threats, and deficiency or excess of nutrients may increase the risk of using such contraceptives. Objective: The purpose of the survey was to assess the dietary choices of young women using hormonal contraceptives, taking into account their general knowledge about the contraception and its impact on their bodies. Material and methods: The survey comprised 67 women aged from 18 to 25 years...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301190/involvement-of-serotonin-and-oxytocin-in-neural-mechanism-regulating-amicable-social-signal-in-male-mice-implication-for-impaired-recognition-of-amicable-cues-in-balb-c-strain
#12
Hiroyuki Arakawa
Social signals play a primary role in regulating social relationships among male mice. The present series of experiments investigated the neural mechanisms underlying an induction of amicable cues that facilitate social approach in male mice of the C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) strains. Male mice exhibit approach behavior and suppression of territorial scent marking toward amicable counterparts. Exposure of a group-housed mouse that maintains an amicable relationship induced social approach in B6 recipient mice, as expressed by increased preference of stay in proximity and decreased scent marks relevant to those of a single-housed mouse...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296255/breg-dependent-islet-transplant-tolerance-is-also-nk-cell-dependent
#13
Christian Schuetz, Kang Mi Lee, Ryan Scott, Lisa Kojima, Laura Washburn, Liye Liu, Wei-Hui Liu, Haley Tector, Ji Lei, Heidi Yeh, James Kim, James F Markmann
Immunologic tolerance to solid organ and islet cell grafts has been achieved in various rodent models using antibodies directed at CD45RB and Tim-1. We have shown that this form of tolerance depends on regulatory B-cells. To elucidate further the mechanism by which Bregs induce tolerance we investigated the requirement of NK and NKT cells in this model. To do so, hyperglycemic B6, μMT, Beige or CD1d(-/-) mice received Balb/c islet grafts and treatment with the tolerance inducing regimen consisting of anti-CD45RB and anti -TIM1...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296141/differentiation-between-sources-of-mechanoluminescence-and-acoustic-emission-in-impact-loaded-znse-and-zns-ceramics
#14
Alexandre Chmel, Anatolij Dunaev, Igor Shcherbakov
Ductile semiconductor ceramics ZnSe and ZnS were damaged by a falling weight, and the time series of mechanoluminescence (ML) and acoustic emission (AE) pulses were recorded with the nanosecond resolution. The ML lighting appeared in the instance of shock but the AE generation emerged with a delay of 50-100 μsec; however, the maxima of the light and sound emissions coincided in time. This difference in temporal profiles was explained by the difference in prevailing sources of emissions of two types. The detected luminescence in A2 B6 compounds was excited, mainly, by moving and multiplying dislocations, while the sound was generated by nucleating and growing cracks...
March 9, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294313/suppression-of-murine-tumor-growth-through-cd8-ctls-via-activated-dec-205-dendritic-cells-by-sequential-administration-of-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-in-vivo
#15
Hideki Kogo, Masumi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Negishi, Eiji Uchida, Hidemi Takahashi
Cancer immunity is mediated through the effective priming and activation of tumor-specific class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecule-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). DEC-205(+) dendritic cells (DCs) can cross-present the epitope(s) of captured tumor antigens associated with class I MHC molecules alongside co-stimulatory molecules to prime and activate tumor-specific CD8(+) CTLs. Immunosuppressive tolerogenic DCs with reduced co-stimulatory molecules may be a cause of impaired CTL induction...
March 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294152/melanocortin-3-receptors-expressed-in-nkx2-1-ve-neurons-are-sufficient-for-controlling-appetitive-responses-to-hypocaloric-conditioning
#16
Clémence Girardet, Maria M Mavrikaki, Joseph R Stevens, Courtney A Miller, Daniel L Marks, Andrew A Butler
Melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have a contextual role in appetite control that is amplified with hypocaloric conditioning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to hypocaloric feeding schedules (HFS) exhibit compulsive behavioral responses involving food anticipatory activity (FAA) and caloric loading following food access. These homeostatic responses to calorie-poor environs are attenuated in B6 mice in which Mc3r transcription is suppressed by a lox-stop-lox sequence in the 5'UTR (Mc3r(TB/TB)). Here, we report that optimization of caloric loading in B6 mice subject to HFS, characterized by increased meal size and duration, is not observed in Mc3r(TB/TB) mice...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293722/pattern-of-cardiotoxin-induced-muscle-remodeling-in-distinct-tlr-4-deficient-mouse-strains
#17
Eustáquio Luiz Paiva-Oliveira, Rafael Ferreira da Silva, Maria Bellio, Thereza Quirico-Santos, Jussara Lagrota-Candido
Tissue damage triggers innate immune response mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR) that recognizes endogenous host danger molecules associated with cell death and tissue inflammation, although the precise role of TLR-4 signaling in muscle tissue repair is still uncertain. Previously, we observed that TLR-4 exerted a protective effect preventing excessive muscular damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu crude venom. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of TLR-4 at early stages of muscular tissue remodeling in distinct mouse strains after injection of purified snake venom...
March 14, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289216/b-vitamins-attenuate-the-epigenetic-effects-of-ambient-fine-particles-in-a-pilot-human-intervention-trial
#18
Jia Zhong, Oskar Karlsson, Guan Wang, Jun Li, Yichen Guo, Xinyi Lin, Michele Zemplenyi, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Letizia Trevisi, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Liming Liang, Brent A Coull, Petros Koutrakis, Frances Silverman, Diane R Gold, Tangchun Wu, Andrea A Baccarelli
Acute exposure to fine particle (PM2.5) induces DNA methylation changes implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress. We conducted a crossover trial to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation averts such changes. Ten healthy adults blindly received a 2-h, controlled-exposure experiment to sham under placebo, PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under placebo, and PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under B-vitamin supplementation (2.5 mg/d folic acid, 50 mg/d vitamin B6, and 1 mg/d vitamin B12), respectively. We profiled epigenome-wide methylation before and after each experiment using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in peripheral CD4(+) T-helper cells...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287619/effects-of-cdh23-single-nucleotide-substitutions-on-age-related-hearing-loss-in-c57bl-6-and-129s1-sv-mice-and-comparisons-with-congenic-strains
#19
Kenneth R Johnson, Cong Tian, Leona H Gagnon, Haiyan Jiang, Dalian Ding, Richard Salvi
A single nucleotide variant (SNV) of the cadherin 23 gene (Cdh23(c.753A)), common to many inbred mouse strains, accelerates age-related hearing loss (AHL) and can worsen auditory phenotypes of other mutations. We used homologous recombination in C57BL/6 NJ (B6N) and 129S1/SvImJ (129S1) embryonic stem cells to engineer mouse strains with reciprocal single base pair substitutions (B6-Cdh23(c.753A>G) and 129S1-Cdh23(c.753G>A)). We compared ABR thresholds and cochlear pathologies of these SNV mice with those of congenic (B6...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284396/pyridoxal-phosphate-supplementation-in-neuropediatric-disorders
#20
Elisenda Cortès-Saladelafont, Marta Molero-Luis, Hsjd Working Group, Rafael Artuch, Àngels García-Cazorla
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and a cofactor in many enzyme reactions including neurotransmitter metabolism. PLP metabolism disturbances may mostly lead to refractory seizures. In this report, we review the main pathophysiological factors related with PLP deficiency and our experience in PLP treatment in pediatric patients with low-normal cerebrospinal fluid PLP values who presented epilepsy. Only one case had a definite diagnosis (Phelan-McDermid syndrome). The results of extensive metabolic workups and targeted genetic studies were normal for all patients...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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