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Tatsuya Matsuoka, Aya Onozawa, Kintake Sonoike, Shin Kore-Eda
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, which switches the mode of photosynthesis from C3 to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) upon high salt stress, was shown here to exhibit diurnal changes in not only CO2 fixation pathway but also chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under CAM-induced conditions. We conducted comprehensive time course measurements of M. crystallinum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence using the same leaf through the CAM-induction period. By doing so, we were able to distinguish the effect of CAM induction from that of photoinhibition and avoid the possible effects of differences in foliar age...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ryoichi Sato, Rinya Kawashima, Mai Duy Luu Trinh, Masahiro Nakano, Takeharu Nagai, Shinji Masuda
The proton motive force (PMF) across the chloroplast thylakoid membrane that is generated by electron transport during photosynthesis is the driving force for ATP synthesis in plants. The PMF mainly arises from the oxidation of water in photosystem II and from electron transfer within the cytochrome b6 f complex. There are two electron transfer pathways related to PMF formation: linear electron flow and cyclic electron flow. Proton gradient regulation 5 (PGR5) is a major component of the cyclic electron flow pathway, and the Arabidopsis pgr5 mutant shows a substantial reduction in the PMF...
June 18, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Eran Barzilay, Ashley Moon, Lesley Plumptre, Shannon P Masih, Kyoung-Jin Sohn, Carly E Visentin, Anna Ly, Olga Malysheva, Ruth Croxford, Marie A Caudill, Deborah L O'Connor, Young-In Kim, Howard Berger
Both insufficiency and excess of one-carbon nutrients (folate, choline, vitamins B6 and B12) during pregnancy have been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the precise nature of this association has not been clearly established. We hypothesized that GDM may affect one-carbon nutrients concentrations in the fetus, thus possibly participating in epigenetic programing of the offspring. Maternal blood was collected at recruitment (12-16 weeks). At delivery (28-42 weeks), both maternal and cord blood were collected...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Adriaan van Beek, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
BACKGROUND: A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that sex differences in immune responses are associated with sex differences in microbiota composition. METHODS: Fecal microbiota composition (MITchip), mRNA expression in intestinal tissue (microarray), and immune cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were studied in male and female mice of two mouse strains (C57B1/6OlaHsd and Balb/cOlaHsd)...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Yuuki Kobayashi, Taro Maeda, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Hiromu Kameoka, Sachiko Tanaka, Tatsuhiro Ezawa, Shuji Shigenobu, Masayoshi Kawaguchi
BACKGROUND: Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the most fundamental types of mutualistic plant-microbe interaction. Among the many classes of mycorrhizae, the arbuscular mycorrhizae have the most general symbiotic style and the longest history. However, the genomes of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are not well characterized due to difficulties in cultivation and genetic analysis. In this study, we sequenced the genome of the AM fungus Rhizophagus clarus HR1, compared the sequence with the genome sequence of the model species R...
June 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
Thomas W Carion, Matthew Greenwood, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, Andrew Jerome, Susmit Suvas, Karsten Gronert, Elizabeth A Berger
Although autacoids primarily derived from the cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways are essential mediators of inflammation, endogenous specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) act as robust agonists of resolution. SPM biosynthesis is initiated by the conversion of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid primarily via the 12/15-LOX pathway. Although 12/15-LOX activity is prominent in the cornea, the role of SPM pathway activation during infection remains largely unknown and is the focus of the current study...
April 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Laura J Adkins, Caitlyn T Molloy, Jason B Weinberg
CD8 T cells play a key role in clearance of mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) from the lung and contribute to virus-induced airway inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that interactions between Fas ligand (FasL) and Fas mediate the antiviral and proinflammatory effects of CD8 T cells. FasL and Fas expression were increased in the lungs of C57BL/6 (B6) mice during MAV-1 respiratory infection. Viral replication and weight loss were similar in B6 and Fas-deficient (lpr) mice. Histological evidence of pulmonary inflammation was similar in B6 and lpr mice, but lung mRNA levels and airway proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were lower in MAV-1-infected lpr mice compared to infected B6 mice...
June 13, 2018: Virology
J A Suby, P Novellino, G Da Peña, C D Pandiani
The odontoid process of the axis can be affected by congenital or acquired pathologies. While abnormalities such as os odontoideum, agenesis, and fractures are reported in archaeological remains, the abnormality of an elongated length of the odontoid process has not been described in the paleopathological literature. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two individuals with elongated odontoid processes from a skeletal assemblage from the B6 archaeological site (Mendoza, Argentina), and to discuss the possible etiologies of the condition, with particular attention given to the relation to trauma and Crowned Dens Syndrome (CDS), a condition characterized by the ossification of ligaments of the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Andrew R Marley, Hao Fan, Margaret L Hoyt, Kristin E Anderson, Jianjun Zhang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folate, vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 , and methionine are involved in DNA synthesis and methylation and thus may modulate pancreatic cancer risk. We investigated these associations in a population-based case-control study conducted in 1994-1998. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cases (n = 150) were identified from all hospitals in the metropolitan areas of the Twin Cities and the Mayo Clinic, Minnesota. Controls (n = 459) were selected randomly from the general population and were frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and race...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shanfeng Tan, Kai Wang, Fuguang Sun, Yang Li, Yisheng Gao
Chemokines have been demonstrated to serve an important role in a variety of diseases, particularly in tumor progression. There have been numerous studies that have reported that T cells serve major roles in tumor progression. However, the function of CXC motif chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9) in prostate cancer remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of CXCL9 in prostate cancer. A prostate cancer mouse model was generated by treating C57/BL‑6 and B6.Cg‑Selplgtm1Fur/J mice with 3,2'‑dimethyl 4‑aminobiphenyl (DMAB)...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mario Mastrangelo
This review offers an update on a group of inborn errors of metabolism causing severe epilepsy with the onset in pediatric age (but also other neurological manifestations such as developmental delay or movement disorders) with available effective or potentially effective treatments. The main pathogenic and clinical features and general recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic workup of the following disorders are discussed: vitamin B6 -dependent epilepsies, cerebral folate deficiency, congenital disorders of serine metabolism, biotinidase deficiency, inborn errors of creatine metabolism, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, and glucose transporter 1 deficiency...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Xiangrong Liu, Shaohong Wen, Shunying Zhao, Feng Yan, Shangfeng Zhao, Di Wu, Xunming Ji
Mild therapeutic hypothermia, a robust neuroprotectant, reduces neuronal apoptosis, but the precise mechanism is not well understood. Our previous study showed that a novel inhibitor of an apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) might be involved in neuronal death after stroke. The aim of this study was to confirm the role of iASPP after stroke treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia. To address this, we mimicked ischemia/reperfusion injury in vitro by using oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) in primary rat neurons...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
João F Gomes-Neto, Rossella Sartorius, Fábio B Canto, Thamyres S Almeida, André A Dias, Carlos-Henrique D Barbosa, Guilherme A Melo, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Pedro-Henrique N Aguiar, Carlos R Machado, Herbert L de Matos Guedes, Marcelo F Santiago, Alberto Nóbrega, Piergiuseppe De Berardinis, Maria Bellio
Recombinant filamentous fd bacteriophages (r fd ) expressing antigenic peptides were shown to induce cell-mediated immune responses in the absence of added adjuvant, being a promising delivery system for vaccination. Here, we tested the capacity of r fd phages to protect against infection with the human protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiologic agent of Chagas Disease. For this, C57BL/6 (B6) and Tlr9- / - mice were vaccinated with r fd phages expressing the OVA257-264 peptide or the T. cruzi -immunodominant peptides PA8 and TSKB20 and challenged with either the T...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Heike Vogel, Anne Kamitz, Nicole Hallahan, Sandra Lebek, Tanja Schallschmidt, Wenke Jonas, Markus Jähnert, Pascal Gottmann, Lisa Zellner, Timo Kanzleiter, Mareike Damen, Delsi Altenhofen, Ralph Burkhardt, Simone Renner, Maik Dahlhoff, Eckhard Wolf, Timo D Müller, Matthias Blüher, Hans-Georg Joost, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani, Annette Schürmann
To explore the genetic determinants of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) conducted crossbreedings of the obese and diabetes-prone NZO mouse strain with four different lean strains (B6, DBA, C3H, 129P2) which vary in their susceptibility to develop T2D. Genome-wide linkage analyses localized more than 290 QTL for obesity, 190 QTL for diabetes-related traits, and 100 QTL for plasma metabolites in the outcross populations. A computational framework was developed that allowed to refine critical regions and to nominate a small number of candidate genes by integrating reciprocal haplotype mapping and transcriptome data...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Neetika Sharma, Mohammed Mbarki, Yuemei Zhang, Ashfia Huq, Boniface Tsinde Polequin Fokwa
We report on a structural distortion of the kinetically stable B6-based ferromagnetic Nb6FeIr6B8 that induces an unprecedented transformation of a ferromagnetic Fe-chain into three ferrimagnetic ones through superstructure formation. Density functional theory calculations show that the ferromagnetic Fe-Fe intra-chain interactions found in the undistorted structure become ferrimagnetic in the distorted superstructure, mainly because the two independent iron atoms building each chain interact antiferromagnetically and carry different magnetic moments...
June 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Nan Gao, Rao Me, Chenyang Dai, Berhane Seyoum, Fu-Shin X Yu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis is characterized by severe corneal ulceration and may lead to blindness if not treated properly in a timely manner. Although the roles of the IL-1 subfamily of cytokines are well established, as a newly discovered subfamily, IL-36 cytokine regulation, immunological relevance, and relation with IL-1 cytokines in host defense remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that P. aeruginosa infection induces the expression of IL-36α and IL-36γ, as well as IL-1β and secreted IL-1Ra (sIL-1Ra), but not IL-36Ra...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Tammy Z Movsas, Kwoon Y Wong, Michael D Ober, Robert Sigler, Zhenmin M Lei, Arivalagan Muthusamy
Luteinizing hormone (LH), produced in the anterior pituitary, has been detected in cadaver eyes and LH receptors (LHRs) have been identified in the retina, with the highest density in cone photoreceptors. Our aim was to confirm the presence of LH in the living, human eye as well as to examine the potential impact of a reduction in LHR signaling on visual processing. Vitreous samples were collected from 40 patients (23 diabetics, 17 non-diabetics) who were undergoing vitrectomies for various indications. LH concentration was quantified in each sample via an electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay and Meso Scale Discovery platform and normalized to total protein...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Morium Begam, Alyssa F Collier, Amber L Mueller, Renuka Roche, Sujay S Galen, Joseph A Roche
B6.A-Dysfprmd /GeneJ (BLAJ) mice model human limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B), which is linked to mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene. We tested the hypothesis that, the calcium ion (Ca2+ ) channel blocker diltiazem (DTZ), reduces contraction-induced skeletal muscle damage, in BLAJ mice. We randomly assigned mice (N = 12; 3-4 month old males) to one of two groups - DTZ (N = 6) or vehicle (VEH, distilled water, N = 6). We conditioned mice with either DTZ or VEH for 1 week, after which, their tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were tested for contractile torque and susceptibility to injury from forced eccentric contractions...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Lei Li, Eva-Mari Aro, A Harvey Millar
Rapid protein degradation and replacement is an important response to photodamage and a means of photoprotection by recovering proteostasis. Protein turnover and translation efficiency studies have discovered fast turnover subunits in cytochrome b6 f and the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex, in addition to PSII subunit D1. Mutations of these complexes have been linked to enhanced photodamage at least partially via cyclic electron flow. Photodamage and photoprotection involving cytochrome b6 f, NDH complex, cyclic electron flow, PSI, and nonphotochemical quenching proteins have been reported...
June 7, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Rupak Shivakoti, Erin R Ewald, Nikhil Gupte, Wei-Teng Yang, Cecilia Kanyama, Sandra W Cardoso, Breno Santos, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Javier R Lama, Umesh Lalloo, Fatima Zulu, Jyoti S Pawar, Cynthia Riviere, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, James Hakim, Richard Pollard, Barbara Detrick, Ashwin Balagopal, David M Asmuth, Richard D Semba, Thomas B Campbell, Jonathan Golub, Amita Gupta
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutritional deficiency and inflammation may impact CD4+ T cell recovery during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition is prevalent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of micronutrient and inflammation biomarkers to CD4 recovery after cART initiation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a random sub-cohort sample (n = 270) from a multinational randomized trial of cART regimen efficacy among 1571 cART-naïve adults...
May 29, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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