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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338784/in-god-we-trust-neural-measures-reveal-lower-social-conformity-among-non-religious-individuals
#1
Ravi Thiruchselvam, Yashoda Gopi, Leonard Kilekwang, Jessica Harper, James J Gross
Even in predominantly religious societies, there are substantial individual differences in religious commitment. Why is this? One possibility is that differences in social conformity (i.e., the tendency to think and behave as others do) underlie inclination towards religiosity. However, the link between religiosity and conformity has not yet been directly examined. In this study, we tested the notion that non-religious individuals show dampened social conformity, using both self-reported and neural (EEG-based ERPs) measures of sensitivity to others' influence...
February 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330803/relationship-between-religion-and-school-students-road-behavior-in-southern-iran
#2
Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari, Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Alireza Masoudi, Amir Hossein Shams, Armin Akbarzadeh, Saba Moalemi, Maryam Mahmoodi Mehr, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Payam Peymani
PURPOSE: Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. METHODS: This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ), Duke University Religious Index (DUREL), as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire...
February 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329715/psychological-distress-and-prejudice-following-terror-attacks-in-france
#3
Robin Goodwin, Krzysztof Kaniasty, Shaojing Sun, Menachem Ben-Ezra
Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319751/spirituality-religiosity-substance-use-and-hiv-testing-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
Adam W Carrico, Erik David Storholm, Annesa Flentje, Emily A Arnold, Lance M Pollack, Torsten B Neilands, Gregory M Rebchook, John L Peterson, Agatha Eke, Wayne Johnson, Susan M Kegeles
BACKGROUND: Spirituality and religiosity may serve as both a resource and a barrier to HIV prevention with young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). We examined indices of spirituality/religiosity as correlates of binge drinking, stimulant use, and recent HIV testing in a sample of YBMSM. METHODS: From 2011-2013, annual venue-based surveys of sexually active YBMSM ages 18-29 were conducted in Dallas and Houston, Texas. Binge drinking and stimulant use were assessed in the past two months...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319319/association-between-religious-practice-and-risk-of-depression-in-older-people-in-the-subacute-setting
#5
Alice Lac, Nicole Austin, Renata Lemke, Suma Poojary, Peter Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between religious practice and risk of depression in older people admitted to a subacute hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 100 patients aged ≥65 years with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ≥24 consecutively admitted to a subacute hospital. Religious practice was measured using the Duke University Religion Index and risk of depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315988/importance-of-religion-or-spirituality-and-mental-health-in-canada
#6
Maryam Dilmaghani
Using the latest mental health cycle of the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 20,868), this paper examines how the importance of religion or spirituality in one's life associates with mental health. Based on this question, the population is divided into three groups of high religiosity, average religiosity, and secularized. Secularized individuals are shown to have large deficits in all the psychological markers suggested to mediate the relationship between religiosity and mental health, compared to the two other groups...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298551/high-hypothetical-interest-in-physician-assisted-death-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Ruth Ann Marrie, Amber Salter, Tuula Tyry, Gary R Cutter, Stacey Cofield, Robert J Fox
OBJECTIVE: To assess the opinions of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) regarding physician-assisted death (PAD). METHODS: We surveyed participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry regarding PAD. For each of 5 hypothetical situations, respondents indicated whether they definitely would, probably would, probably would not, or definitely would not consider PAD. They also reported their sociodemographics, disability status using Patient-Determined Disease Steps, depression status, pain status, religiosity, and degree of social support...
March 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289681/thanatophobia-death-anxiety-in-the-elderly-the-problem-of-the-child-s-inability-to-assess-their-own-parent-s-death-anxiety-state
#8
Gary Sinoff
Thanatophobia is omnipresent in our lives. Research has shown separate but connected constructs: fear of death or fear of the dying process. The influences on death anxiety are varied including religiosity, gender, psychological state, and age. It is often assumed by the children of the elderly that the fear of death is prevalent in their parents. Daily the medical staff encounters the presence of death anxiety: from family members or the staff itself. In order to understand this phenomenon, a three-tier study was conducted on non-terminal elderly inpatients in an acute geriatric care ward...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287845/damaged-goods-perception-of-pornography-addiction-as-a-mediator-between-religiosity-and-relationship-anxiety-surrounding-pornography-use
#9
Nathan D Leonhardt, Brian J Willoughby, Bonnie Young-Petersen
Recent research on pornography suggests that perception of addiction predicts negative outcomes above and beyond pornography use. Research has also suggested that religious individuals are more likely to perceive themselves to be addicted to pornography, regardless of how often they are actually using pornography. Using a sample of 686 unmarried adults, this study reconciles and expands on previous research by testing perceived addiction to pornography as a mediator between religiosity and relationship anxiety surrounding pornography...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279142/male-and-female-ministers-comparing-roman-catholic-and-methodist-deacons-on-personality-structure-religious-beliefs-and-leadership-styles
#10
Joseph R Ferrari
Christian deacons (50 Roman Catholic; 50 Methodist) self-reported their personality, religiosity, and leadership attributes, plus social desirability tendencies. There were no significant correlates between social desirability and any of these self-reported variables. Results also found no significant differences across Christian denominations on personality dimensions, religious and spirituality beliefs, or leadership styles. Also, there were no significant differences in self-reported personality, religiosity, or leadership among Catholic male deacons with Methodist female deacons only ( n = 43)...
March 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279087/religiosity-and-health-through-the-decades
#11
Swati Mukerjee, Arun Venugopal
PURPOSE: An empirical examination of the long-term association, disaggregated by gender, between religiosity and self-rated health with reference to demographic shifts in labor force participation, education, and income. DESIGN: General Social Survey data. SETTING: United States, 1974 to 2012. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 23 353 respondents. MEASURES: Self-assessed health; 2 key religiosity variables: attendance and intensity of belief; income, labor market variables, education, standard demographic variables, household size, region, and time dummies...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278744/from-women-s-irresponsibility-to-foetal-patienthood-obstetricians-gynaecologists-perspectives-on-abortion-and-its-stigmatisation-in-italy-and-catalu%C3%A3-a
#12
Silvia De Zordo
This article explores obstetricians-gynaecologists' experiences and attitudes towards abortion, based on two mixed-methods studies respectively undertaken in Italy in 2011-2012, and in Spain (Cataluña) in 2013-2015. Short questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted with 54 obstetricians-gynaecologists at 4 hospitals providing abortion care in Rome and Milan, and with 23 obstetricians-gynaecologists at 2 hospitals and one clinic providing abortion care in Barcelona. A medical/moral classification of abortions, from those considered 'more acceptable', both medically and morally - for severe foetal malformations - to the 'least acceptable' ones - repeated 'voluntary abortions', emerged in the discourse of most obstetricians-gynaecologists working in public hospitals, regardless of their religiosity...
March 5, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278568/phosphatidylethanol-confirmed-alcohol-use-among-art-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-persons-who-denied-consumption-in-rural-uganda
#13
Winnie R Muyindike, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Robin Fatch, Nneka I Emenyonu, Julian Adong, Christine Ngabirano, Debbie M Cheng, Michael R Winter, Jeffrey H Samet, Judith A Hahn
Under-reporting of alcohol use by HIV-infected patients could adversely impact clinical care. This study examined factors associated with under-reporting of alcohol consumption by patients who denied alcohol use in clinical and research settings using an alcohol biomarker. We enrolled ART-naïve, HIV-infected adults at Mbarara Hospital HIV clinic in Uganda. We conducted baseline interviews on alcohol use, demographics, Spirituality and Religiosity Index (SRI), health and functional status; and tested for breath alcohol content and collected blood for phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a sensitive and specific biomarker of alcohol use...
February 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278061/transphobia-among-students-majoring-in-the-helping-professions
#14
Gila M Acker
The study was designed to further the understanding of transphobia among students majoring in the helping professions including social work, occupational therapy, and nursing. The study's hypotheses examined the effects of transgender content in education (e.g., textbooks and lectures), religiosity, contact with transgender people, and several sociodemographic variables with transphobia. Differences in transphobia levels between social work students and those in aligned professions were also explored. The sample consisted of 600 students of a public, urban university in New York City who participated in an online survey...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270504/do-differences-in-religious-affiliation-explain-high-levels-of-excess-mortality-in-the-uk
#15
Kevin Ralston, David Walsh, Zhiqiang Feng, Chris Dibben, Gerry McCartney, Dermot O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: High levels of mortality not explained by differences in socioeconomic status (SES) have been observed for Scotland and its largest city, Glasgow, compared with elsewhere in the UK. Previous cross-sectional research highlighted potentially relevant differences in social capital, including religious social capital (the benefits of social participation in organised religion). The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to assess whether religious affiliation (as measured in UK censuses) attenuated the high levels of Scottish excess mortality...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253427/sexual-initiation-patterns-of-u-s-sexual-minority-youth-a-latent-class-analysis
#16
Shoshana K Goldberg, Carolyn T Halpern
CONTEXT: The typical understanding of sexual debut as first vaginal intercourse is often irrelevant to sexual minority youth. Better understanding of sexual initiation patterns among these youth is necessary to inform efforts to safeguard their sexual and reproductive health. METHODS: Early sexual experiences were examined among 1,628 female and 526 male sexual minority participants in Waves 1 (1994-1995) and 4 (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
March 2, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253135/condoms-culture-and-conviction-the-effect-of-acculturation-and-religiosity-on-latina-condom-use-during-first-sex-with-new-partners
#17
Scott James Smith
Latinas in the United States are less likely than their non-Hispanic peers to use condoms. Previous research has identified acculturation and religiosity as two key determinants of Latina condom use, but results are inconsistent, impairing the translation of findings to practice. The current study examines these constructs together and addresses methodological concerns noted in the literature. Structural equation modeling performed on a nationally representative sample of Latinas indicated that intrinsic religiosity increased condom use whereas acculturation decreased condom use...
April 3, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252980/race-ethnicity-religious-affiliation-and-education-are-associated-with-gay-and-bisexual-men-s-religious-and-spiritual-participation-and-beliefs-results-from-the-one-thousand-strong-cohort
#18
Jonathan M Lassiter, Lena Saleh, Tyrel Starks, Christian Grov, Ana Ventuneac, Jeffrey T Parsons
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. METHOD: Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance...
March 2, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248556/psychometric-evaluation-and-cultural-correlates-of-the-mate-retention-inventory-short-form-mri-sf-in-iran
#19
Mohammad Atari, Nicole Barbaro, Todd K Shackelford, Razieh Chegeni
The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Mate Retention Inventory-Short Form (MRI-SF) in Iran. We also investigated sex differences in the use of mate retention tactics and investigated the relationships between mate retention behaviors and a number of related cultural constructs. Participants ( N = 308) ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. All participants were in a committed romantic relationship, with mean relationship length of 63.5 months ( SD = 73.8). Participants completed the Persian translation of the MRI-SF and measures of religiosity, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235885/attitudes-towards-end-of-life-decisions-in-case-of-long-term-care-dependency-a-survey-among-the-older-population-in-austria
#20
Erwin Stolz, Hannes Mayerl, Anja Waxenegger, Éva Rásky, Wolfgang Freidl
BACKGROUND: Research on attitudes towards end-of-life decisions (ELDs) contextually most often refers to the very end of life, that is, to situations of terminally ill patients or severe pain, but it is rarely applied to the broader context of long-term care dependency in old age. METHODS: In a representative survey among older Austrians (50+, n=968), respondents were asked about their approval of assisted suicide and euthanasia (EUT) when requested by an older, severely care-dependent person...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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