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Julie D Yeterian, Krisanne Bursik, John F Kelly
BACKGROUND: A growing literature on adults with substance use disorders (SUD) suggests that religious and spiritual processes can support recovery, such that higher levels of religiosity and/or spirituality predict better substance use outcomes. However, studies of the role of religion and spirituality in adolescent SUD treatment response have produced mixed findings, and religiosity and spirituality have rarely been examined separately. METHODS: The present study examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of outcomes in an outpatient treatment adolescent sample (N = 101) in which cannabis was the predominant drug of choice...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Dianne Gabriela Habib, Casswina Donald, Gerard Hutchinson
Religious behaviour tends to correlate positively with life satisfaction. The predictive power of this relationship is associated with various socio-demographic factors such as age, gender and religious affiliation. We investigated the relationship between religious involvement and life satisfaction in a multi-religious population of undergraduate medical students of the University of the West Indies. We used a cross-sectional design to assess 228 undergraduates (50 males and 178 females) on religiosity, religious well-being and life satisfaction using the Religious Orientation Test, Religious Well-Being subscale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Mujgan Inozu, Yasemin Kahya, Orcun Yorulmaz
Neuroticism and religiosity are distal vulnerability factors for OCD phenomenon. The present study aimed to examine the roles of obsessive beliefs (OBs), thought-control strategies, and guilt in the relationship between these vulnerability factors and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), specifically scrupulosity symptoms in a Muslim sample via SEM. The sample consisted of 273 university students who filled out a set of questionnaires. The results indicated that neuroticism and the degree of religiosity predict OBs that are positively associated with guilt and self-punishment both of which predict scrupulosity and other OCSs...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Megan C Lytle, John R Blosnich, Susan M De Luca, Chris Brownson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to explore how the associations between importance of religion and recent suicide ideation, recent suicide attempt, and lifetime suicide attempt vary by sexual orientation. METHODS: Survey data were collected from the 2011 University of Texas at Austin's Research Consortium data from 21,247 college-enrolled young adults aged 18-30 years. Respondents reported sexual identity as heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual, or questioning...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Noam Zilberman, Gal Yadid, Yaniv Efrati, Yehuda Neumark, Yuri Rassovsky
Substance-related and behavioral addictions are extremely prevalent and represent a major public health concern. In the ongoing attempt to understand the addictive personality, contradictory results have arisen from studies that have explored personality traits in different addiction populations. The diversity across addiction types suggests that some of these inconsistencies stem from distinct personalities underlying each addiction. The present study compares the personality profiles of several addictions, representing both substance (drugs and alcohol) and behavioral (gambling and sex) subtypes...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Shane Sharp
Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God...
March 15, 2018: Death Studies
Yaniv Efrati
BACKGROUND: Adolescent compulsive sexual behavior (CSB), and its associations with other personality predispositions (attachment orientations, temperament), gender, religiosity, and psychopathological tendencies. Five alternative empirical models were examined, all based on current theory and research on CSB. METHODS: The sample include 311 high-school adolescents (184 boys, 127 girls) ranging in age from 16 to 18 (M  = 16.94, SD  = .65) and enrolled in the eleventh (43...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Adriano Roberto Tarifa Vicente, Érico Castro-Costa, Josélia de Oliveira Araújo Firmo, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether religiousness and social support were associated with the use of antidepressants among community-dwelling elders. The research involved 1,606 older adults who make up the cohort of Bambuí Project, a study on ageing and health. The dependent variable was the use of antidepressants in the last 90 days, and the exposures of interest were social support and religiousness. Logistic regression was used to test the associations and to estimate crude and adjusted Odds Ratio and their 95% confidence intervals...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate depressive symptoms and their association with sociodemographic factors, stressors and support, including childhood adversity, health status risk and behaviour in Indonesia. METHOD: In a cross-sectional national population survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 31442 adults (mean age 37.3 years, SD = 14.9, age range 15-101 years) responded to the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) and various other measures...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Julie Lutz, Barry Edelstein, Emma Katz, Jarred V Gallegos
Background and Objectives: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, and identification of protective factors, such as reasons for living, is important in preventing suicide. The Reasons for Living-Older Adults scale (RFL-OA) is a 69-item measure of these protective factors in late life, which yields good psychometric properties. However, its length limits its utility in some clinical and research contexts where a shorter measure is ideal. The objective of this study was to create a shortened version of the RFL-OA...
February 26, 2018: Gerontologist
Damien W Riggs, Clemence Due
OBJECTIVE: To understand levels of support for differences between families in terms of sexuality and mode of family formation across three countries. BACKGROUND: Previous research has found that attitudes towards family diversity continue to improve over time, although differences remain. METHODS: Subjects were 1605 people living in Australia, the United Kingdom or the United States who completed a questionnaire which sought to explore levels of support for a diverse range of family forms and modes of family formation...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Mohammad Atari, Razieh Chegeni
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the associations between perfectionism cognitions, religiosity and the desired number of children in young women. BACKGROUND: The desired number of children has been found to correlate with personality and individual difference. METHODS: A sample of 281 women was selected from university settings in Tehran, Iran. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 39 years (M = 23.7, SD = 3.7). All participants responded to a paper-and-pencil survey consisting of measures of perfectionism cognitions, intrinsic religiosity and the desired number of children...
July 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Rocío de Diego Cordero, Bárbara Badanta Romero, Filomena Adelaide de Matos, Emília Costa, Daniele Corcioli Mendes Espinha, Claudia de Souza Tomasso, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
AIMS: To compare the opinions and attitudes of Portuguese-speaking nursing students from Brazil and Portugal on the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and the ability to approach these issues with patients, in their undergraduate training and practice. BACKGROUND: Although there are studies investigating nursing students' opinions concerning religiosity and spirituality in clinical practice, few have investigated if there are cross-cultural differences between countries...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
M M Dynes, E Twentyman, L Kelly, G Maro, A A Msuya, S Dominico, P Chaote, R Rusibamayila, F Serbanescu
BACKGROUND: Lack of respectful maternity care (RMC) is increasingly recognized as a human rights issue and a key deterrent to women seeking facility-based deliveries. Ensuring facility-based RMC is essential for improving maternal and neonatal health, especially in sub-Saharan African countries where mortality and non-skilled delivery care remain high. Few studies have attempted to quantitatively identify patient and delivery factors associated with RMC, and none has modeled the influence of provider characteristics on RMC...
March 5, 2018: Reproductive Health
Davuluri Triveni, Sandeep Grover, Subho Chakrabarti
Aim: This study aimed to compare the religiosity and religious coping of patients with schizophrenia with a healthy control group and to assess the correlation between the level of religiosity and religious coping with residual psychopathology, level of functioning, and quality of life (QOL). Methodology: Patients of schizophrenia were assessed on religiousness measure scale, duke religion index (DUREL), brief religious coping scale (RCOPE), positive and negative symptom scale, and World Health Organization QOL-BREF version...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Harold G Koenig, Nagy A Youssef, Donna Ames, John P Oliver, Ellen J Teng, Kerry Haynes, Zachary D Erickson, Irina Arnold, Joseph M Currier, Keisha OʼGaro, Michelle Pearce
Moral injury (MI) involves feelings of shame, grief, meaninglessness, and remorse from having violated core moral beliefs related to traumatic experiences. This multisite cross-sectional study examined the association between religious involvement (RI) and MI symptoms, mediators of the relationship, and the modifying effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in 373 US veterans with PTSD symptoms who served in a combat theater. Assessed were demographic, military, religious, physical, social, behavioral, and psychological characteristics using standard measures of RI, MI symptoms, PTSD, depression, and anxiety...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lauren M Carney, Crystal L Park
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about survivors' understanding of the cause of their cancer and of their recovery, nor how these ways of understanding relate to their well-being. No study has examined both secular and religious appraisals of the same event. The current study aimed to examine both religious (God) and secular (self) appraisals of both the cause (attributions) and course/cure of cancer in relation to multiple aspects of adjustment. METHODS: Data were obtained from a sample of cancer survivors at Time 1 (n = 250) and one year later (Time 2, n = 167)...
February 28, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Inga Steppacher, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: The extent to which people ascribe mind to others has been shown to predict the extent to which human rights are conferred. Therefore, in the context of disorders of consciousness (DOC), mind ascription can influence end of life decisions. A previous US-American study indicated that participants ascribed even less mind to patients with unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome (UWS) than to the dead. Results were explained in terms of implicit dualism and religious beliefs, as highly religious people ascribed least mind to UWS...
February 21, 2018: BMC Psychology
Philip Schwadel
I argue that the social implications of religious non-affiliation vary across cultural contexts, leading to differences across nations in both who is likely to be unaffiliated and the religious consequences of such non-affiliation. I test these propositions by examining cross-national variation in associations with non-affiliation using multilevel models and cross-sectional survey data from almost 70,000 respondents in 52 nations. The results indicate that: 1) both individual characteristics (gender, age, and marital status) and nation-level attributes (GDP, communism, and regulation of religion) strongly predict religious non-affiliation; 2) differences in non-affiliation by individual-level attributes-women vs...
February 2018: Social Science Research
V Kovess-Masfety, S Saha, C C W Lim, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, A Al-Hamzawi, J Alonso, G Borges, G de Girolamo, P de Jonge, K Demyttenaere, S Florescu, J M Haro, C Hu, E G Karam, N Kawakami, S Lee, J P Lepine, F Navarro-Mateu, J C Stagnaro, M Ten Have, M C Viana, R C Kessler, J J McGrath
OBJECTIVES: Religiosity is often associated with better health outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and religiosity in a large, cross-national sample. METHODS: A total of 25 542 adult respondents across 18 countries from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, religious affiliation and indices of religiosity, DSM-IV mental disorders and general medical conditions. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between PEs and religiosity with various adjustments...
February 16, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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