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anti-depressants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318797/early-symptom-trajectories-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-for-citalopram-versus-placebo
#1
Sigal Zilcha-Mano, Steven P Roose, Patrick J Brown, Bret R Rutherford
OBJECTIVES: The high percentage of failed clinical trials for anti-depressant medications, especially in elderly populations, obscures the fact that some patients may benefit greatly from treatment. Early detection of patients who may benefit most from antidepressant medication may improve treatment decisions. We examined whether depressed patients in a large clinical trial exhibit distinct trajectories of early symptom change that predict differential response to medication or placebo...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#2
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300618/the-novel-and-potent-anti-depressive-action-of-triptolide-and-its-influences-on-hippocampal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-comorbidity-of-chronic-pain
#3
Xiaofan Hu, Yulin Dong, Xiaohang Jin, Chunkui Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jie Zhao, Juan Shi, Jinlian Li
Chronic pain and depression frequently coexist in clinical setting, and current clinical treatments for this comorbidity have shown limited efficacy. Triptolide (T10), an active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been demonstrated to exert strong analgesic activities in experimental pain models, but whether it possesses anti-depressive actions remains unknown. Using a depression comorbidity of chronic pain rat model induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL), we investigated the potency of T10 for the treatment of comorbid depression in comparison with a widely used antidepressant, fluoxetine (FLX)...
March 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293901/diabetes-resolution-and-work-absenteeism-after-gastric-bypass-a-6-year-study
#4
E Jönsson, P Ornstein, H Goine, J L Hedenbro
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases cause costs to society. We studied the cost of work absenteeism before and after gastric bypass and the effects of postoperative diabetes resolution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg) (national coverage >98%) and cross-matched with data from the Social insurance Agency (coverage 100%) for the period ±3 years from operation. In 2010, a total of 7454 bariatric surgeries were performed; the study group is 4971 unique individuals with an annual income of >10,750 Euros and complete data sets...
March 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292431/anti-depressant-therapy-brightens-the-outlook-for-prostate-cancer-bone-metastases
#5
Michael D Nyquist, Peter S Nelson
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Wu et al. identify MAOA as a key mediator of osteolytic bone responses that involve complex paracrine interactions between tumor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Pharmacological inhibition of MAOA enzymatic activity effectively interrupted osteolysis and metastatic progression in preclinical models, suggesting a new treatment opportunity.
March 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284350/ketamine-upregulates-enos-expression-in-human-astroglial-a172-cells-possible-role-in-its-antidepressive-properties
#6
Yael Yuhas, Shai Ashkenazi, Eva Berent, Abraham Weizman
Ketamine is a potent anti-depressive agent. Nitric oxide plays an essential role in neuronal transmission and cerebral blood flow and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder as well as cardiovascular functioning. We investigated the effect of ketamine on eNOS expression in human A172 astroglial cells. Ketamine (50-500μM) increased eNOS expression at 4-24h in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was mediated by NMDA receptor, Akt inhibition and ERK1/2 activation and was synergistically augmented by rapamycin...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279159/changes-in-prevalence-of-psychotropic-drug-use-and-alcohol-consumption-among-the-elderly-in-germany-results-of-two-national-health-interview-and-examination-surveys-1997-99-and-2008-11
#7
Ingrid-Katharina Wolf, Yong Du, Hildtraud Knopf
BACKGROUND: Psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption among older adults need to be monitored over time as their use or combined use bears risks of harms. Representative data on changes in prevalence, patterns and co-relates of substance use are lacking in Germany. METHODS: Participants were older adults (60-79 years) from two German National Health Surveys: 1997-99 (GNHIES98, N = 1,606) and 2008-11 (DEGS1, N = 2,501). Included were drugs acting on the nervous system used during the last 7 days...
March 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229156/protective-effect-of-isoliquiritin-against-corticosterone-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells
#8
Yu-Zhi Zhou, Xiao Li, Wen-Xia Gong, Jun-Sheng Tian, Xiao-Xia Gao, Li Gao, Xiang Zhang, Guan-Hua Du, Xue-Mei Qin
Isoliquiritin, a flavonoid glycoside compound from licorice, possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-depression activities. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms of antidepressant effects remain unclear. In this study, the aim was to investigate the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of isoliquiritin in corticosterone-damaged PC12 cells. The results of this study showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with isoliquiritin significantly prevented corticosterone-induced cell apoptosis...
February 23, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212884/desipramine-decreases-expression-of-human-and-murine-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenases
#9
Alexandra K Brooks, Tiffany M Janda, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Robin A Smith, Cecilia Ocampo-Solis, Robert H McCusker
Abundant evidence connects depression symptomology with immune system activation, stress and subsequently elevated levels of kynurenine. Anti-depressants, such as the tricyclic norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor desipramine (Desip), were developed under the premise that increasing extracellular neurotransmitter level was the sole mechanism by which they alleviate depressive symptomologies. However, evidence suggests that anti-depressants have additional actions that contribute to their therapeutic potential...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205135/apium-graveolens-extract-influences-mood-and-cognition-in-healthy-mice
#10
Phetcharat Boonruamkaew, Wanida Sukketsiri, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant, Wijittra Kaewnam, Supita Tanasawet, Varomyalin Tipmanee, Pilaiwanwadee Hutamekalin, Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert
Apium graveolens is a food flavoring which possesses various health promoting effects. This study investigates the effect of a sub-acute administration of A. graveolens on cognition and anti-depression behaviors via antioxidant and related neurotransmitter systems in mice brains. Cognition and depression was assessed by various models of behavior. The antioxidant system of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), % inhibition of superoxide anion (O2(-)), and lipid peroxidation were studied. In addition, neurochemical parameters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase-type A (MAO-A) were also evaluated...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181668/nsi-189-a-small-molecule-with-neurogenic-properties-exerts-behavioral-and-neurostructural-benefits-in-stroke-rats
#11
Naoki Tajiri, David M Quach, Yuji Kaneko, Stephanie Wu, David Lee, Tina Lam, Ken L Hayama, Thomas G Hazel, Karl Johe, Michael C Wu, Cesar V Borlongan
Enhancing neurogenesis may be a powerful stroke therapy. Here, we tested in a rat model of ischemic stroke the beneficial effects of NSI-189, an orally active, new molecular entity (mol. wt. 366) with enhanced neurogenic activity, and indicated as an anti-depressant drug in a clinical trial (Fava et al., 2015) and being tested in a Phase 2 efficacy trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, 2016) for treatment of major depression. Oral administration of NSI-189 in adult Sprague-Dawley rats starting at 6 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and daily thereafter over the next 12 weeks resulted in significant amelioration of stroke-induced motor and neurological deficits, which was maintained up to 24 weeks post-stroke...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159648/the-role-of-neuroimmune-signaling-in-alcoholism
#12
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, Colleen J Lawrimore, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman
Alcohol consumption and stress increase brain levels of known innate immune signaling molecules. Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, and neurons respond to alcohol, signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), miRNAs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and their associated receptors involved in signaling between microglia, other glia and neurons. Repeated cycles of alcohol and stress cause a progressive, persistent induction of HMGB1, miRNA and TLR receptors in brain that appear to underlie the progressive and persistent loss of behavioral control, increased impulsivity and anxiety, as well as craving, coupled with increasing ventral striatal responses that promote reward seeking behavior and increase risk of developing alcohol use disorders...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158270/developmental-time-course-and-effects-of-immunostressors-that-alter-hormone-responsive-behavior-on-microglia-in-the-peripubertal-and-adult-female-mouse-brain
#13
Mary K Holder, Jeffrey D Blaustein
In female mice, the experience of being shipped from the breeder facility or a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during pubertal development alters the behavioral response to estradiol in adulthood as demonstrated by perturbations of estradiol's effects on sexual behavior, cognitive function, as well as its anxiolytic and anti-depressive properties. Microglia, the primary type of immunocompetent cell within the brain, contribute to brain development and respond to stressors with marked and long-lasting morphological and functional changes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150005/gauging-circadian-variation-in-ketamine-metabolism-by-real-time-breath-analysis
#14
P Martinez-Lozano Sinues, M Kohler, S A Brown, R Zenobi, R Dallmann
The time-of-day of drug application is an important factor in maximizing efficacy and minimizing toxicity. Real-time in vivo mass spectrometric breath analysis of mice was deployed to investigate time-of-day variation in ketamine metabolism. Different production rates of ketamine metabolites, including the recently described anti-depressant hydroxynorketamine, were found in opposite circadian phases. Thus, breath analysis has potential as a rapid and 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) conforming screening method to estimate the time-dependence of drug metabolism...
February 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143768/long-lasting-effects-of-fluoxetine-and-or-exercise-augmentation-on-bio-behavioural-markers-of-depression-in-pre-pubertal-stress-sensitive-rats
#15
Jacobus C Schoeman, Stephanus F Steyn, Brian H Harvey, Christiaan B Brink
Juvenile depression is of great concern with only limited treatment currently approved. Delayed onset of action, low remission and high relapse rates, and potential long-lasting consequences further complicates treatment and highlights the need for new treatment options. Studies reporting on long-lasting effects of early-life treatment have reported conflicting results, with the pre-adolescent period mostly overlooked. The anti-depressive effect of exercise, as a possible treatment option or augmentation strategy, is dependent on age and exercise intensity...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130646/the-effect-of-mirtazapine-on-dopaminergic-psychosis-and-dyskinesia-in-the-parkinsonian-marmoset
#16
Adjia Hamadjida, Stephen G Nuara, Nicolas Veyres, Imane Frouni, Cynthia Kwan, Lamia Sid-Otmane, Mery-Jane Harraka, Jim C Gourdon, Philippe Huot
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) psychosis is encountered in as many as 50% of patients with advanced disease. Treatment options for PD psychosis are few. In fact, only clozapine and pimavanserin have shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials. Clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe the former, due to the risk of agranulocytosis, while the latter is not widely available yet. Because it is already clinically available and exhibits high affinity for serotonin 2A receptors, a target with which both clozapine and pimavanserin interact, we hypothesised that the anti-depressant mirtazapine might be effective to alleviate PD psychosis...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109109/-role-of-camp-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-in-anti-depressive-effect-of-vortioxetine-in-mice
#17
Hui Yu, Jia-Jia Chen, Bing-Qing Zeng, Qiu-Ping Zhong, Jiang-Ping Xu, Yong-Gang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of vortioxetine on cAMP/CREB/BDNF signal pathway. METHODS: Forty Kunming mice were randomized into control group and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) group. After establishment of depressive models verified by sucrose preference test, the mice in CUMS group were divided into model group, fluoxetine group and vortioxetine group. The antidepressive effect of vortioxetine was analyzed by tail suspension test, forced swim test and open field test...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093374/predictors-of-pharmacological-intervention-in-adolescents-with-protracted-symptoms-after-sports-related-concussion
#18
Shanti M Pinto, Maria F Twichell, Luke C Henry
BACKGROUND: Though recovery after concussion is spontaneous and typically occurs within two to three weeks, a subset of adolescents develop persistent symptoms after a sports-related concussion. Medications are frequently prescribed as part of a comprehensive treatment approach to alleviate these symptoms; however, there are no guidelines for prescription of pharmacologic therapy after concussion. OBJECTIVE: To investigate common factors that are associated with the use of medications (anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, neurostimulant, or sleeping medication) during recovery from a sports-related concussion...
January 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078988/bdnf-nf-kb-signaling-in-the-neurobiology-of-depression
#19
Ariel Caviedes, Carlos Lafourcade, Claudio Soto, Ursula Wyneken
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders, consisting of unipolar and bipolar depression, are complex diseases characterized by depressed mood and anhedonia. These core symptoms are accompanied in a varying manner by anxiety, several neurovegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment. Mood disorders are characterized by decreases in neurogenesis, alteration in synaptic structure and synaptic transmission, all of them regulated by BDNF, a neurotrophin that performs multiple functions in the adult central nervous system...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078250/effects-of-mimosa-pudica-l-leaves-extract-on-anxiety-depression-and-memory
#20
Ganesh Patro, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Bijay Kumar Mohanty
OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to investigate the neuropharmacological activities of ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica (EAMP) leaves on anxiety, depression and memory in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-anxiety potential of EAMP was evaluated by elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB) and social interaction (SI) tests in mice.Anti-depressant potential of EAMP was evaluated by forced swimming (FST), tail suspension (TST), and open field tests (OFT)...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
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