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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223579/design-considerations-for-handling-dropouts-in-anti-depressant-drug-trials
#1
Jinglin Zhong, Ni A Khin, Peiling Yang
BACKGROUND: In clinical trials, statistical analysis often requires certain assumptions about missing data for a valid statistical inference. If the dropout rate is high, a wrong assumption about the missing data may compromise the validity of statistical inferences. PURPOSE: To mitigate the high dropout rates commonly observed in psychiatry clinical trials, we consider two design approaches for short-term controlled trials submitted in support of marketing applications for drug products for the major depressive disorder (MDD) indication: (1) shortening the trial duration and (2) treating time to treatment discontinuation as an alternative primary efficacy endpoint...
December 6, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209802/-doping-for-the-brain
#2
REVIEW
Bernhard Iglseder
The enhancement of physical and cognitive abilities (i. e. concentration, vigilance, memory) has always been desirable for humans. The term pharmacological neuroenhancement refers to the use of legal or nonprescription psychoactive substances by healthy subjects with the intention of cognitive enhancement. To give the most prominent example, caffeine serves worldwide as a natural stimulant. Brain doping, however, specifies the use of illegal substances or prescription drugs beyond approval with the purpose of cognitive enhancement...
December 5, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205346/effect-of-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-on-therapeutic-outcomes-among-women-with-endometriosis
#3
Alexander Kotlyar, Shirley Shue, Xiaobo Liu, Tommaso Falcone
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) affect the use of hormonal treatments, subsequent ablative surgery, and need for pain management, including opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-depressants, among women with endometriosis. METHODS: In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from women with surgically confirmed endometriosis who were not treated (n=234) or treated with DMARDs for 6 weeks or more (n=25) before surgical diagnosis at a single healthcare system in the USA between 2003 and 2013...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200995/ssri-and-motor-recovery-in-stroke-reestablishment-of-inhibitory-neural-network-tonus
#4
Camila B Pinto, Faddi G Saleh Velez, Fernanda Lopes, Polyana V de Toledo Piza, Laura Dipietro, Qing M Wang, Nicole L Mazwi, Erica C Camargo, Randie Black-Schaffer, Felipe Fregni
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently widely used in the field of the neuromodulation not only because of their anti-depressive effects but also due to their ability to promote plasticity and enhance motor recovery in patients with stroke. Recent studies showed that fluoxetine promotes motor recovery after stroke through its effects on the serotonergic system enhancing motor outputs and facilitating long term potentiation, key factors in motor neural plasticity. However, little is known in regards of the exact mechanisms underlying these effects and several aspects of it remain poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192946/-aripiprazole-induced-hyperhidrosis-two-case-reports
#5
Adarsh Vohra
Many drugs including anti-depressants and anti-psychotics are known to cause excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis). Hyperhidrosis may be caused by drugs acting at the hypothalamus, spinal thermoregulatory centres, and sympathetic ganglia or at the eccrine-neuroeffector junction. Hyperhidrosis can be distressing and embarrassing symptom, which if not addressed properly, may lead to non-concordance to medication. Two female patients are reported here who developed hyperhidrosis with aripiprazole. Both the patients stopped experiencing hyperhidrosis after their aripiprazole was discontinued...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174736/protein-kinase-a-mediates-scopolamine-induced-mtor-activation-and-an-antidepressant-response
#6
Jianyang Dong, Qinji Zhou, Zhisheng Wei, Shi Yan, Fangfang Sun, Xiang Cai
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports have shown that scopolamine produces a rapid (3-4 d) and potent anti-depressive response without severe adverse effects. Animal experiments have proven that scopolamine induces mTOR pathway activation in an AMPAR dependent manner. The present study aimed to determine the role of PKA in scopolamine-induced potentiation of AMPAR, as well as in mTOR pathway activation and rapid antidepressant effects. METHODS: We utilized electrophysiological recording, Western blotting, and behavior tests to examine the effects of scopolamine, the selective M2 cholinergic receptor antagonist methoctramine, and H89, a PKA specific inhibitor on AMPAR potentiation, mTOR pathway activation, and behavioral responses in a rat depression model of learned helplessness...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172802/the-effect-of-antidepressant-medications-in-the-management-of-heart-failure-on-outcomes-mortality-cardiovascular-function-and-depression-a-systematic-review
#7
Thurkka Rajeswaran, Carla M Plymen, Anne M Doherty
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and hospital readmission in patients with heart failure (HF). This systematic review aimed to compile studies examining whether the use of antidepressants could improve outcome in patients with HF and concomitant depression. METHODS: The electronic libraries Embase, OVID MEDLINE(R) and PsychInfo were used to search the following terms 'heart failure' AND 'anti-depressants'; 'heart failure' AND 'TCA' OR 'SSRI' OR 'SNRI'...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168882/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-regulates-activity-and-gene-expression-of-human-postmitotic-excitatory-neurons
#8
Shweta Gupta, Tanya M-Redmond, Fan Meng, Andrew Tidball, Huda Akil, Stanley Watson, Jack M Parent, Michael Uhler
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are thought to result from subtle changes in neural circuit formation. We used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to model mature, postmitotic excitatory neurons and examine effects of FGF2. FGF2 gene expression is known to be altered in brain regions of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and FGF2 has anti-depressive effects in animal models of depression. We generated stable inducible neurons (siNeurons) conditionally expressing human neurogenin 2 (NEUROG2) to generate a homogenous population of post-mitotic excitatory neurons and study the functional as well as the transcriptional effects of FGF2...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166576/the-beneficial-health-aspects-of-sea-buckthorn-elaeagnus-rhamnoides-l-a-nelson-oil
#9
REVIEW
Beata Olas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL CONTEXT: Plant oils are known to have biological activity. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of the composition of sea buckthorn (Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A.Nelson) seed and pulp oil and its beneficial health aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies on humans and animals have found sea buckthorn oil to have a variety of beneficial properties to human health, and indicate that it may be a valuable component of human and animal nutrition...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163055/study-of-sex-differences-in-duloxetine-efficacy-for-depression-in-transgenic-mouse-models
#10
Yong Xu, Lei Ma, Wei Jiang, Yuhong Li, Gang Wang, Rena Li
Clinical evidences show sex differences in risk of developing depressive disorders as well as effect of antidepressants in depression treatment. However, whether such a sex-dependent risk of depression and efficacy of antidepressants is dependent on endogenous estrogen level remain elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanisms of sex differences in antidepressant duloxetine. In the present study, we used genetic knockout or overexpression estrogen-synthesizing enzyme aromatase (Ar) gene as models for endogenous estrogen deficiency and elevation endogenous estrogen, respectively, to examine the anti-depressive efficacy of duloxetine in males and females by force swimming test (FST)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162814/trkb-dependent-adult-hippocampal-progenitor-differentiation-mediates-sustained-ketamine-antidepressant-response
#11
Zhenzhong Ma, Tong Zang, Shari G Birnbaum, Zilai Wang, Jane E Johnson, Chun-Li Zhang, Luis F Parada
Adult neurogenesis persists in the rodent dentate gyrus and is stimulated by chronic treatment with conventional antidepressants through BDNF/TrkB signaling. Ketamine in low doses produces both rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in patients. Previous studies have shed light on post-transcriptional synaptic NMDAR mediated mechanisms underlying the acute effect, but how ketamine acts at the cellular level to sustain this anti-depressive function for prolonged periods remains unclear. Here we report that ketamine accelerates differentiation of doublecortin-positive adult hippocampal neural progenitors into functionally mature neurons...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158580/ck2-regulates-5-ht4-receptor-signaling-and-modulates-depressive-like-behavior
#12
J Castello, B LeFrancois, M Flajolet, P Greengard, E Friedman, H Rebholz
The serotonergic neurotransmitter system has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders such as anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD). The onset of therapeutic efficacy of traditional antidepressants is delayed by several weeks. The 5-HT4 receptor has emerged as a new therapeutic target since agonists of this receptor induce rapid antidepressant-like responses in rodents. Here we show that the 5-HT4 receptor is regulated by CK2, at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157221/the-failure-of-suicide-prevention-in-primary-care-family-and-gp-perspectives-a-qualitative-study
#13
Gerard Leavey, Sharon Mallon, Janeet Rondon-Sulbaran, Karen Galway, Michael Rosato, Lynette Hughes
BACKGROUND: Although Primary care is crucial for suicide prevention, clinicians tend to report completed suicides in their care as non-preventable. We aimed to examine systemic inadequacies in suicide prevention from the perspectives of bereaved family members and GPs. METHODS: Qualitative study of 72 relatives or close friends bereaved by suicide and 19 General Practitioners who have experienced the suicide of patients. RESULTS: Relatives highlight failures in detecting symptoms and behavioral changes and the inability of GPs to understand the needs of patients and their social contexts...
November 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136551/efficient-and-relatively-safe-emulsification-microextraction-using-a-deep-eutectic-solvent-for-influential-enrichment-of-trace-main-anti-depressant-drugs-from-complicated-samples
#14
Ahmad Ghoochani Moghadam, Maryam Rajabi, Alireza Asghari
In this research work, an efficient, facile, prompt, and relatively safe enrichment procedure, named as air agitated-emulsification microextraction based on a low density-deep eutectic solvent (AA-EME-LD-DES), was applied for the first time to separate trace amounts of the drugs escitalopram, desipramine, and imipramine from complex sample solutions. This bio-degradable and cheap choline chloride-based extracting agent was readily prepared by the easy blending process at the ambient temperature, resulting in a eutectic liquid mixture with distinct features...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133948/increased-hippocampal-tail-volume-predicts-depression-status-and-remission-to-anti-depressant-medications-in-major-depression
#15
J J Maller, K Broadhouse, A J Rush, E Gordon, S Koslow, S M Grieve
Studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have consistently reported reduced hippocampal volumes; however, the exact pattern of these volume changes in specific anatomical subfields and their functional significance is unclear. We sought to clarify the relationship between hippocampal tail volumes and (i) a diagnosis of MDD, and (ii) clinical remission to anti-depressant medications (ADMs). Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD (n=202) based on DSM-IV criteria and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) score ⩾16 underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging as part of the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D)...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133056/therapeutic-potential-of-songorine-a-diterpenoid-alkaloid-of-the-genus-aconitum
#16
REVIEW
Haroon Khan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Nikolay Mehterov, Diana Gulei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Atanas G Atanasov
Alkaloids are well-studied secondary metabolites, with recent preclinical studies evidencing that many of them exhibit anti-cancer, anti-depressant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial properties. Aconitum is a genus rich of diverse alkaloids. More than 450 alkaloids have been identified in a variety of species. Songorine is a C20 diterpenoid alkaloid and 12-keto analog of napelline, isolated from Aconitum soongaricum and was associated with a heterogeneous panel of biological functions...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 9, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126988/morinda-officinalis-how-a-comprehensive-review-of-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#18
REVIEW
Jian-Hua Zhang, Hai-Liang Xin, Yue-Ming Xu, Yi Shen, Yu-Qiong He, Hsien-Yeh, Bing Lin, Hong-Tao Song, Juan-Liu, Hai-Yue Yang, Lu-Ping Qin, Qiao-Yan Zhang, Juan Du
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights intopotential opportunities for future research and development of this plant...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126980/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-relationship-with-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#19
Martin Pedard, Céline Demougeot, Clément Prati, Christine Marie
OBJECTIVES: Both peripheral and central brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are decreased in depression and normalized by efficient anti-depressive therapies. While depression symptoms are frequent in rheumatoid arthritis, BDNF has been poorly investigated in this pathology. Therefore, the present study explored cerebral and peripheral BDNF in arthritis rats as well as the link between brain BDNF and the two factors recently involved in the pathogenesis of depression and present in rheumatoid arthritis namely inflammation and endothelial dysfunction...
November 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119301/whole-body-vibration-added-to-treatment-as-usual-is-effective-in-adolescents-with-depression-a-partly-randomized-three-armed-clinical-trial-in-inpatients
#20
Heidrun Lioba Wunram, Stefanie Hamacher, Martin Hellmich, Maxi Volk, Franziska Jänicke, Franziska Reinhard, Wilhelm Bloch, Philipp Zimmer, Christine Graf, Eckhard Schönau, Gerd Lehmkuhl, Stephan Bender, Oliver Fricke
There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of adult major depression. With regard to adolescents, clinical trials are scarce. Due to the inherent symptoms of depression (lack of energy, low motivation to exercise), endurance training forms could be too demanding especially in the first weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that an easy-to-perform passive muscular training on a whole body vibration (WBV) device has equal anti-depressive effects compared to a cardiovascular training, both administered as add-ons to treatment as usual (TAU)...
November 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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