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toxicity testing

Ling Fu, Tao Huang, Shuo Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Limin Su, Chao Li, Yuanhui Zhao
Although modes of action (MOAs) play a key role in the understanding of the toxic mechanism of chemicals, the MOAs have not been investigated for antibiotics to green algae. This paper is to discriminate excess toxicity from baseline level and investigate the MOAs of 13 different antibiotics to algae by using the determined toxicity values. Comparison of the toxicities shows that the inhibitors of protein synthesis to bacteria, such as azithromycin, doxycycline, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, exhibit significantly toxic effects to algae...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Binbin Fang, Jing Guo, Fuxing Li, John P Giesy, Lianjun Wang, Wei Shi
Industrialized development of the Yangtze River Delta, China, has resulted in larger amounts of wastes, including sludges from treatment of these wastes. Methods to manage and dispose, including reuse were urgently needed. Sludge and reused products were collected from two largest factories, KEYUAN and HENGJIA where treated sludges were turned into bricks or sludge cake to be placed in landfills, respectively. Metals and organic compounds were quantified in sludges and leachates assessed by use of toxicity characterized leaching procedure (TCLP) while acute toxicity was determined by Daphnia magna...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Kathia Sandoval, Yan Ding, Piero Gardinali
Comprehensive characterization of exposure media used in toxicology studies is still an area of significant divergence when evaluating potential oil spill impacts. When preparing exposure media used for toxicology testing, small variations in simple parameters such as mixing energy, oil type and loading can significantly affect the concentration of the oil components to which test organisms are exposed. The key goal of this study was compare and contrast the physical and chemical compositions of oil water mixtures prepared using fresh and weathered Macondo-related oils under different conditions of mixing and in the presence/absence of chemical dispersants...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
W J Wasielesky, L H Poersch, T G Martins, K C Miranda-Filho
In response to growing worldwide market demand, intensive shrimp farming, based on high feed, has developed over the past decade. The nitrogenous compounds mainly generated by animal excretion can cause deterioration of water quality and produce chronic or even acute toxicity to aquatic animals. As prevention, theoretical safety levels have been estimated from acute toxicity tests and they are traditionally used to prevent toxic effects on biota. However, are those concentrations of nitrogenous compounds really safe to Farfantepenaeus paulensis? The current study aimed to investigate the lethal and sublethal effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate to juvenile F...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Ja Min Byun, Hea-Lim Kim, Dong-Yeop Shin, Youngil Koh, Sung-Soo Yoon, Moon-Woo Seong, Sung Sup Park, Jin Hee Kim, Yun-Gyoo Lee, Inho Kim
Pharmacogenomics can explain the inter-individual differences in response to drugs, including methotrexate (MTX) used for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) prophylaxis during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In real-world practice, preplanned MTX dose is arbitrarily modified according to observed toxicity which can lead to unexpected and severe aGVHD development. We aimed to validate the influence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the outcomes of allogenic HSCT in a relatively under-represented homogenous Asian population...
2016: PloS One
M Arias-Andrés, R Rämö, F Mena Torres, R Ugalde, L Grandas, C Ruepert, L E Castillo, P J Van den Brink, J S Gunnarsson
Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Patcharaporn Tippayawat, Nutthakritta Phromviyo, Parichart Boueroy, Apiwat Chompoosor
BACKGROUND: There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis) of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect...
2016: PeerJ
Anna Barbasz, Magdalena Oćwieja, Stanisław Walas
The growing popularity of nanomaterials requires a systematic study of their effects on the human body. Silver nanoparticles, due to their antiseptic properties, are used in almost every area of life. The purpose of the study was to examine whether the precursor used for the synthesis of nanoparticles affects their bio-influence and modifies their impact on cells of the human immune system. To compare the effects of precursor silver salts (AgNO3, CH3COOAg and AgClO4) and corresponding nanoparticles (TAN TAA and TAC) cytotoxicity study was conducted on two cell lines U-937 and HL-60...
October 26, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Jovana Trifunović, Vladan Borčić, Saša Vukmirović, Velibor Vasović, Momir Mikov
PURPOSE: Animal tests have been often used in toxicology to determine parameters describing toxicity of a particular substance. However, in vivo tests must fulfill ethical requirements, and are both time and money consuming. Therefore, computational methods are considered to be very useful in toxicity prediction. METHODS: Retention parameters were acquired by normal-phase TLC. Lipophilicity was used as a key parameter for predicting toxic potential. The correlation coefficients between calculated log P values obtained by five different software and experimentally determined hydrophobicity parameters ([Formula: see text](tol/et), [Formula: see text](tol/but), b(tol/et) and b(tol/but)) were calculated...
October 26, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Hemant K Nagar, Amit K Srivastava, Rajnish Srivastava, Mahendra S Ranawat
The aim of present study was to determine the effect of newly formulated gels and suspensions of extractive Phytoconstituents of Woodfordia fructicosa flowers and Gardenia gummifera leaves by using UV Radiation induced psoriasis in rats. Both plants are traditionally claimed to be useful in treatment of number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for their potential in psoriasis. Formulated Gels and Suspensions of ethanolic extract of both plants were tested for acute dermal and oral toxicity study respectively...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sai Zheng, Jia-Chen Shi, Jian-Ying Hu, Wen-Xin Hu, Jing Zhang, Bing Shao
The reaction kinetics and transformation pathways between bisphenol F (BPF) and sodium hypochlorite were investigated at pH values ranging from 6.5 to 8.5 and with different initial concentration ratios. The reaction rate was pH- and free available chlorine (FAC)-dependent: the reaction rate at pH 8.5 was almost 10 times than that at pH 6.5. A total of 40 compounds were tentatively identified as chloro-substituted BPF and polyphenolic compounds by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry operating in electrospray ionization mode (LC-ESI-Q-ToF), and 4 main byproducts were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
Xue-Fang Li, Quan-Yong Huang, Wen-Zhong Yang, Hui-Jie Wang, Can-Wei Li
Atropine-induced damage is associated with enzyme and protein alterations. The aim of the present study was to investigate atropine‑induced alterations in testicular expression levels of angiotensin‑converting enzyme (ACE) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding cassette sub‑family G member 2 (ABCG2) following atropine treatment. Male Wistar rats received 15 mg/kg/day atropine for 7 days; control rats received an identical volume of saline, Following treatment, the testes were harvested for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to examine the protein and gene expression levels of ACE and ABCG2 by digital image analysis...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Serli Önlü, Melek Türker Saçan
The authors constructed novel, robust and validated linear Quantitative Structure-Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models in line with OECD criteria using the two cytotoxicity data sets which were obtained from the Alamar Blue (AB) and 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM) assays. The data sets comprise the cytotoxic effect of structurally diverse and widely used pharmaceuticals, synthetic musks and industrial chemicals on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cell line RTL-W1. Common descriptors defined the relationship between structure and cytotoxicity for both the AB and the CFDA-AM assays which measure the metabolic activity and membrane integrity, respectively...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Mohammed I El-Gamal, Woo-Seok Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Chang-Hyun Oh, Kyung-Tae Lee, Jungseung Choi, Nohsun Myoung, Daejin Baek
The synthesis of a new series of 21 fused coumarin derivatives is described, and the biological evaluation of their in vitro antiinflammatory effects as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The target compounds 1a-u were first tested for cytotoxicity to determine a non-toxic concentration for antiinflammatory screening, so that the inhibitory effects against NO and PGE2 production would not be caused by cytotoxicity...
October 24, 2016: Archiv der Pharmazie
Maren Paulmann, Maja Mockenhaupt
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are known for a high morbidity and mortality. They may be life-threatening for the affected patient and difficult to accomplish for the patient's family and the treating physician. Such conditions include not only bullous reactions like toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), but also acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Since clinical pattern, etiology, prognosis and treatment differ among these severe skin reactions, a clear diagnosis based on a comprehensive clinical examination, skin biopsy, and specific laboratory tests is necessary...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
S A Harrison, S R Marri, N Chalasani, R Kohli, W Aronstein, G A Thompson, W Irish, M V Miles, S A Xanthakos, E Lawitz, M Noureddin, T D Schiano, M Siddiqui, A Sanyal, B A Neuschwander-Tetri, P G Traber
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and resultant liver fibrosis is a major health problem without approved pharmacotherapy. Pre-clinical results of GR-MD-02, a galectin-3 inhibitor, suggested potential efficacy in NASH with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and prompted initiation of a clinical development programme in NASH with advanced fibrosis. AIM: To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and exploratory pharmacodynamic markers of GR-MD-02 in subjects having NASH with bridging fibrosis...
October 24, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
T Wiesmann, T Steinfeldt, M Exner, W Nimphius, J De Andres, H Wulf, U Schwemmer
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Most anesthesiologists use the injection of a test dose of local anesthetic in order to evaluate the final needle tip position. Thus, the intraneural injection of a full dose can be avoided. The aim of this study was to analyze whether an intraneural injection of a test dose of bupivacaine could trigger histological changes. METHODS: Intraneural injections under direct vision were performed in 40 brachial plexus nerves in seven anesthetized pigs...
October 25, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Takuya Shimizuguchi, Keiji Nihei, Tomoyuki Okano, Yumiko Machitori, Kei Ito, Katsuyuki Karasawa
BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces the dose delivered to organs at risk. However, there have been few direct comparisons of IMRT with conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of IMRT in terms of toxicity and biochemical control. METHODS: The medical records of 203 consecutive patients with localized to non-metastatic (stage T1a-T3bN0M0) prostate cancer between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Peter E Ghaly, Rabab M Abou El-Magd, Cassandra D M Churchill, Jack A Tuszynski, F G West
Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound...
June 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Doc Mariano, D de Souza, D F Meinerz, J Allebrandt, A F de Bem, W Hassan, Oed Rodrigues, Jbt da Rocha
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide disease characterized by impairments of immune function. AIDS can be associated with oxidative stress (OS) that can be linked to selenium (Se) deficiency. Se is fundamental for the synthesis of selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. These enzymes catalyze the decomposition of reactive oxygen species and contribute to maintain equilibrium in cell redox status. Literature data indicate that organoselenium compounds, such as ebselen and diphenyl diselenide, have antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo models associated with OS...
October 24, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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