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Yu Wu, Bin Yue, Jia Liu
Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health and extensive increase in body mass index (BMI). Childhood obesity may occur due to disturbances in metabolic regulation, which lead to metabolic syndrome and other diseases. Peripheral blood suspended immune cells are responsible for immune surveillance. The aim of the present study was to map the inflammatory cytokine expression pattern of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in vitro and clinical chemistry parameters in the plasma of subjects...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Matthias Wohlgemuth, Roland Mitric
We introduce a general theoretical approach for the simulation of photochemical dynamics under the influence of circularly polarized light in order to explore the possibility of generating enantiomeric enrichment through polarized-light-selective photochemistry. The method is applied to the simulation of the photolysis of alanine, a prototype chiral amino acid. We show that a systematic enantiomeric enrichment can be obtained depending on the helicity of the circularly polarized light that induces the excited state photochemistry of alanine...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Lydia M Le Page, Daniel R Ball, Vicky Ball, Michael S Dodd, Jack J Miller, Lisa C Heather, Damian J Tyler
Understanding and assessing diabetic metabolism is vital for monitoring disease progression and improving treatment of patients. In vivo assessments, using MRI and MRS, provide non-invasive and accurate measurements, and the development of hyperpolarized (13) C spectroscopy in particular has been demonstrated to provide valuable metabolic data in real time. Until now, studies have focussed on individual organs. However, diabetes is a systemic disease affecting multiple tissues in the body. Therefore, we have developed a technique to simultaneously measure metabolism in both the heart and liver during a single acquisition...
October 25, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Ruru Fan, Yanyan Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Xi-Rui Zhou, Lili Jia, Zhuqing Liu, Changyuan Yu, Shi-Zhong Luo, Long Chen
Many lytic peptides contain a heptad sequence with leucine or isoleucine residues at "a" and "d" positions. However, their roles in the peptide-induced cytolytic process remain unclear. We have recently reported an anticancer lytic peptide ZXR-2 (FKIGGFIKKLWRSLLA), which contains a shortened zipper-like sequence with Ile/Leu at "a" and "d" positions. To understand the roles of these Ile/Leu residues, a series of analogs were constructed by sequentially replacing the Ile or Leu residue with alanine (Ala). Significant reduction of the cytolytic activity was observed when the Ile (3rd and 7th) and Leu (10th and 14th) residues at the "a" and "d" positions were substituted, while the replacement of the separate Leu (15th) residue had less effect...
October 24, 2016: Amino Acids
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Henry Oppermann, Yonghong Ding, Jeevan Sharma, Mandy Berndt Paetz, Jürgen Meixensberger, Frank Gaunitz, Claudia Birkemeyer
BACKGROUND: Tumor cells are highly dependent on glucose even in the presence of oxygen. This concept called the Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer and strategies are considered to therapeutically exploit the phenomenon such as ketogenic diets. The success of such strategies is dependent on a profound understanding of tumor cell metabolism. With new techniques it is now possible to thoroughly analyze the metabolic responses to the withdrawal of substrates and their substitution by others...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Hengjia Ni, Lu Lu, Jinpin Deng, Wenjun Fan, Tiejun Li, Jiming Yao
Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON) and H2O2-challenged control (BD) groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU) or 2% aspartate (ASP)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Rachel S Kelly, Amber Dahlin, Michael J McGeachie, Weiliang Qiu, Joanne Sordillo, Emily S Wan, Ann Chen Wu, Jessica Lasky-Su
Asthma is a complex disease well suited to metabolomic profiling, both for the development of novel biomarkers and for the improved understanding of pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the 21 existing metabolomic studies of asthma in humans, all of which reported significant findings and concluded that individual metabolites and metabolomic profiles measured in exhaled breath condensate, urine, plasma and serum could identify asthmatics and asthma phenotypes with high discriminatory ability. There was considerable consistency across the studies in terms of the reported biomarkers, regardless of biospecimen, profiling technology and population age...
October 21, 2016: Chest
Tahira Younis, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Moniba Sajid
BACKGROUND: Leaves and root bark of Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Wall. (Oleaceae) are used locally for the treatment of jaundice, malaria and pneumonia. Decoction of stem, twigs and bark is used in pain, internal injuries, rheumatism and in bone fracture. In this investigation we have evaluated the methanol extract of leaves for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced hepatic injuries in rat. METHODS: Powder of F. xanthoxyloides leaves was extracted with methanol (FXM) and subjected for the determination of polyphenolics through HPLC-DAD analysis...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Lei Liang, Xue Yang, Yang Yu, Xiaoyong Li, Yechen Wu, Rongyu Shi, Jinghua Jiang, Lu Gao, Fei Ye, Qiudong Zhao, Rong Li, Lixin Wei, Zhipeng Han
Babao Dan (BBD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat chronic liver diseases. In this study, we aimed to observe the protective effect of BBD on rat hepatic fibrosis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and explore it possible mechanism. BBD was administrated while DEN was given. After eight weeks, values of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) indicated that BBD significantly protected liver from damaging by DEN and had no obvious side effect on normal rat livers...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Brittany N Flores, Mark E Dulchavsky, Amy Krans, Michael R Sawaya, Henry L Paulson, Peter K Todd, Sami J Barmada, Magdalena I Ivanova
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common inherited cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The expansions elicit toxicity in part through repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of the intronic (GGGGCC)n sequence into dipeptide repeat-containing proteins (DPRs). Little is known, however, about the structural characteristics and aggregation propensities of the dipeptide units comprising DPRs. To address this question, we synthesized dipeptide units corresponding to the three sense-strand RAN translation products, analyzed their structures by circular dichroism, electron microscopy and dye binding assays, and assessed their relative toxicity when applied to primary cortical neurons...
2016: PloS One
Alejo Mancebo, María Luisa González-Diéguez, Carmen A Navascués, Valle Cadahía, María Varela, Ramón Pérez, Luis Rodrigo, Manuel Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Patient adherence to screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well known. Our aims were to analyze the adherence to a surveillance program in a prospective cohort of cirrhotic patients and to examine its association with HCC stage at diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 770 patients with cirrhosis were examined semiannually by ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein at a tertiary center. We collected data on 17 variables at baseline. Suboptimal adherence was defined as failure to complete 2 consecutive screening rounds...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Heinrich Krobath, Tao Chen, Hue Sun Chan
Volumetric properties of proteins bear directly on their biological functions in hyperbaric environments and are useful in general as a biophysical probe. To gain insight into conformation-dependent protein volume, we developed an implicit-solvent atomic chain model that transparently embodies two physical origins of volume. First, a fundamental geometric term capturing the van der Waals volume of the protein and the particulate, finite-size nature of the water molecules, modeled together by the volume encased by the protein's molecular surface...
October 24, 2016: Biochemistry
Meriem Attaf, Stephan J Holland, Istvan Bartok, Julian Dyson
αβ T cells respond to peptide epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The role of T cell receptor (TCR) germline complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and 2) in MHC restriction is not well understood. Here, we examine T cell development, MHC restriction and antigen recognition where germline CDR loop structure has been modified by multiple glycine/alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, loss of germline structure increases TCR engagement with MHC ligands leading to excessive loss of immature thymocytes...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
J Y Yang, H J Zhang, J Wang, S G Wu, H Y Yue, X R Jiang, G H Qi
Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat-soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7...
October 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy
Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg), Lead acetate (100 mg/kg) + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg) + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug)...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
K J Coppell, J C Miller, A R Gray, M Schultz, J I Mann, W R Parnell
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes when no other pathologic causes are present, is an increasingly common obesity-related disorder. We sought to describe the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes, a marker of liver damage, among New Zealand adults, and high-risk subgroups including those with an elevated body mass index and those with pre-diabetes or diabetes, to gain a better understanding of the burden of liver disease...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Daisuke Ikeda, Makiko Sugawa, Kazuo Kawahara
Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT), which was introduced by the Japanese Red Cross Society in October 1999, began to be performed for screening of blood transfusion formulations in Japan in August 2014. In this study, the precision of immunological screenings of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBcAb, and HBsAb), hepatitis C (HCVAb), and human immunodeficiency (HIVAb) virus antigens in donated blood were evaluated. In addition, the sensitivity of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test for detection of the hepatitis B and C viruses was re-evaluated...
2016: Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
Chengwei Niu, Yuchen Sheng, Enyuan Zhu, Lili Ji, Zhengtao Wang
The rhizome of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn, traditionally used to treat thyroid disease and cancer in China, is reported to induce serious liver injury during clinical practice. Diosbulbin B (DB), a diterpene lactone, has been found to be the main toxic compound in D. bulbifera. The present study aims to investigate the protection of ferulic acid (FA) against DB-induced acute liver injury and its engaged mechanism. Mice were orally administered FA (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) once daily for 6 consecutive days; and then orally given DB (250 mg/kg) on the last day...
October 23, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Oksana N Khokhlova, Elena A Tukhovskaya, Irina N Kravchenko, Elena S Sadovnikova, Irina A Pakhomova, Elena A Kalabina, Alexander V Lobanov, Elvira R Shaykhutdinova, Alina M Ismailova, Arkady N Murashev
INTRODUCTION: It is important that the method of anesthesia of mice does not considerably alter the animal's physiological and metabolic status before terminal blood sampling taken in order to analyze clinical pathology parameters. METHODS: Hematology, hemostasis, and clinical chemistry parameters were compared in male and female BALB/c mice exposed to either tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine (TZX) anesthesia or euthanasia in carbon dioxide (CO2) chamber to reveal an alternative method of anesthesia vs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
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