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gram negative rod pneumonia

Alicja Sękowska
The genus Raoultella belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Raoultella spp. are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods. This genus can be distinguished from the genus Klebsiella, in that genus use histamine as the only source of carbon in the medium. Also, Raoultella grow at 4 °C and do not produce gas from lactose at 44.5 °C. Raoultella sp. is known to inhabit natural environments (water, soil, plants). The reservoir of Raoultella is the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract. Raoultella spp...
January 6, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
January 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Kelly Pennington, Martin Van Zyl, Patricio Escalante
Citrobacter koseri is a motile, gram-negative rod traditionally known to cause infection in individuals with significant comorbidities and immunocompromised status. While most cases represent nosocomial infections, rarely community-acquired infections have been reported. We present a previously healthy man in his 60s with C. koseri pneumonia who was subsequently found to have underlying pulmonary adenocarcinoma, illustrating the need for further investigation for immunodeficiency and/or intrapulmonary pathology...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Xue-Jing Yang, Sai Wang, Jun-Min Cao, Jia-Hui Hou
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. Here we present draft genome assemblies of Klebsiella pneumoniae AS, which was isolated in China. The genomic information will provide a better understanding of the physiology, adaptation, and evolution of K. pneumoniae.
2016: Genome Announcements
Allison Palmer, Joseph Painter, Hayley Hassler, Vincent P Richards, Terri Bruce, Shatavia Morrison, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Tamara L McNealy
A novel Legionella species was identified based on sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, biochemical reactions, and biofilm characterization. Strain D5610 was originally isolated from the bronchial wash of a patient in Ohio, USA. The bacteria were gram-negative, rod-shaped, and exhibited green fluorescence under long wave UV light. Phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid composition revealed a distinct separation within the genus. The strain grows between 26-45°C and forms biofilms equivalent to L. pneumophila Philadelphia 1...
October 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Amira Hafeez, Tehmina Munir, Sara Najeeb, Sabahat Rehman, Mehreen Gilani, Maliha Ansari, Nadia Saad
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and antibiogram of pathogens in an intensive care unit (ICU). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, from January 2013 to January 2014. METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples, received from patients admitted in ICU, were inoculated on various medias like blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar and urine samples on CLED...
July 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Nadia Saad, Tehmina Munir, Maliha Ansari, Mehreen Gilani, Mahwish Latif, Amira Haroon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of disc approximation test compared to three-dimensional extract test as a phenotypic gold standard test for detection of AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS: The cross-sectional validation study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) were isolated from various clinical specimens...
June 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Jung-Ho Kim, Hyun Joong Kim, Yong Hyun Kim, Jong Min Jeon, Hun Suk Song, Junyoung Kim, So-Young No, Ji-Hyun Shin, Kwon-Young Choi, Kyung Moon Park, Yung-Hun Yang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, and encapsulated bacterium in the normal flora of the intestines, mouth, skin, and food, and has decarboxylation activity, which results in generation of diamines (cadaverine, agmatine, and putrescine). However, there is no specific information on the exact mechanism of decarboxylation in K. pnuemoniae. Specifically lysine decarboxylases that generate cadaverine with a wide range of applications has not been shown. Therefore, we performed a functional study of lysine decarboxylases...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tadashi Kosaka, Yukiji Yamada, Takeshi Kimura, Mai Kodama, Yumiko Fujitomo, Nakanishi Masaki, Komori Toshiaki, Shikata Keisuke, Naohisa Fujita
Respiratory quinolones (RQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, bacterial resistance to quinolones has been on the increase. In this study, we investigated the predicted efficacy of RQs for various strains of 9 bacterial species clinically isolated at our university hospital using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. In addition, the influence of the patients' renal function on the efficacy of RQs was evaluated...
February 2016: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
Radoslaw Jaworski, Ireneusz Haponiuk, Mariusz Steffens, Elzbieta Arlukowicz, Ninela Irga-Jaworska, Maciej Chojnicki, Ewelina Kwasniak, Jacek Zielinski
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of multidrug resistant microorganisms worldwide is increasing. The aim of the study was to present institutional experience with the multidrug resistant microorganism colonization patterns observed in children with congenital heart diseases hospitalized in a hybrid pediatric cardiac surgery center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological samples were routinely collected in all children admitted to our department. All microbiological samples were analyzed with regard to multidrug resistant microorganisms: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Gram-negative rods producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), multidrug resistant Gram-negative rods (MDR-GNRs), carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA)...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
I Brook
Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ridhwi Mukerji, Radhika Kakarala, Susan Jane Smith, Halina G Kusz
Nursing home-associated infections and antibiotic resistant pathogens constitute common and serious problems in the geriatric population.Chryseobacterium indologenes, a non-motile Gram-negative rod, though widely distributed in nature, is an uncommon human pathogen. Typically thought of as an organism of low virulence, it may cause serious infections, particularly among the immunocompromised. The majority of reported cases are nosocomial, often associated with immunosuppression or indwelling catheters. It has been reported as the causative agent in bacteraemia, peritonitis, pneumonia, empyema, pyelonephritis, cystitis, meningitis and central venous catheter-associated infections...
April 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Maria Mushtaq Gill, Javaid Usman, Afreenish Hassan, Fatima Kaleem, Nasira Shaheen
BACKGROUND: Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are emerging as common nosocomial pathogens and important cause of mortality and morbidity, if not treated properly. The need of the hour is to find effective treatment options for dealing with ESBL producing organisms. This study was aimed to evaluate in vitro susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum β-lactamase producers against tetracyclines. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, National University of Sciences and Technology over a period of 6 months...
October 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach, T Allen Merritt, Maria Borszewska-Kornacka, Joanna Domańska, Ewa Gulczyńska, Marek Nowiczewski, Ewa Helwich, Agnieszka Kordek, Dorota Pawlik, Paweł Adamski
PURPOSE: Late-Onset Pneumonia (LO-PNEU) is still the most important complication associated with the hospitalization of infants with very low birth weight (<1501g). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of an ongoing surveillance program defining LO-PNEU as associated or not associated with respiratory support in the NICU and distribution of causative pathogens from the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveillance of infections was conducted in the years 2009-2011 at six Polish NICUs...
March 2016: Advances in Medical Sciences
Justyna Zińczuk, Piotr Wojskowicz, Joanna Kiśluk, Dawid Fil, Andrzej Kemona, Jacek Dadan
Yersiniosis is an acute or chronic, zoonotic disease caused by infection of Gram-negative rods Yersinia enterocolitica. It can be transmitted by the consumption of originally contaminated food products (pork, unpasteurized milk) or secondarily contaminated with animal or vegetable products. The clinical picture of infection may have a variable course is related to the age and physical condition of the patient, or pathogenic properties of microorganisms. Infection caused by Y. enterocolitica can occur in different clinical forms: food poisoning, colitis, mesentric lymphadenitis, erythema nodosum, arthritis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis...
2015: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Alix Pantel, Brigitte Richaud-Morel, Michel Cazaban, Nicole Bouziges, Albert Sotto, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. This study describes the epidemiologic features of an outbreak caused by an environmental reservoir of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae caused by persistence of the bacteria during 20 months in an intensive care unit in France. This report emphasizes the importance of early environmental screening to interrupt the transmission of carbapenemase-producingEnterobacteriaceae.
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Dominika Ojdana, Paweł Sacha, Dorota Olszańska, Piotr Majewski, Piotr Wieczorek, Jadwiga Jaworowska, Anna Sieńko, Anna Jurczak, Elżbieta Tryniszewska
An increase in the antibiotic resistance among members of the Enterobacteriaceae family has been observed worldwide. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods are increasingly reported. The treatment of infections caused by Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae has become an important clinical problem associated with reduced therapeutic possibilities. Antimicrobial carbapenems are considered the last line of defense against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, an increase of carbapenem resistance due to the production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes has been observed...
2015: BioMed Research International
R Hauck, R P Chin, H L Shivaprasad
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, and mostly oxidase-positive bacterium that causes respiratory infections in chickens and turkeys worldwide and can also spread to nonrespiratory organs. The present report analyzes 294 cases in which O. rhinotracheale was isolated from turkeys or chickens in central California in the years 2000 through 2012. Two hundred sixteen cases were from turkey flocks and 78 from chicken flocks. The median age of turkey flocks was 8.7 wk; the median age of chicken flocks was 6...
March 2015: Avian Diseases
Leo Lin, Poochit Nonejuie, Jason Munguia, Andrew Hollands, Joshua Olson, Quang Dam, Monika Kumaraswamy, Heriberto Rivera, Ross Corriden, Manfred Rohde, Mary E Hensler, Michael D Burkart, Joe Pogliano, George Sakoulas, Victor Nizet
Antibiotic resistance poses an increasingly grave threat to the public health. Of pressing concern, rapid spread of carbapenem-resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative rods (GNR) is associated with few treatment options and high mortality rates. Current antibiotic susceptibility testing guiding patient management is performed in a standardized manner, identifying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in bacteriologic media, but ignoring host immune factors. Lacking activity in standard MIC testing, azithromycin (AZM), the most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the U...
July 2015: EBioMedicine
Lionel A Mandell
Community-acquired pneumonia is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated. Although it can be caused by a wide variety of micro-organisms, the pneumococcus, atypicals, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and certain Gram-negative rods are the usual pathogens encountered. The site-of-care decision is critical in determining the site and type of care as well as the extent of diagnostic workup. Antimicrobial therapy should be started as soon as possible particularly in those requiring admission to hospital, but typically the physician does not know with any degree of certainty the identity of the etiologic pathogen...
August 2015: Postgraduate Medicine
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