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antiretroviral hiv glucose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207500/strategic-use-of-dual-regimens-of-boosted-protease-inhibitors-plus-maraviroc-in-poorly-adherent-subjects-in-view-of-long-acting-drugs-a-retrospective-study
#1
Amedeo Ferdinando Capetti, Mariangela Micale, Laura Carenzi, Fosca Niero, Simona Landonio, Stefania Vimercati, Gianfranco Dedivitiis, Giuliano Rizzardini
In view of the forthcoming long-acting antiretrovirals, measures should be taken to prevent the selection of HIV drug resistance mutations. All subjects who had been switched to boosted protease inhibitors plus maraviroc (bPIs/MVC) with baseline HIV-1 RNA >50 copies/mL between June, 2014, and April, 2015, were retrospectively evaluated. HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T-cells, serum glucose, creatinine, ALT, and adverse events were controlled every 3 to 4 months. We retrospectively analyzed 44 patients: 18 were taking darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) and 26 atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) once daily, plus MVC 300 mg once daily...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137307/dysglycemia-associations-with-adipose-tissue-among-hiv-infected-patients-after-2-years-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-mwanza-a-follow-up-cross-sectional-study
#2
George PrayGod, John Changalucha, Saidi Kapiga, Robert Peck, Jim Todd, Suzanne Filteau
BACKGROUND: Data on the burden of dysglycemia among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa are limited. We determined the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes among HIV-infected patients who started ART when malnourished 2 to 3 years previously and investigated the association of dysglycemia with body composition. METHODS: Malnourished (body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m(2)) HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in the Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy (NUSTART) trial from 2011 to 2013 were followed-up from March to August 2015...
January 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077069/a-pilot-study-of-brisk-walking-in-sedentary-combination-antiretroviral-treatement-cart-treated-patients-benefit-on-soluble-and-cell-inflammatory-markers
#3
Matteo Bonato, Laura Galli, Laura Passeri, Valeria Longo, Gaspare Pavei, Simona Bossolasco, Cecilia Bertocchi, Massimo Cernuschi, Giuseppe Balconi, Giampiero Merati, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonio La Torre, Paola Cinque
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV infection is associated with low-level inflammation and increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. The objective was to assess the effects of moderate intensity exercise on metabolic and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected treated persons. METHODS: This was a pilot study enrolling cART-treated, sedentary persons with metabolic complications in a 12-week protocol, consisting of three sessions per week of 60 min brisk walking with (strength-walk group) or without (walk group) 30 min circuit-training...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885058/association-between-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-arterial-stiffness-in-children
#4
Justin S Kuilder, Nikmah S Idris, Diederick E Grobbee, Michiel L Bots, Michael Mh Cheung, David Burgner, Nia Kurniati, Cuno Spm Uiterwaal
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and adverse cardiovascular outcome in adults. Early recognition of changes in vascular properties might prove essential in cardiovascular prevention in HIV-infected patients. We investigated the relations between HIV infection and arterial stiffness in children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 51 HIV-infected and 52 healthy children (age 3.2-14...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835618/increased-glucose-transporter-1-expression-on-intermediate-monocytes-from-hiv-infected-women-with-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Tiffany R Butterfield, David B Hanna, Robert C Kaplan, Jorge R Kizer, Helen G Durkin, Mary A Young, Marek J Nowicki, Phyllis C Tien, Elizabeth T Golub, Michelle A Floris-Moore, Kehmia Titanji, Margaret A Fischl, Sonya L Heath, Jefferey Martinson, Suzanne M Crowe, Clovis S Palmer, Alan L Landay, Joshua J Anzinger
OBJECTIVE: People living with HIV (PLWH) have chronic immune activation and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Activation of monocytes and T lymphocytes causes upregulation of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) for efficient function. PLWH have an increased percentage of GLUT1-expressing monocytes and T lymphocytes, but it is unclear if these cells are associated with CVD. We evaluated the expression of GLUT1 and CD38 on monocyte and T lymphocyte populations from HIV-infected women with subclinical CVD...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749112/trends-in-nonlipid-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-management-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study-and-association-with-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
David B Hanna, Molly Jung, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer M Cocohoba, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Nancy A Hessol, Alexandra M Levine, Tracey E Wilson, Mary A Young, Robert C Kaplan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly common among women with HIV, but literature on nonlipid CVD risk factor management is lacking. We examined semiannual trends from 2006 to 2014 in hypertension treatment and control (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg), diabetes treatment and control (fasting glucose <130 mg/dL), and smoking quit rates in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models tested time trends and differences between HIV+ and HIV- women. Among antiretroviral therapy (ART) users, we examined the association of ART adherence and virologic suppression with each outcome...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720238/-cross-sectional-study-of-comorbidities-and-concomitant-medications-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#7
Maria Asunción García Gonzalo, María Isabel Santamaría Mas, Lidia Pascual Tomé, Maialen Ibarguren Pinilla, Francisco Rodríguez-Arrondo
AIM: To assess the prevalence of comorbidities, concomitant therapies and adverse effects associated with the medication in a cohort of patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: Multicentre cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Infectious Diseases or Internal Medicine outpatient Clinics of 3 hospitals in the Basque Country. PARTICIPANTS: During a 3 month period, patients with the following inclusion criteria were randomly selected: HIV infection, age>18years, antiretroviral treatment (ART) for at least 6months, and no changes in ART in the previous 4weeks...
October 5, 2016: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704026/changes-in-insulin-resistance-after-initiation-of-raltegravir-or-protease-inhibitors-with-tenofovir-emtricitabine-aids-clinical-trials-group-a5260s
#8
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Carlee Moser, Todd T Brown, Theodoros Kelesidis, Michael P Dube, James H Stein, Judith Currier, Grace A McComsey
Background.  Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can alter glucose metabolism, but little data exist on the association of raltegravir (RAL) with insulin resistance. Methods.  A5260s was a substudy of A5257, a prospective open-label randomized trial in which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected treatment-naive participants were randomized to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r), darunavir-ritonavir (DRV/r), or RAL over 96 weeks. Baseline and changes in insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677165/the-association-between-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Larske M Soepnel, Shane A Norris, Verena J M M Schrier, Joyce L Browne, Marcus J Rijken, Glenda Gray, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
OBJECTIVES: The widespread, chronic use of antiretroviral therapy raises questions concerning the metabolic consequences of HIV infection and treatment. Antiretroviral therapy, and specifically protease inhibitors, has been associated with hyperglycemia. As pregnant women are vulnerable to development of hyperglycemia, the objective of this study was to explore existing literature on the relationship between HIV infection, HIV treatment, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in six databases for articles providing data on HIV-positivity, protease inhibitor exposure, and GDM or glucose intolerance development in pregnancy...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668908/hiv-positive-patient-with-hsv-2-encephalitis-case-report
#10
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633645/rates-and-drivers-of-progression-to-pre-diabetes-and-diabetes-mellitus-among-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-global-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#11
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Arnaud D Kaze, Jean Jacques N Noubiap
INTRODUCTION: With the new 'test and treat' policy of the WHO, it is obvious that the number of HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) will grow exponentially, with consequential increase in the burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim is to summarise existing data on the incidence of pre-diabetes and DM, and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will include cohort studies reporting the incidence of pre-diabetes and/or DM, and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults on ART, with these patients being free of any impaired glucose metabolism at study baseline...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595321/characterization-of-progressive-hiv-associated-tuberculosis-using-2-deoxy-2-18-f-fluoro-d-glucose-positron-emission-and-computed-tomography
#12
Hanif Esmail, Rachel P Lai, Maia Lesosky, Katalin A Wilkinson, Christine M Graham, Anna K Coussens, Tolu Oni, James M Warwick, Qonita Said-Hartley, Coenraad F Koegelenberg, Gerhard Walzl, JoAnne L Flynn, Douglas B Young, Clifton E Barry Iii, Anne O'Garra, Robert J Wilkinson
Tuberculosis is classically divided into states of latent infection and active disease. Using combined positron emission and computed tomography in 35 asymptomatic, antiretroviral-therapy-naive, HIV-1-infected adults with latent tuberculosis, we identified ten individuals with pulmonary abnormalities suggestive of subclinical, active disease who were substantially more likely to progress to clinical disease. Our findings challenge the conventional two-state paradigm and may aid future identification of biomarkers that are predictive of progression...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579612/dyslipidemias-and-elevated-cardiovascular-risk-on-lopinavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-cambodia
#13
Setha Limsreng, Olivier Marcy, Sowath Ly, Vara Ouk, Hak Chanroeurn, Saem Thavary, Ban Boroath, Ana Canestri, Gérald Viretto, Jean-François Delfraissy, Olivier Ségéral
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570910/association-of-dyslipidemia-and-glucose-abnormalities-with-antiretroviral-treatment-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-latin-american-children
#14
Machline P Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, Donald R Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa D Sperhacke, Sergio K Kato, Carmem L Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda T Sturzbecher, Ricardo H S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541600/metabolic-complications-and-glucose-metabolism-in-hiv-infection-a-review-of-the-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Amanda L Willig, Edgar Turner Overton
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use are associated with perturbations in glucose and lipid metabolism. Increasing incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity highlights the need for early identification and treatment of metabolic dysfunction. Newer ART regimens are less toxic for cellular function and metabolism but have failed to completely eliminate metabolic dysfunction with HIV infection. Additional factors, including viral-host interactions, diet, physical activity, non-ART medications, and aging may further contribute to metabolic disease risk in the HIV setting...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508301/incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity-and-the-overlap-of-comorbidities-in-hiv-hispanics-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Angelina Gomes, Emily V Reyes, L Sergio Garduno, Rita Rojas, Geraldine Mir Mesejo, Eliza Del Rosario, Lina Jose, Carmen Javier, Catherine Vaughan, Yeycy Donastorg, Scott Hammer, Karen Brudney, Barbara S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading health threat for HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART); cardiometabolic comorbidities are key predictors of risk. Data are limited on incidence of metabolic comorbidities in HIV+ individuals initiating ART in low and middle income countries (LMICs), particularly for Hispanics. We examined incidence of diabetes and obesity in a prospective cohort of those initiating ART in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: Participants ≥18 years, initiating ART <90 days prior to study enrollment, were examined for incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes mellitus (DM), overweight, and obesity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496642/naringin-protects-against-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-induced-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-and-apoptosis
#17
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Duduzile E Ndwandwe, Peter M O Owira
INTRODUCTION: The protective effects of grapefruit-derived naringin against HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors (PIs)-associated oxidative damage to pancreatic β-cells and apoptosis were investigated in RIN-5F cells in culture. METHODS: Cells in culture medium were challenged with 11-25 mM glucose with or without nelfinavir (1-10 μM), saquinavir (1-10 μM) and atazanavir (5-20 μM), respectively for 24 h to determine insulin secretion. The cells were further treated with nelfinavir (10 μM), saquinavir (10 μM), atazanavir (20 μM) with and without naringin or glibenclamide (10 μM) for 24 h to determine insulin secretion, lipid peroxidation, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, ATP production and caspase-3 and-9 activities, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476547/ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-a-mixed-cohort-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-ugandans
#18
Matthew J Feinstein, June-Ho Kim, Prossy Bibangambah, Ruth Sentongo, Jeffrey N Martin, Alexander C Tsai, David R Bangsberg, Linda Hemphill, Virginia A Triant, Yap Boum, Peter W Hunt, Samson Okello, Mark J Siedner
Preventable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are responsible for the majority of CVD-related deaths, and are increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected persons taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). Simplified tools such as the American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (iCVH) construct may identify and prognosticate CVD risk in resource-limited settings. No studies have evaluated iCVH metrics in sub-Saharan Africa or among HIV-infected adults. Thus, the central aim of this study was to compare levels of iCVH metrics and their correlations with carotid atherosclerosis for HIV-infected adults versus uninfected controls in a well-phenotyped Ugandan cohort...
January 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423428/increased-risk-of-dysglycaemia-in-south-africans-with-hiv-especially-those-on-protease-inhibitors
#19
Naomi S Levitt, Nasheeta Peer, Krisela Steyn, Carl Lombard, Gary Maartens, Estelle V Lambert, Joel A Dave
AIMS: To compare dysglycaemia prevalence (impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or diabetes) in HIV-infected persons, stratified by antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a community-based survey (CBS) in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Three groups of HIV-infected adults without known diabetes were conveniently sampled from community healthcare centres; ART-naïve, first-line ART (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plus dual NRTIs), and second-line ART (lopinavir/ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus dual NRTIs)...
September 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409415/severe-dyslipidemia-and-immune-activation-in-hiv-patients-with-dysglycemia
#20
Changzhong Jin, Shujing Ji, Tiansheng Xie, Stefan Höxtermann, Wolfgang Fuchs, Xiangyun Lu, Haibo Wu, Linfang Cheng, Adriane Skaletz-Rorowski, Norbert H Brockmeyer, Nanping Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, the relationship between dysglycemia, lipid metabolism, and immune activation in HIV patients is poorly understood. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 180 HIV patients, including 153 patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 27 HAART-naive patients. DM was defined as fasting serum glucose levels ≥126 mg/dl, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined as serum glucose levels of 101-125 mg/dl at two different time points...
September 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
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