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antiretroviral hiv glucose

David B Hanna, Molly Jung, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer M Cocohoba, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Nancy A Hessol, Alexandra M Levine, Tracey E Wilson, Mary A Young, Robert C Kaplan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly common among women with HIV, but literature on nonlipid CVD risk factor management is lacking. We examined semiannual trends from 2006 to 2014 in hypertension treatment and control (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg), diabetes treatment and control (fasting glucose <130 mg/dL), and smoking quit rates in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models tested time trends and differences between HIV+ and HIV- women. Among antiretroviral therapy (ART) users, we examined the association of ART adherence and virologic suppression with each outcome...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Maria Asunción García Gonzalo, María Isabel Santamaría Mas, Lidia Pascual Tomé, Maialen Ibarguren Pinilla, Francisco Rodríguez-Arrondo
AIM: To assess the prevalence of comorbidities, concomitant therapies and adverse effects associated with the medication in a cohort of patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: Multicentre cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Infectious Diseases or Internal Medicine outpatient Clinics of 3 hospitals in the Basque Country. PARTICIPANTS: During a 3 month period, patients with the following inclusion criteria were randomly selected: HIV infection, age>18years, antiretroviral treatment (ART) for at least 6months, and no changes in ART in the previous 4weeks...
October 5, 2016: Atencion Primaria
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Carlee Moser, Todd T Brown, Theodoros Kelesidis, Michael P Dube, James H Stein, Judith Currier, Grace A McComsey
Background.  Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can alter glucose metabolism, but little data exist on the association of raltegravir (RAL) with insulin resistance. Methods.  A5260s was a substudy of A5257, a prospective open-label randomized trial in which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected treatment-naive participants were randomized to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r), darunavir-ritonavir (DRV/r), or RAL over 96 weeks. Baseline and changes in insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Larske M Soepnel, Shane A Norris, Verena J M M Schrier, Joyce L Browne, Marcus J Rijken, Glenda Gray, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
OBJECTIVES: The widespread, chronic use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) raises questions concerning the metabolic consequences of HIV infection and treatment. Antiretroviral therapy, and specifically protease inhibitors (PIs), has been associated with hyperglycaemia. As pregnant women are vulnerable to development of hyperglycaemia, the objective of this study was to explore existing literature on the relationship between HIV infection, HIV treatment and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Arnaud D Kaze, Jean Jacques N Noubiap
INTRODUCTION: With the new 'test and treat' policy of the WHO, it is obvious that the number of HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) will grow exponentially, with consequential increase in the burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim is to summarise existing data on the incidence of pre-diabetes and DM, and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will include cohort studies reporting the incidence of pre-diabetes and/or DM, and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults on ART, with these patients being free of any impaired glucose metabolism at study baseline...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
Hanif Esmail, Rachel P Lai, Maia Lesosky, Katalin A Wilkinson, Christine M Graham, Anna K Coussens, Tolu Oni, James M Warwick, Qonita Said-Hartley, Coenraad F Koegelenberg, Gerhard Walzl, JoAnne L Flynn, Douglas B Young, Clifton E Barry Iii, Anne O'Garra, Robert J Wilkinson
Tuberculosis is classically divided into states of latent infection and active disease. Using combined positron emission and computed tomography in 35 asymptomatic, antiretroviral-therapy-naive, HIV-1-infected adults with latent tuberculosis, we identified ten individuals with pulmonary abnormalities suggestive of subclinical, active disease who were substantially more likely to progress to clinical disease. Our findings challenge the conventional two-state paradigm and may aid future identification of biomarkers that are predictive of progression...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Setha Limsreng, Olivier Marcy, Sowath Ly, Vara Ouk, Hak Chanroeurn, Saem Thavary, Ban Boroath, Ana Canestri, Gérald Viretto, Jean-François Delfraissy, Olivier Ségéral
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data...
2016: PloS One
Machline Paim Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, D Robert Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa Dea Sperhacke, Sergio Kakuta Kato, Carmem Lúcia Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda Tomé Sturzbecher, Ricardo Hugo S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study (PLACES)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Amanda L Willig, Edgar Turner Overton
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use are associated with perturbations in glucose and lipid metabolism. Increasing incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity highlights the need for early identification and treatment of metabolic dysfunction. Newer ART regimens are less toxic for cellular function and metabolism but have failed to completely eliminate metabolic dysfunction with HIV infection. Additional factors, including viral-host interactions, diet, physical activity, non-ART medications, and aging may further contribute to metabolic disease risk in the HIV setting...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Angelina Gomes, Emily V Reyes, L Sergio Garduno, Rita Rojas, Geraldine Mir Mesejo, Eliza Del Rosario, Lina Jose, Carmen Javier, Catherine Vaughan, Yeycy Donastorg, Scott Hammer, Karen Brudney, Barbara S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading health threat for HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART); cardiometabolic comorbidities are key predictors of risk. Data are limited on incidence of metabolic comorbidities in HIV+ individuals initiating ART in low and middle income countries (LMICs), particularly for Hispanics. We examined incidence of diabetes and obesity in a prospective cohort of those initiating ART in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: Participants ≥18 years, initiating ART <90 days prior to study enrollment, were examined for incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes mellitus (DM), overweight, and obesity...
2016: PloS One
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Duduzile E Ndwandwe, Peter M O Owira
INTRODUCTION: The protective effects of grapefruit-derived naringin against HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors (PIs)-associated oxidative damage to pancreatic β-cells and apoptosis were investigated in RIN-5F cells in culture. METHODS: Cells in culture medium were challenged with 11-25 mM glucose with or without nelfinavir (1-10 μM), saquinavir (1-10 μM) and atazanavir (5-20 μM), respectively for 24 h to determine insulin secretion. The cells were further treated with nelfinavir (10 μM), saquinavir (10 μM), atazanavir (20 μM) with and without naringin or glibenclamide (10 μM) for 24 h to determine insulin secretion, lipid peroxidation, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, ATP production and caspase-3 and-9 activities, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Matthew J Feinstein, June-Ho Kim, Prossy Bibangambah, Ruth Sentongo, Jeff Martin, Alexander Tsai, David R Bangsberg, Linda Hemphill, Virginia Triant, Yap Boum, P W Hunt, Samson Okello, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preventable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are responsible for the majority of CVD-related deaths, and are increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected persons taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). Simplified tools such as the American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (iCVH) construct may identify and prognosticate CVD risk in resource-limited settings. No studies have evaluated iCVH metrics in sub-Saharan Africa or among HIV-infected adults...
July 31, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Naomi S Levitt, Nasheeta Peer, Krisela Steyn, Carl Lombard, Gary Maartens, Estelle V Lambert, Joel A Dave
AIMS: To compare dysglycaemia prevalence (impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or diabetes) in HIV-infected persons, stratified by antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a community-based survey (CBS) in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Three groups of HIV-infected adults without known diabetes were conveniently sampled from community healthcare centres; ART-naïve, first-line ART (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plus dual NRTIs), and second-line ART (lopinavir/ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus dual NRTIs)...
September 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Changzhong Jin, Shujing Ji, Tiansheng Xie, Stefan Höxtermann, Wolfgang Fuchs, Xiangyun Lu, Haibo Wu, Linfang Cheng, Adriane Skaletz-Rorowski, Norbert H Brockmeyer, Nanping Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, the relationship between dysglycemia, lipid metabolism, and immune activation in HIV patients is poorly understood. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 180 HIV patients, including 153 patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 27 HAART-naive patients. DM was defined as fasting serum glucose levels ≥126 mg/dl, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined as serum glucose levels of 101-125 mg/dl at two different time points...
September 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
Ifeyinwa Dorothy Osegbe, Oyetunji Olukayode Soriyan, Abiola Ann Ogbenna, Henry Chima Okpara, Elaine Chinyere Azinge
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive patients attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed; fasting lipid profile, plasma glucose, homocysteine and hsCRP were determined, as well as prevalences and risk assessments...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad A Kaisar, Luca Cucullo
In this study, we sought to investigate how concomitant hyperglycemia influences the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial function. Immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was exposed to azidothymidine (AZT; a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and/or indinavir (IND; protease inhibitor) in normal glycemic (5.5mM) or hyperglycemic (HG; 25mM) media containing D-glucose for 24-72h. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria-specific superoxide levels were assayed in addition to membrane potential to determine the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction...
June 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Kim Anh Nguyen, Nasheeta Peer, Anniza de Villiers, Barbara Mukasa, Tandi E Matsha, Edward J Mills, Andre Pascal Kengne
The distribution of body size phenotypes in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has yet to be characterized. We assessed the distribution of body size phenotypes overall, and according to antiretroviral therapy (ART), diagnosed duration of the infection and CD4 count in a sample of HIV infected people recruited across primary care facilities in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Adults aged ≥ 18 years were consecutively recruited using random sampling procedures, and their cardio-metabolic profile were assessed during March 2014 and February 2015...
2016: Nutrients
Rudolph L Gleason, Alexander W Caulk, Daniel Seifu, Julia C Rosebush, Alyssa M Shapiro, Matthew H Schwartz, Allison Ross Eckard, Wondwossen Amogne, Workeabeba Abebe
BACKGROUND: HIV patients on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have shown elevated incidence of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and markers of cardiovascular disease. Evidence is beginning to emerge that implicates efavirenz (EFV) as a potential mediator of early on-set cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Pediatric and adult HIV-infected HAART-naïve, EFV-treated, nevirapine (NVP)-treated, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-treated subjects were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Joan Villarroya, Maria Del Mar Gutierrez, Maria G Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Marta Giralt, Francesc Villarroya
Elvitegravir is a recently developed integrase inhibitor used for antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection. Secondary effects, including disturbances in lipid metabolism and, ultimately, in adipose tissue distribution and function, are common concerns associated with antiretroviral treatments. Here, we provide the first study of the effects of elvitegravir (in comparison with efavirenz, a non-nucleoside analog inhibitor of reverse transcriptase; and raltegravir, another integrase inhibitor) on human adipocyte differentiation, gene expression and secretion of adipokines and cytokines...
August 2016: Antiviral Research
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