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antiretroviral hiv dyslipidemia

Yacouba Njankouo Mapoure, Ines Nepetsoun Nkongni, Henry Namme Luma, Bertrand Hugo Mbtachou Ngahane, Esther Barla, Samuel Ngwane, Albert Soné Mouelle, Alfred Kongnyu Njamnshi
INTRODUCTION: With the introduction of triple therapy regimen in 1996, the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection decreased significantly. Concomitantly with this clinical success, several metabolic changes including diabetes, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy were observed, being associated with the risk of stroke. This study aims to determine the incidence of strokes in HIV-positive patients treated with long term antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive adult patients receiving long term antiretroviral treatment for at least 12 months...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Qi Wang, Haibo Ding, Junjie Xu, Wenqing Geng, Jing Liu, Xiaolin Guo, Jing Kang, Xiaolin Li, Yongjun Jiang, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Understanding the risk factors of abnormal lipid profiles is urgent for proposing targeted approaches to prevention. Our objective was to assess the incidence and associated factors of abnormal lipid profiles and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) among antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve men who have sex with men (MSM) acute HIV infection (AHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI) patients in China...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Setha Limsreng, Olivier Marcy, Sowath Ly, Vara Ouk, Hak Chanroeurn, Saem Thavary, Ban Boroath, Ana Canestri, Gérald Viretto, Jean-François Delfraissy, Olivier Ségéral
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data...
2016: PloS One
Machline Paim Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, D Robert Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa Dea Sperhacke, Sergio Kakuta Kato, Carmem Lúcia Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda Tomé Sturzbecher, Ricardo Hugo S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study (PLACES)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Angelina Gomes, Emily V Reyes, L Sergio Garduno, Rita Rojas, Geraldine Mir Mesejo, Eliza Del Rosario, Lina Jose, Carmen Javier, Catherine Vaughan, Yeycy Donastorg, Scott Hammer, Karen Brudney, Barbara S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading health threat for HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART); cardiometabolic comorbidities are key predictors of risk. Data are limited on incidence of metabolic comorbidities in HIV+ individuals initiating ART in low and middle income countries (LMICs), particularly for Hispanics. We examined incidence of diabetes and obesity in a prospective cohort of those initiating ART in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: Participants ≥18 years, initiating ART <90 days prior to study enrollment, were examined for incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes mellitus (DM), overweight, and obesity...
2016: PloS One
Kathryn M Curtis, Naomi K Tepper, Tara C Jatlaoui, Erin Berry-Bibee, Leah G Horton, Lauren B Zapata, Katharine B Simmons, H Pamela Pagano, Denise J Jamieson, Maura K Whiteman
The 2016 U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (U.S. MEC) comprises recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions. These recommendations for health care providers were updated by CDC after review of the scientific evidence and consultation with national experts who met in Atlanta, Georgia, during August 26-28, 2015. The information in this report updates the 2010 U.S. MEC (CDC. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2010...
2016: MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports
Shibani S Mukerji, Joseph J Locascio, Vikas Misra, David R Lorenz, Alex Holman, Anupriya Dutta, Sudhir Penugonda, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia and apolipoprotein E4 (APOE ϵ4) allele are risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, but how these risks are modified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unclear. METHODS: In a longitudinal nested study from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 273 HIV type 1-infected (HIV(+)) men aged 50-65 years with baseline HIV RNA <400 copies/mL and on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART) in ≥95% of follow-up visits were matched by sociodemographic variables to 516 HIV-uninfected (HIV(-)) controls...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Vicente Sperb Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira Antonello, Rosana Ferrazza Zaltron, Cristiane Valle Tovo
BACKGROUND: - The increase in the survival following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has seen the emergence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, renal and cardiovascular diseases as important morbidity and mortality causes together with HIV. OBJECTIVE: - The present study aimed to investigate the differences between HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected and HIV-monoinfected regarding demographic and clinical aspects from a HIV/AIDS clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil...
July 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Changzhong Jin, Shujing Ji, Tiansheng Xie, Stefan Höxtermann, Wolfgang Fuchs, Xiangyun Lu, Haibo Wu, Linfang Cheng, Adriane Skaletz-Rorowski, Norbert H Brockmeyer, Nanping Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, the relationship between dysglycemia, lipid metabolism, and immune activation in HIV patients is poorly understood. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 180 HIV patients, including 153 patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 27 HAART-naive patients. DM was defined as fasting serum glucose levels ≥126 mg/dl, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined as serum glucose levels of 101-125 mg/dl at two different time points...
September 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
Jolanta Elżbieta Pastryk, Marta Rusek, Jerzy Bełtowski
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially protease inhibitors (PIs), commonly used in HIV-infected patients, effectively suppresses viral replication, however, is frequently associated with significant side effects, including fat redistribution, lipodystrophy, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Currently, metabolic complications and atherosclerosis resulting from them become the major cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is the HDL-bound esterase which inhibits development of atherosclerosis by decomposing lipid peroxidation products and hydrolyzing homocysteine thiolactone...
July 1, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Rudolph L Gleason, Alexander W Caulk, Daniel Seifu, Julia C Rosebush, Alyssa M Shapiro, Matthew H Schwartz, Allison Ross Eckard, Wondwossen Amogne, Workeabeba Abebe
BACKGROUND: HIV patients on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have shown elevated incidence of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and markers of cardiovascular disease. Evidence is beginning to emerge that implicates efavirenz (EFV) as a potential mediator of early on-set cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Pediatric and adult HIV-infected HAART-naïve, EFV-treated, nevirapine (NVP)-treated, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-treated subjects were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Christian Obirikorang, Lawrence Quaye, James Osei-Yeboah, Enoch Anto Odame, Isaac Asare
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in HIV-infected patients is very limited in the Ghanaian setting and may vary across the globe by the different study populations and criteria used. AIM: We investigated the prevalence of MetS among HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia, Ghana. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 433 HIV-infected patients (294 on HAART and 139 HAART-naïve) from the period of February 2013 to December 2013...
March 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Raquel Martin-Iguacel, Eugènia Negredo, Robert Peck, Nina Friis-Møller
With widespread and effective antiretroviral therapy, the life expectancy in the HIV population has dramatically improved over the last two decades. Consequently, as patients are aging with HIV, other age-related comorbidities, such as metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease (CVD), have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality. An overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (RF), toxicities associated with long exposure to antiretroviral therapy, together with residual chronic inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV infection are thought to predispose to these metabolic complications and to the excess risk of CVD observed in the HIV population...
June 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
Enrique Bernal Morell, José Serrano Cabeza, Ángeles Muñoz, Irene Marín, Mar Masiá, Félix Gutiérrez, Alfredo Cano
Inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio (<1) has been identified as a surrogate marker of immunosenescence and an independent predictor of AIDS events in HIV-infected patients and mortality in the general population. We aimed to assess the association between the CD4/CD8 ratio and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) progression in treated HIV-infected patients as a marker of coronary heart disease. A longitudinal study was conducted during 3 years in 96 virally suppressed HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART)...
July 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Grace C Haser, Bauer Sumpio
OBJECTIVE: Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher rates of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and chronic inflammation that can damage the vascular system compared with the general population. This can be attributed both to HIV itself and to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) they receive. This review outlines the mechanisms by which HIV and HIV medications can cause vascular complications and identifies strategic areas of research to treat these dysfunctions...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Joel A Dave, Naomi S Levitt, Ian L Ross, Miguel Lacerda, Gary Maartens, Dirk Blom
PURPOSE: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa is sparse. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of HIV-infected South African adults. METHODS: We studied HIV-infected patients who were either antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive or receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based or protease inhibitor (PI)-based ART. Evaluation included fasting lipograms, oral glucose tolerance tests and clinical anthropometry...
2016: PloS One
Rocío Jiménez Galán, Ines María Montes Escalante, Ramón Morillo Verdugo
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between pharmacotherapeutical complexity and compliance of therapeutic objectives in HIV+ patients on antiretroviral treatment and concomitant dyslipidemia therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study including HIV patients on stable antiretroviral treatment during the past 6 months, and dyslipidemia treatment between January and December, 2013. The complexity index was calculated with the tool developed by McDonald et al...
March 2016: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Flavia Ballocca, Sebastiano Gili, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Walter Grosso Marra, Margherita Cannillo, Andrea Calcagno, Stefano Bonora, Andreas Flammer, John Coppola, Claudio Moretti, Fiorenzo Gaita
With the progressive increase in life-expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in the "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART) era, co-morbidities, particularly cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVD) are emerging as an important concern. The pathophysiology of CVD in this population is complex, due to the interaction of classical CV risk factors, viral infection and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). The role of ARV drugs in HIV is double edged. While these drugs reduce systemic inflammation, an important factor in CV development, they may at the same time be proatherogenic by inducing dyslipidemia, body fat redistribution and insulin resistance...
March 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Kathrin Schulte-Hermann, Horst Schalk, Bernhard Haider, Judith Hutterer, Bernd Gmeinhart, Karlheinz Pichler, Helmut Brath, Thomas E Dorner
INTRODUCTION: Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases have been shown to have an even higher impact in the HIV infected population. Cardiovascular risk factors amongst people living with HIV treated in doctor's offices in Austria have not been documented before. Our study aimed to close this gap, focusing on dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and diabetes risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After ethics approval, consecutive patients who visited their treating physicians for routine checks were enrolled...
April 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Merle Myerson
The development and use of antiretroviral medications to treat patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically changed the course of this disease from one that was fatal to a chronic and more manageable condition. Recommendations and guidelines for the general population are presented in this review with suggestions as to how they may be applied to this patient population. Issues for which there is little or no information available are noted to highlight the many gaps in our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia for patients living with HIV...
March 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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