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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647405/docosahexaenoic-acid-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signalling-and-prevents-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-maturational-arrest
#1
A Bernardo, M L Giammarco, C De Nuccio, M A Ajmone-Cat, S Visentin, R De Simone, L Minghetti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid known to be neuroprotective in several models of human diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The protective effects of DHA are largely attributed to its ability to interfere with the activity of transcription factors controlling immune and inflammatory responses, including the agonist-dependent transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). In this study, we used primary oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cultures from neonatal rat brain to investigate whether DHA could influence OP maturation and directly promote myelination, as previously reported for selective PPAR-γ agonists...
June 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646333/feeding-jejunostomy-associated-small-bowel-necrosis-after-elective-esophago-gastric-resection
#2
Omer S Al-Taan, Robert N Williams, James A Stephenson, Melanie Baker, S Murthy Nyasavajjala, David J Bowrey
BACKGROUND: Feeding jejunostomy has increasingly become a standard adjunctive procedure during major esophago-gastric resections. They provide nutritional support during the post-operative period as required. However, significant early complications have been reported, most notably small bowel necrosis. Literature reports have been restricted to case reports or series. This study aims to determine the frequency of this complication in a cohort of patients undergoing esophago-gastric resection, and identify any difference in the risk of this complication between patients undergoing esophagectomy and gastrectomy...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645222/dietary-fat-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-recent-controversies-and-advances
#3
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644430/the-clinical-landscape-for-sma-in-a-new-therapeutic-era
#4
REVIEW
K Talbot, E F Tizzano
Despite significant advances in basic research, the treatment of degenerative diseases of the nervous system remains one of the greatest challenges for translational medicine. The childhood onset motor neuron disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been viewed as one of the more tractable targets for molecular therapy, due to a detailed understanding of the molecular genetic basis of the disease. In SMA, inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene can be partially compensated for by limited expression of SMN protein from a variable number of copies of the SMN2 gene, which provides both a molecular explanation for phenotypic severity and a target for therapy...
June 23, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644081/effects-of-added-lipids-on-digestibility-and-nitrogen-balance-in-oiled-common-murres-uria-aalge-and-western-grebes-aechmophorus-occidentalis-fed-four-formulations-of-a-critical-care-diet
#5
Rebecca S Duerr, Kirk C Klasing
Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643994/the-impact-of-valproic-acid-treatment-on-weight-gain-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#6
Pietro Ferrara, Antonio Gatto, Valeria Blasi, Federica DI Ruscio, Domenica Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug, used for focal and generalized seizure. VPA treatment resulted in significant weight gain but there are no systematic data about the prevalence of this side effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the weight gain of a paediatric population with epilepsy. METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients, 17 female and 21 male with a mean age of 8.2±4.4 years. We evaluated data about height, weight and BMI at beginning of treatment and at 24, 36 and 48 months of follow-up...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643677/modulator-effect-of-watercress-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#7
Natalia A Casanova, María Fernanda Simoniello, Marcela Mabel López Nigro, Marta A Carballo
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale, Cruciferae; W. Aiton) is a vegetable widely consumed in our country, with nutritional and potentially chemopreventive properties. Previous reports from our laboratory demonstrated the protective effect of watercress juice against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of cress plant on the oxidative stress in mice. Animals were treated by gavage with different doses of watercress juice (0.5 and 1g/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days before intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg body weight)...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642353/when-sanctity-of-life-and-self-determination-clash-briggs-versus-briggs-2016-ewcop-53-implications-for-policy-and-practice
#8
Jenny Kitzinger, Celia Kitzinger, Jakki Cowley
In a landmark judgment in the English Court of Protection, the judge (Charles J) found it to be in the best interests of a minimally conscious patient for clinically assisted nutrition and hydration (CANH) to be withdrawn, with the inevitable consequence that the patient would die. In making this judgment, it was accepted that the patient's level of consciousness - if CANH were continued and rehabilitation provided - might improve, and that he might become capable of expressing emotions and making simple choices...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641304/hyperemesis-gravidarum-a-review-of-recent-literature
#9
Viktoriya London, Stephanie Grube, David M Sherer, Ovadia Abulafia
BACKGROUND: In the United States, hyperemesis gravidarum is the most common cause of hospitalization during the first half of pregnancy and is second only to preterm labor for hospitalizations in pregnancy overall. In approximately 0.3-3% of pregnancies, hyperemesis gravidarum is prevalent and this percentage varies on account of different diagnostic criteria and ethnic variation in study populations. Despite extensive research in this field, the mechanism of the disease is largely unknown...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640900/predictors-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-and-consumption-of-soft-semi-solid-or-solid-food-among-infants-in-boucle-du-mouhoun-burkina-faso-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Jenny A Cresswell, Rasmané Ganaba, Sophie Sarrassat, Simon Cousens, Henri Somé, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Veronique Filippi
INTRODUCTION: Exclusive breastfeeding is among the most effective interventions for preventing child mortality. The objectives of this paper are to describe infant feeding knowledge and practices in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso; to identify predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among infants <6 months, and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food among infants 6-11 months; to describe mothers' sources of information regarding breastfeeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey (n = 2288) of a representative sample of women aged 15-49 years with at least one live birth in past year took place during June and July 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640886/epigenomic-diversification-within-the-genus-lupinus
#11
Karolina Susek, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska, Adam J Bewick, Robert Hasterok, Robert J Schmitz, Barbara Naganowska
Deciphering the various chemical modifications of both DNA and the histone compound of chromatin not only leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide organisation of epigenetic landmarks and their impact on gene expression but may also provide some insights into the evolutionary processes. Although both histone modifications and DNA methylation have been widely investigated in various plant genomes, here we present the first study for the genus Lupinus. Lupins, which are members of grain legumes (pulses), are beneficial for food security, nutrition, health and the environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640724/enteral-feeding-for-nutritional-support-in-critically-ill-patients
#12
Omorogieva Ojo
Omorogieva Ojo, Senior Lecturer in Primary Care at the University of Greenwich, O.Ojo@greenwich.ac.uk , highlights key recommendations on enteral nutrition for patients in critical care.
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640510/paediatric-intensive-care-nurses-decision-making-around-gastric-residual-volume-measurement
#13
Lyvonne N Tume, Lynne Latten, Lindsay Kenworthy
BACKGROUND: Measuring gastric residual volume (GRV) to guide enteral feeding is a common nursing practice in intensive care units, yet little evidence supports this practice. In addition, this practice has been shown to potentially contribute to inadequate energy delivery in intensive care, which remains a problem in critically ill children. AIMS: We aimed to explore paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making surrounding this practice. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional electronic survey in a single mixed general and cardiac surgical PICU in the UK...
June 22, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640400/little-evidence-for-intralocus-sexual-conflict-over-the-optimal-intake-of-nutrients-for-lifespan-and-reproduction-in-the-black-field-cricket-teleogryllus-commodus
#14
James Rapkin, Ruth C Archer, Charles E Grant, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M House, Alastair J Wilson, John Hunt
There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on lifespan and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for lifespan and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639991/evaluation-of-a-nutritional-support-intervention-in-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-in-bamako-mali
#15
Julie Jesson, Aba Coulibaly, Mariam Sylla, Clémentine N'diaye, Fatoumata Dicko, David Masson, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. METHODS: All HIV-infected children <15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12/2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639438/body-composition-analysis-to-study-long-term-training-effects-in-elite-male-water-polo-athletes
#16
Giovanni Melchiorri, Valerio Viero, Roberto Sorge, Tamara Triossi, Alessandro Campagna, Stella L Volpe, Dalgisio Lecis, Virginia Tancredi, Angela Andreoli
BACKGROUND: Elite water polo athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year, but especially to prepare major competitions, such as the Olympics. Optimal athletic performance is a result of many factors, including proper management of the intensity and volume of training, nutrition and recovery between training sessions. When training is excessive in relation to recovery may occur non functional overreaching (NFO). NFO can degenerate into overtraining syndrome (OTS) resulting in a decrease in athletic performance, with likely changes in body weight and body composition...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639158/development-of-a-survivorship-needs-assessment-planning-tool-for-head-and-neck-cancer-survivors-and-their-caregivers-a-preliminary-study
#17
K R Sterba, J Zapka, N LaPelle, T K Garris, A Buchanan, M Scallion, T Day
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize primary end-of-treatment challenges in head and neck cancer (HNC) to drive the development of a survivorship needs assessment planning (SNAP) tool and evaluate its acceptability and feasibility. METHODS: Using qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews), we identified physical, emotional, and social post-treatment challenges from the perspectives of survivors (N = 17), caregivers (N = 14), and healthcare providers (N = 14) and pretested the SNAP tool...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639091/improved-outcomes-with-an-outpatient-multidisciplinary-intensive-feeding-therapy-program-compared-with-weekly-feeding-therapy-to-reduce-enteral-tube-feeding-dependence-in-medically-complex-young-children
#18
REVIEW
Caitlin Williams, Kelly VanDahm, Lindsay M Stevens, Soofia Khan, Jennifer Urich, Janet Iurilli, Elizabeth Linos, Dana I Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of feeding disorders in medically complex children is estimated to be as high as 80%. Enteral tube nutrition (ETN) is commonly used for nutritional support in children with feeding disorders. Adverse consequences of ETN include medical complications, psychosocial problems, and higher healthcare costs. We used a retrospective cohort controlled study design to compare outcomes of our outpatient multidisciplinary intensive feeding therapy (IFT) program to our traditional therapy (TT) of single-discipline, once weekly feeding therapy to reduce ETN dependence in medically complex young children...
July 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639040/mobile-gastrointestinal-and-endoscopic-surgery-in-rural-ecuador-20%C3%A2-years-experience-of-cinterandes
#19
H T Shalabi, M D Price, S T Shalabi, E B Rodas, A L Vicuña, B Guzhñay, R R Price, E Rodas
INTRODUCTION: Five billion people worldwide do not have timely access to surgical care. Cinterandes is one of the only mobile surgical units in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the methodology that Cinterandes uses to deliver mobile surgery. METHODS: Founding and core staff were interviewed, four missions were participated in, and internal documents and records were analysed between 1 May and 1 July 2014. RESULTS: Cinterandes performed 7641 operations over the last 20 years (60% gastrointestinal/laparoscopic), travelling 300,000 km to remote areas of Ecuador...
June 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637856/how-to-get-the-most-bang-for-your-buck-the-evolution-and-physiology-of-nutrition-dependent-resource-allocation-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Enoch Ng'oma, Anna M Perinchery, Elizabeth G King
All organisms use resources to grow, survive and reproduce. The supply of these resources varies widely across landscapes and time, imposing ultimate constraints on the maximal trait values for allocation-related traits. In this review, we address three key questions fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of allocation strategies and their underlying mechanisms. First, we ask: how diverse are flexible resource allocation strategies among different organisms? We find there are many, varied, examples of flexible strategies that depend on nutrition...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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