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nutritional support

Hiral Shah, Emiliano Albanese, Cynthia Duggan, Igor Rudan, Kenneth M Langa, Maria C Carrillo, Kit Yee Chan, Yves Joanette, Martin Prince, Martin Rossor, Shekhar Saxena, Heather M Snyder, Reisa Sperling, Mathew Varghese, Huali Wang, Marc Wortmann, Tarun Dua
At the First WHO Ministerial Conference on Global Action Against Dementia in March, 2015, 160 delegates, including representatives from 80 WHO Member States and four UN agencies, agreed on a call for action to reduce the global burden of dementia by fostering a collective effort to advance research. To drive this effort, we completed a globally representative research prioritisation exercise using an adapted version of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We elicited 863 research questions from 201 participants and consolidated these questions into 59 thematic research avenues, which were scored anonymously by 162 researchers and stakeholders from 39 countries according to five criteria...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Xi-Hong Liu
Human breast milk is the most natural and ideal food for the baby. Breastfeeding provides benefits for maternal and child health, child immune function, growth and development, and society. The operation of human milk bank and the use of donor human milk undoubtedly provides a new way of nutrition support for the preterm infants without their own mother's milk and a new kind of treatment for other diseases. Present research on the composition of breast milk focuses on the variety and quantity of proteins, bioactive substances, probiotics and cell population...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
Alessandro Laviano, Gianluca Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Angela Koverech
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor in cancer patients. The pathogenesis is related to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. However, whether nutritional support may contribute to effectively prevent and treat cachexia remains a debated issue. RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent evidence demonstrates that anabolic windows of opportunity occur during the clinical trajectory of cancer patients. Also, the use of specific nutrients, namely omega-3 fatty acids, may enhance the efficacy of nutritional support when tumor-driven inflammatory response is high...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Ye Yuan, John D Meeker, Kelly K Ferguson
Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been associated with various adverse health outcomes related to liver, neural and endocrine systems. Some of these may be the result of PBDE-induced oxidative stress or inflammation, but these associations have been explored minimally in humans. In the present study we examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation measured in blood samples among a representative US sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
M Carmen Crespo, Francesco Visioli
Some epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension. Also, high consumption of anthocyanin-rich fruit, such as berries, is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this review, we briefly yet critically assess the available evidence in support of an anti-diabetic role of anthocyanins derived from berries, especially bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L., also known as European blueberry, whortleberry, huckleberry and blaeberry) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, native to the United States)...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Bassem Yousef Sheikh, S M Neamul Kabir Zihad, Nazifa Sifat, Shaikh J Uddin, Jamil A Shilpi, Omer A A Hamdi, Hemayet Hossain, Razina Rouf, Ismet Ara Jahan
In addition to the rich nutritional value, date palm is also used in various ethnobotanical practices for the treatment of various disease conditions. Present investigation was undertaken to examine the neuropharmacological and antinociceptive effect of the ethanol extract of three date cultivars growing in Saudi Arabia, namely Ajwah, Safawy and Sukkari. Neuropharmacological effect was observed by pentobarbitone induced sleeping time, open field, and hole board test. Antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate test...
2016: Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
Ezekiel Wong Toh Yoon, Kazuki Nishihara, Hirohiko Murata
For nutritional support of critically ill patients, the enteral route is preferred over the parenteral route. Although nasojejunal feeding can be superior to gastric feeding when gastrointestinal symptoms occur, it does not necessarily solve the problem of large gastric residual volumes. We report the successful use of a newly developed nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function in an 84-year-old man with severe pneumonia. After gastric feeding was considered not well tolerated, the use of this tube improved the delivery of nutrition until the patient was stable enough to undergo percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy...
2016: Internal Medicine
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
J Crowley, L Ball, C Wall
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is recognized as a strong factor influencing the health outcomes of patients with chronic disease. General practitioners (GPs) require nutrition knowledge and skills to support patients to have healthy dietary behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To investigate New Zealand GP registrars' provision of nutrition advice using patient scenarios. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design targeted GP registrars to investigate the nutrition care they provided to patients...
October 13, 2016: Public Health
David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Nutrition intervention supports the patient with malnutrition secondary to cancer and its treatment and has been used in the primary and secondary prevention of common forms of cancer. During the emotional stress of dealing with cancer at any stage, patients derive increased quality of life and a sense of control over their lives as the result of receiving supportive advice on diet and lifestyle. Therefore, the use of nutrition intervention in cancer patients is justified in the absence of absolute proof of efficacy as long as it is done safely and with the consent of the cancer patient...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Lauren Ball, Katelyn Barnes, Michael Leveritt, Lana Mitchell, Lauren T Williams, Dianne Ball, Elizabeth Patterson
Research priority setting is an important component of research planning, particularly when research options exceed available resources. This study identified the research priorities for supporting healthy lifestyle behaviours in the Australian primary healthcare setting. A five-step stakeholder engagement process was undertaken. Ten stakeholder organisations participated in the process, including patient representatives, health professional associations, health educators, researchers, government advisors and policymakers...
October 17, 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Dan J Graham, Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Megan P Mueller, Melanie Jaeb, Lisa Harnack
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether parent/child pairs would select more healthful foods when: (i) products were labelled with front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels relative to packages without labels; (ii) products were labelled with colour-coded Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) FOP labels relative to monochromatic Facts up Front (FuF) FOP labels; and (iii) FOP labels were explained via in-aisle signage v. unexplained. DESIGN: Participants were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: (i) FuF labels with in-aisle signs explaining the labels; (ii) FuF labels, no signage; (iii) MTL labels with in-aisle signage; (iv) MTL labels, no signage; (v) control group, no labels/signage...
October 17, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Paula D N Dworatzek, Joanne Stier
PURPOSE: Peer education (PE) has been used effectively in nutrition; however, research examining dietitians' attitudes regarding PE is lacking. METHODS: An online survey was sent to a random sample of 1198 Dietitians of Canada members to assess attitudes regarding PE by practice area. RESULTS: A representative sample of dietitians by practice area and location was obtained (n = 229; 19%). Their total attitude score (TAS) was 226 ± 26 (mean ± SD) out of 295 (maximum)...
July 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Margarita Torres-Aquino, Adeline Becquer, Christine Le Guernevé, Julien Louche, Laurie K Amenc, Siobhan Staunton, Hervé Quiquampoix, Claude Plassard
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association can improve plant phosphorus (P) nutrition. Polyphosphates (polyP), synthesized in distant fungal cells after P uptake may contribute to P supply from the fungus to the host plant if they are hydrolyzed to phosphate in ECM roots then transferred to the host plant when required. In this study, we addressed this hypothesis for the ECM fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum grown in vitro and incubated without plant or with host (Pinus pinaster) and non-host (Zea mays) plants, using an experimental system simulating the symbiotic interface...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Christie L M Petrenko, Michelle E Alto
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are present across countries and cultures, with prevalence rates threatening to rise in the coming years. In order to support children and families with FASD around the world, researchers must work to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions. However, each cultural context presents unique elements and barriers to the implementation process. This review considers the challenges of addressing FASD in an international context. It summarizes existing FASD interventions that have empirical support in the domains of parenting and education, attention and self-regulation, adaptive functioning, and nutrition and medication...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Evelyn J Cheung, Jacquelyn R Sink, Joseph C English Iii
Telogen effluvium is one of the most common forms of non-scarring alopecia for which patients present to a dermatologist. It is a challenging disorder to treat and study, primarily owing to its multifactorial etiology which includes both physiologic and non-physiologic factors. Nutritional deficiency has been purported to contribute to hair shedding, and a patient's clinical history usually aids in directing laboratory evaluation. Many prior studies have either supported or failed to find a correlation between telogen effluvium and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, in particular, vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Heather Miller, Matthew L Anderson, Christopher P Smith, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Karin A Fox
BACKGROUND: Chylous ascites is defined as the pathologic accumulation of lymphatic fluid within the peritoneal cavity and has been reported to complicate gynecologic surgeries, with an incidence of 0.17-2%. We report a case of chylous ascites after complex surgery for placenta percreta. CASE: A 26-year-old woman underwent cesarean delivery followed by bilateral uterine artery embolization and modified radical hysterectomy at 26 5/7 weeks of gestation for placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Luis D Pacheco, Antonio F Saad, Gary D V Hankins, Giuseppe Chiosi, George Saade
Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported in pregnancy and is a potentially lethal condition. It affects the nervous system with acute onset of symmetric ascending weakness and may result in frank respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction. Most patients recall symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal illness in the weeks preceding the onset of weakness. Recent evidence suggests a potential role of the Zika virus as a trigger for the syndrome. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barré is clinical. Supportive measures include venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, aggressive physical therapy, pressure ulcer prevention, enteral nutrition, and respiratory support...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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