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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635617/the-dosimetric-impact-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-media-in-gbm-brain-patient-plans-for-a-mri-linac
#1
Syed Bilal Ahmad, Moti Raj Paudel, Arman Sarfehnia, Anthony Kim, Geordi Pang, Mark Ruschin, Arjun Sahgal, Brian M Keller
Dosimetric effects of gadolinium based contrast media (Gadovist) were evaluated for the Elekta MRI Linear accelerator (MRL) using the research version of Monaco treatment planning system (TPS). In order to represent a gadolinium uptake it was manually assigned to a phantom as well as to the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) of 6 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients. A preliminary estimate of dose enhancement, due to gadolinium, was performed using the phantom irradiated with a single beam. More complicated assessment was performed for the GBM patients using a 7 field IMRT technique...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634318/evaluation-and-validation-of-the-diagnostic-value-of-the-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-for-differentiating-early-stage-endometrial-carcinomas-from-benign-mimickers-at-3t-mri
#2
Xue Wang, Yu Zhao, Yumin Hu, Yongjin Zhou, Xinjian Ye, Kun Liu, Guanghui Bai, Anna Guo, Meimei Du, Lezhen Jiang, Jinhong Wang, Zhihan Yan
Previous researchers obtained various apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cutoff values to differentiate endometrial carcinoma from benign mimickers with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Few studies have used 3T MRI or validated the effectiveness of these cutoff ADC values prospectively. This study was designed in two stages to obtain a cutoff ADC value at 3T MRI and to validate prospectively the role of the ADC value. First, we conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients to evaluate the diagnostic value of ADC by obtain a theoretical cutoff ADC value for differentiating between benign and malignant endometrial lesions...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634149/a-non-invasive-restraining-system-for-awake-mouse-imaging
#3
Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Chathura Kumaragamage, Lauren Reynolds, Jamie Near, Cecilia Flores, M Natasha Rajah
BACKGROUND: Preclinical neuroimaging allows for the assessment of brain anatomy, connectivity and function in laboratory animals, such as mice and rats. Most of these studies are performed under anesthesia to avoid movement during the scanning sessions. METHOD: Due to the limitations associated with anesthetized imaging, recent efforts have been made to conduct rodent imaging studies in awake animals, habituated to the restraint systems used in these instances. As of now, only one such system is commercially available for mouse scanning (Animal Imaging Research, Boston, MA, USA) integrating the radiofrequency coil electronics with the restraining element, an approach which, although effective in reducing head motion during awake imaging, has some limitations...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633808/impact-of-mr-guided-boiling-histotripsy-in-distinct-murine-tumor-models
#4
Martijn Hoogenboom, Dylan C Eikelenboom, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Arend Heerschap, Pieter Wesseling, Martijn H den Brok, Jurgen J Fütterer, Gosse J Adema
Interest in mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is rapidly growing. Boiling histotripsy (BH) is applied for mechanical fragmentation of soft tissue into submicron fragments with limited temperature increase using the shock wave and cavitation effects of HIFU. Research on BH has been largely limited to ex vivo experiments. As a consequence, the in vivo pathology after BH treatment and the relation to preexistent tissue characteristics are not well understood. This study reports on in vivo MR guided BH treatment, either with 100 or 200 pulses per focal spot, in three different subcutaneous mouse tumor models: a soft-tissue melanoma (B16OVA), a compact growing thymoma (EL4), and a highly vascularized neuroblastoma (9464D)...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630757/the-patellofemoral-joint-from-dysplasia-to-dislocation
#5
Stefano Zaffagnini, Alberto Grassi, Gianluca Zocco, Michele Attilo Rosa, Cecilia Signorelli, Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli
Patellofemoral dysplasia is a major predisposing factor for instability of the patellofemoral joint. However, there is no consensus as to whether patellofemoral dysplasia is genetic in origin, caused by imbalanced forces producing maltracking and remodelling of the trochlea during infancy and growth, or due to other unknown and unexplored factors.The biomechanical effects of patellofemoral dysplasia on patellar stability and on surgical procedures have not been fully investigated. Also, different anatomical and demographic risk factors have been suggested, in an attempt to identify the recurrent dislocators...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630717/arthroscopic-hip-preservation-surgery-practice-patterns-an-international-survey
#6
Kevin M Smith, Brayden J Gerrie, Patrick C McCulloch, Brian D Lewis, R Chad Mather, Geoffrey Van Thiel, Shane J Nho, Joshua D Harris
To design and conduct a survey analyzing pre-, intra- and post- hip arthroscopy practice patterns among hip arthroscopists worldwide. A 21-question, IRB-exempt, HIPAA-compliant, cross-sectional survey was conducted via email using SurveyMonkey to examine pre-operative evaluation, intra-operative techniques and post-operative management. The survey was administered internationally to 151 hip arthroscopists identified from publicly available sources. Seventy-five respondents completed the survey (151 ± 116 hip arthroscopy procedures per year; 8...
January 2017: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629975/anatomical-and-functional-properties-of-the-foot-and-leg-representation-in-areas-3b-1-and-2-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-humans-a-7t-fmri-study
#7
Michel Akselrod, Roberto Martuzzi, Andrea Serino, Wietske van der Zwaag, Roger Gassert, Olaf Blanke
Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) processes somatosensory information and is composed of multiple subregions. In particular, tactile information from the skin is encoded in three subregions, namely Brodmann areas (BAs) 3b, 1 and 2, with each area representing a complete map of the contralateral body. Although, much is known about the somatotopic organization of the hand in human S1, less research has been carried out regarding the somatotopic maps of the foot and leg in S1. Moreover, a latero-medial S1 organization along the superior part of the postcentral gyrus has been reported when moving from hip to toes, yet to date there is no study investigating leg/foot maps within the different subregions of S1...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628033/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-cirrhosis-increases-familial-risk-for-advanced-fibrosis
#8
Cyrielle Caussy, Meera Soni, Jeffrey Cui, Ricki Bettencourt, Nicholas Schork, Chi-Hua Chen, Mahdi Al Ikhwan, Shirin Bassirian, Sandra Cepin, Monica P Gonzalez, Michel Mendler, Yuko Kono, Irine Vodkin, Kristin Mekeel, Jeffrey Haldorson, Alan Hemming, Barbara Andrews, Joanie Salotti, Lisa Richards, David A Brenner, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND: The risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis (NAFLD-cirrhosis) is unknown and needs to be systematically quantified. We aimed to prospectively assess the risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of 26 probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis and 39 first-degree relatives. The control population included 69 community-dwelling twin, sib-sib, or parent-offspring pairs (n = 138), comprising 69 individuals randomly ascertained to be without evidence of NAFLD and 69 of their first-degree relatives...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625273/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-disease-modification-trials-in-mild-to-moderate-dementia-a-systematic-review-patient-and-public-consultation-and-consensus-recommendations
#9
Lucy Webster, Derek Groskreutz, Anna Grinbergs-Saull, Rob Howard, John T O'Brien, Gail Mountain, Sube Banerjee, Bob Woods, Robert Perneczky, Louise Lafortune, Charlotte Roberts, Jenny McCleery, James Pickett, Frances Bunn, David Challis, Georgina Charlesworth, Katie Featherstone, Chris Fox, Claire Goodman, Roy Jones, Sallie Lamb, Esme Moniz-Cook, Justine Schneider, Sasha Shepperd, Claire Surr, Jo Thompson-Coon, Clive Ballard, Carol Brayne, Orlaith Burke, Alistair Burns, Linda Clare, Peter Garrard, Patrick Kehoe, Peter Passmore, Clive Holmes, Ian Maidment, Fliss Murtagh, Louise Robinson, Gill Livingston
BACKGROUND: There is currently no disease-modifying treatment available to halt or delay the progression of the disease pathology in dementia. An agreed core set of the best-available and most appropriate outcomes for disease modification would facilitate the design of trials and ensure consistency across disease modification trials, as well as making results comparable and meta-analysable in future trials. OBJECTIVES: To agree a set of core outcomes for disease modification trials for mild to moderate dementia with the UK dementia research community and patient and public involvement (PPI)...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624924/evaluation-of-hepatic-fibrosis-a-review-from-the-society-of-abdominal-radiology-disease-focus-panel
#10
REVIEW
Jeanne M Horowitz, Sudhakar K Venkatesh, Richard L Ehman, Kartik Jhaveri, Patrick Kamath, Michael A Ohliger, Anthony E Samir, Alvin C Silva, Bachir Taouli, Michael S Torbenson, Michael L Wells, Benjamin Yeh, Frank H Miller
Hepatic fibrosis is potentially reversible; however early diagnosis is necessary for treatment in order to halt progression to cirrhosis and development of complications including portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. Morphologic signs of cirrhosis on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone are unreliable and are seen with more advanced disease. Newer imaging techniques to diagnose liver fibrosis are reliable and accurate, and include magnetic resonance elastography and US elastography (one-dimensional transient elastography and point shear wave elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging)...
June 17, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624576/agreement-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-proton-density-fat-fraction-measurements-and-pathologist-assigned-steatosis-grades-of-liver-biopsies-from-adults-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Michael S Middleton, Elhamy R Heba, Catherine A Hooker, Mustafa R Bashir, Kathryn J Fowler, Kumar Sandrasegaran, Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Edward Doo, Mark L Van Natta, James Tonascia, Joel E Lavine, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Arun Sanyal, Rohit Loomba, Claude B Sirlin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We assessed the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in grading hepatic steatosis and change in hepatic steatosis in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a multi-center study, using central histology as reference. METHODS: We collected data from 113 adults with NASH participating in a multi-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial to compare the efficacy cross-sectionally and longitudinally of obeticholic acid vs placebo...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623475/t1-mapping-in-cardiac-mri
#12
REVIEW
Dina Radenkovic, Sebastian Weingärtner, Lewis Ricketts, James C Moon, Gabriella Captur
Quantitative myocardial and blood T1 have recently achieved clinical utility in numerous pathologies, as they provide non-invasive tissue characterization with the potential to replace invasive biopsy. Native T1 time (no contrast agent), changes with myocardial extracellular water (edema, focal or diffuse fibrosis), fat, iron, and amyloid protein content. After contrast, the extracellular volume fraction (ECV) estimates the size of the extracellular space and identifies interstitial disease. Spatially resolved quantification of these biomarkers (so-called T1 mapping and ECV mapping) are steadily becoming diagnostic and prognostically useful tests for several heart muscle diseases, influencing clinical decision-making with a pending second consensus statement due mid-2017...
June 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619436/tumefactive-demyelinating-lesions-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Ali Alassiri
Tumefactive multiple sclerosis or tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) is one of the rare variants of multiple sclerosis (MS) posing a diagnostic challenge and a therapeutic enigma since it is difficult to distinguish from a true central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm or other CNS lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of TDL is estimated to be 1-3/1000 cases of MS with an annual incidence of 0.3/100,000. This could be an underestimate due to unavailability of a global MS registry and under-reporting of this condition...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618993/new-perspectives-on-biomedical-applications-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#14
Massimiliano Magro, Davide Baratella, Emanuela Bonaiuto, Jessica de Almeida Roger, Fabio Vianello
Iron oxide nanomaterials are considered promising tools for improved therapeutic efficacy and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. Accordingly, engineered iron oxide nanomaterials are increasingly proposed in biomedicine, and the interdisciplinary researches involving physics, chemistry, biology (nanotechnology) and medicine have led to exciting developments in the last decades. The progresses of the development of magnetic nanoparticles with tailored physico-chemical and surface properties produced a variety of clinically relevant applications, spanning from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, to in vitro diagnostics...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618066/assessment-of-ferritin-content-in-multiple-sclerosis-brains-using-temperature-induced-r-2-changes
#15
Christoph Birkl, Daniele Carassiti, Fariha Hussain, Christian Langkammer, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas, Klaus Schmierer, Stefan Ropele
PURPOSE: Current MRI techniques cannot reliably assess iron content in white matter due to the confounding diamagnetic effect of myelin. The purpose of this study was to validate with histology a novel iron mapping technique that uses the temperature dependency of the paramagnetic susceptibility in multiple sclerosis (MS) brains, where white matter has been reported to show significant variations in iron content. METHODS: We investigated post mortem brain tissue from three MS patients and one control subject...
June 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617759/functional-topography-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-during-motor-execution-and-motor-imagery-as-revealed-by-functional-mri
#16
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Ramy S Soliman, Abdalla Z Mohamed, Jeungchan Lee, Kyungmo Park
Controversy exists regarding the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor imagery (MI) and also regarding the differential somatotopic representation of motor execution (ME) and mental simulation of movement, that is, MI within M1. Although some research reported clear M1 involvement during MI without overt motor output, others did not. However, possible somatotopic representation between execution and imagery has not been clearly investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to aid in the resolution of this controversy by investigating the possible involvement of M1 during MI, and the differential, within M1, somatotopic representation between execution and imagery by quantitatively assessing different location markers such as activation peak and center of mass as well as intensity differences between the two tasks in case of with and without the overlap between the two representations...
June 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617686/imaging-adult-patients-with-coarctation-of-the-aorta
#17
Akanksha N Thakkar, Ponraj Chinnadurai, C Huie Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of current recommendations and techniques used to image coarctations of the aorta. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging of coarctation of the aorta in adults is moving away from conventional techniques such as echocardiography and invasive angiography. Echocardiography may assist in making the diagnosis but is limited in its ability to quantify the severity of coarctations. Current guidelines recommend that every patient with a coarctation must undergo a computed tomography (CT) or MRI scan for accurate delineation of morphology...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616760/liver-segmentation-indications-techniques-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Akshat Gotra, Lojan Sivakumaran, Gabriel Chartrand, Kim-Nhien Vu, Franck Vandenbroucke-Menu, Claude Kauffmann, Samuel Kadoury, Benoît Gallix, Jacques A de Guise, An Tang
OBJECTIVES: Liver volumetry has emerged as an important tool in clinical practice. Liver volume is assessed primarily via organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. The goal of this paper is to provide an accessible overview of liver segmentation targeted at radiologists and other healthcare professionals. METHODS: Using images from CT and MRI, this paper reviews the indications for liver segmentation, technical approaches used in segmentation software and the developing roles of liver segmentation in clinical practice...
June 14, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615794/deepinfer-open-source-deep-learning-deployment-toolkit-for-image-guided-therapy
#19
Alireza Mehrtash, Mehran Pesteie, Jorden Hetherington, Peter A Behringer, Tina Kapur, William M Wells, Robert Rohling, Andriy Fedorov, Purang Abolmaesumi
Deep learning models have outperformed some of the previous state-of-the-art approaches in medical image analysis. Instead of using hand-engineered features, deep models attempt to automatically extract hierarchical representations at multiple levels of abstraction from the data. Therefore, deep models are usually considered to be more flexible and robust solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. They have demonstrated significant improvements in computer-aided diagnosis and automatic medical image analysis applied to such tasks as image segmentation, classification and registration...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615277/alterations-in-the-brain-s-connectome-during-recovery-from-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-prospective-study
#20
Virginia Conde, Sara Hesby Andreasen, Tue Hvass Petersen, Karen Busted Larsen, Karine Madsen, Kasper Winther Andersen, Irina Akopian, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, Christian Pilebæk Hansen, Ingrid Poulsen, Lars Peter Kammersgaard, Hartwig Roman Siebner
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most pervasive causes of disability in people under the age of 45. TBI often results in disorders of consciousness, and clinical assessment of the state of consciousness in these patients is challenging due to the lack of behavioural responsiveness. Functional neuroimaging offers a means to assess these patients without the need for behavioural signs, indicating that brain connectivity plays a major role in consciousness emergence and maintenance...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
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