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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160415/interregional-correlations-of-glucose-metabolism-between-the-basal-ganglia-and-different-cortical-areas-an-ultra-high-resolution-pet-mri-fusion-study-using-18f-fdg
#1
J H Kim, Y D Son, J M Kim, H K Kim, Y B Kim, C Lee, C H Oh
Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160088/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-to-limbic-associative-and-motor-networks
#2
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Christina Triantafyllou, Aaron Mattfeld, John D Gabrieli, Maiya Geddes
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small structure situated deep in the mid-brain that exhibits wide-ranging functionality. In addition to its role in motor control, the STN is considered a hub for synchronizing aspects of emotion and cognition including attention, inhibitory control, motivation, and working memory. Evidence from neuroanatomical tracer studies suggests that the medial, ventromedial, and dorsolateral parts of the STN correspond to limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions respectively. While the extent of STN functional anatomical overlap remains unclear, BOLD imaging of the STN may provide complementary information about the diverse functions of this structure...
November 21, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159960/mapping-the-structural-and-functional-network-architecture-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-using-7t-mri
#3
Preya Shah, Danielle S Bassett, Laura E M Wisse, John A Detre, Joel M Stein, Paul A Yushkevich, Russell T Shinohara, John B Pluta, Elijah Valenciano, Molly Daffner, David A Wolk, Mark A Elliott, Brian Litt, Kathryn A Davis, Sandhitsu R Das
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions play integral roles in memory function and are differentially affected in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The ability to structurally and functionally characterize these subregions may be important to understanding MTL physiology and diagnosing diseases involving the MTL. In this study, we characterized network architecture of the MTL in healthy subjects (n = 31) using both resting state functional MRI and MTL-focused T2-weighted structural MRI at 7 tesla...
November 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159055/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-deficits-and-associations-to-response-inhibition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Rosa Grützmann, Robert Hummel, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Katharina Bey, Leonhard Lennertz, Michael Wagner, Norbert Kathmann
Previous research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated performance decrements in working memory (WM) and response inhibition. However, underlying neural mechanisms of WM deficits are not well understood to date, and empirical evidence for a proposed conceptual link to inhibition deficits is missing. We investigated WM performance in a numeric n-back task with four WM load conditions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 51 patients with OCD and 49 healthy control participants who were matched for age, sex, and education...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158839/characterization-of-cardiac-dynamics-in-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-model-by-four-dimensional-optoacoustic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Hsiao-Chun Amy Lin, Xosé Luís Déan-Ben, Ivana Ivankovic, Melanie A Kimm, Katja Kosanke, Helena Haas, Reinhard Meier, Fabian Lohöfer, Moritz Wildgruber, Daniel Razansky
Extraction of murine cardiac functional parameters on a beat-by-beat basis is limited with the existing imaging modalities due to insufficient three-dimensional temporal resolution. Faster volumetric imaging methods enabling in vivo characterization of functional parameters are poised to advance cardiovascular research and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. We present a new approach based on analyzing contrast-enhanced optoacoustic (OA) images acquired at high volumetric frame rate without using cardiac gating or other approaches for motion correction...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158112/subtle-behavioral-changes-and-increased-prefrontal-hippocampal-network-synchronicity-in-app-nl-g-f-mice-before-prominent-plaque-deposition
#6
Amira Latif Hernandez, Disha Shah, Kathleen Craessaerts, Takaomi Saido, Takashi Saito, Bart De Strooper, Annemie Van der Linden, Rudi D'Hooge
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role in functional impairment is still debated. High levels of APP and APP fragments in mice that overexpress APP might confound their use in preclinical research. We examined the occurrence of behavioral, cognitive and neuroimaging changes in APP(NL-G-F) knock-in mice that display Aβ42 amyloidosis in the absence of APP overexpression. Female APP(NL-G-F) mice (carrying Swedish, Iberian and Arctic APP mutations) were compared to APP(NL) mice (APP Swedish) at 3, 7 and 10 months...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157997/smaller-amygdala-volume-and-increased-neuroticism-predict-anxiety-symptoms-in-healthy-subjects-a-volumetric-approach-using-manual-tracing
#7
Yifan Hu, Matthew Moore, Zachariah Bertels, K Luan Phan, Florin Dolcos, Sanda Dolcos
Volume reductions in the amygdala (AMY) have been found in patients with anxiety disorders, but findings are mixed in subclinical participants with high trait anxiety scores, in whom both reductions and increases in AMY volume have been identified. One potential reason for such discrepancies could be the employment of different methods to determine the AMY volume (i.e., manual tracing in psychiatric research vs. automated methods), in non-patient research. In addition to trait anxiety, smaller AMY volume has also been linked to neuroticism, a personality trait consistently linked to increased vulnerability to anxiety...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157393/new-concepts-related-to-disease-appreciation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Christina J Azevedo, Amirhossein Jaberzadeh, Daniel Pelletier
In the past several decades, MRI has become an indispensable tool in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS) for clinicians and researchers. However, the MS field still faces several challenges. This review focuses on 2 current areas of difficulty: 1) discriminating MS from other diseases when the clinical history and imaging features are atypical or nonspecific, and 2) the lack of quantitative imaging metrics with which to follow MS patients over time in clinical practice. This review highlights promising MRI and postprocessing techniques that have potential applications in these areas...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156557/the-invasive-region-of-glioblastoma-defined-by-5ala-guided-surgery-has-an-altered-cancer-stem-cell-marker-profile-compared-to-central-tumour
#9
Stuart J Smith, Mohammed Diksin, Saachi Chhaya, Shwetha Sairam, Maria A Estevez-Cebrero, Ruman Rahman
Glioblastoma, a WHO grade IV astrocytoma, is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous tumour that infiltrates deeply into surrounding brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection impossible. Despite chemo-radiotherapy, the residual cell population within brain parenchyma post-surgery causes inevitable recurrence. Previously, the tumour core has been the focus of research and the basis for targeted therapeutic regimes, which have failed to improve survival in clinical trials. Here, we focus on the invasive margin as defined by the region with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA) (GliolanTM) fluorescence at surgery beyond the T1 enhancing region on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155183/insights-into-brain-microstructure-from-in-vivo-dw-mrs
#10
Marco Palombo, Noam Shemesh, Itamar Ronen, Julien Valette
Many developmental processes, such as plasticity and aging, or pathological processes such as neurological diseases are characterized by modulations of specific cellular types and their microstructures. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) is a powerful technique for probing microstructure, yet its information arises from the ubiquitous, non-specific water signal. By contrast, diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DW-MRS) allows specific characterizations of tissues such as brain and muscle in vivo by quantifying the diffusion properties of MR-observable metabolites...
November 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154896/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-spinal-cord-parenchyma-lesion-in-rat-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Can Zhao, Jia-Sheng Rao, Xiao-Jiao Pei, Jian-Feng Lei, Zhan-Jing Wang, Wen Zhao, Rui-Han Wei, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
PURPOSE: Adequate evaluation of spinal cord parenchyma and accurate identification of injury range are considered two premises for the research and treatment of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides information about water diffusion in spinal cord, and thus makes it possible to realize these premises. METHOD: In this study, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for Wistar rats 84days after spinal cord contusion. DTI metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) from different positions of the injured cord were collected, analyzed, and compared with the histological results and locomotor outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154535/novel-gd-loaded-silicon-nanohybrid-a-potential-egfr-expressing-cancer-cell-targeting-mri-contrast-agent
#12
Sougata Sinha, Wing Yin Tong, Nathan H Williamson, Steven James Peter McInnes, Simon Puttick, Anna Cifuentes-Rius, Richa Bhardwaj, Sally E Plush, Nicolas H Voelcker
Continuing our research efforts in developing mesoporous silicon nanoparticle based biomaterials for cancer therapy, here we employed porous silicon nanoparticles as a nanocarrier to deliver contrast agents to diseased cells. Nanoconfinement of small molecule Gd-chelates (L1-Gd) enhanced the T1 contrast dramatically compared to distinct Gd-chelate (L1-Gd) by virtue of its slow tumbling rate, increased number of bound water molecules and their occupancy time. The newly synthesized Gd-chelate (L1-Gd) was covalently grafted on silicon nanostructures and conjugated to an antibody specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a hydrazone linkage...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153326/altered-structural-connectivity-of-the-left-visual-thalamus-in-developmental-dyslexia
#13
Christa Müller-Axt, Alfred Anwander, Katharina von Kriegstein
Developmental dyslexia is a highly prevalent reading disorder affecting about 5%-10% of children [1]. It is characterized by slow and/or inaccurate word recognition skills as well as by poor spelling and decoding abilities [2]. Partly due to technical challenges with investigating subcortical sensory structures, current research on dyslexia in humans by and large focuses on the cerebral cortex [3-7]. These studies found that dyslexia is typically associated with functional and structural alterations of a distributed left-hemispheric cerebral cortex network (e...
November 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153039/higher-anxiety-symptoms-predict-progressive-hippocampal-atrophy-in-the-chronic-stages-of-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Alex R Terpstra, Todd A Girard, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: In the chronic stages of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), progressive hippocampal volume loss-continuing well after acute neurological insults have resolved-has now been well documented. Previous research in other populations suggests that elevated anxiety symptoms are associated with compromise to the medial temporal lobes. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether higher anxiety symptoms predict greater hippocampal volume loss in moderate-severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152222/preprocessed-consortium-for-neuropsychiatric-phenomics-dataset
#15
Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Joke Durnez, Russell A Poldrack
Here we present preprocessed MRI data of 265 participants from the Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics (CNP) dataset. The preprocessed dataset includes minimally preprocessed data in the native, MNI and surface spaces accompanied with potential confound regressors, tissue probability masks, brain masks and transformations. In addition the preprocessed dataset includes unthresholded group level and single subject statistical maps from all tasks included in the original dataset. We hope that availability of this dataset will greatly accelerate research...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151054/effect-of-ephedrine-and-phenylephrine-on-brain-oxygenation-and-microcirculation-in-anaesthetised-patients-with-cerebral-tumours-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Klaus Ulrik Koch, Anna Tietze, Joel Aanerud, Gorm von Öettingen, Niels Juul, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Lone Nikolajsen, Leif Østergaard, Mads Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: During brain tumour surgery, vasopressor drugs are commonly administered to increase mean arterial blood pressure with the aim of maintaining sufficient cerebral perfusion pressure. Studies of the commonly used vasopressors show that brain oxygen saturation is reduced after phenylephrine administration, but unaltered by ephedrine administration. These findings may be explained by different effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine on the cerebral microcirculation, in particular the capillary transit-time heterogeneity, which determines oxygen extraction efficacy...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148579/a-step-by-step-review-on-patient-specific-biomechanical-finite-element-models-for-breast-mri-to-x-ray-mammography-registration
#17
REVIEW
Eloy García, Yago Diez, Oliver Diaz, Xavier Lladó, Robert Martí, Joan Martí, Arnau Oliver
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray mammography are two image modalities widely used for the early detection and diagnosis of breast diseases in women. The combination of these modalities leads to a more accurate diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases. The aim of this paper is to review the registration between breast MRI and X-ray mammographic images using patient-specific finite element-based biomechanical models. Specifically, a biomechanical model is obtained from the patient's MRI volume and is subsequently used to mimic the mammographic acquisition...
November 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147439/uterine-smooth-muscle-tumor-of-uncertain-malignant-potential-clinicopathologic-sonographic-characteristics-follow-up-and-recurrence
#18
Besim Haluk Bacanakgil, Mustafa Deveci, Emine Karabuk, Zeynep Soyman
Background: Uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is rare tumor, and regarded as sub-classification in uterine smooth muscle tumors between benign and malignant criteria. In this study, we evaluated characteristics of cases with STUMP diagnosis in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with histopathological STUMP diagnosis in Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, a tertiary center. We analyzed preoperative demographic, clinical features and postoperative follow-up...
June 2017: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146191/automatic-delineation-of-brain-regions-on-mri-and-pet-images-from-the-pig
#19
Jonas Villadsen, Hanne D Hansen, Louise M Jørgensen, Sune H Keller, Flemming L Andersen, Ida N Petersen, Gitte M Knudsen, Claus Svarer
BACKGROUND: The increasing use of the pig as a research model in neuroimaging requires standardized processing tools. For example, extraction of regional dynamic time series from brain PET images requires parcellation procedures that benefit from being automated. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Manual inter-modality spatial normalization to a MRI atlas is operator-dependent, time-consuming, and can be inaccurate with lack of cortical radiotracer binding or skull uptake...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145689/-ultra-high-field-mri-in-the-chicken-embryo-in-ovo-a-model-for-experimental-ophthalmology
#20
Ronja Klose, Felix Streckenbach, Stefan Hadlich, Thomas Stahnke, Rudolf Guthoff, Andreas Wree, Marcus Frank, Sönke Langner, Oliver Stachs, Tobias Lindner
Ultra-high-field MRI (UHF-MRI) is an outstanding technique for non-invasive and non-destructive imaging of soft tissues and can provide versatile contrasts and high resolution in the µm range. In vivo imaging of the embryonal chick eye with its filigree anatomical structures imposes these requirements. However, due to the short embryonal development cycle, chicken are a favourite animal model for embryonal research studies. Ultra-high-field MRI allows repeated and longitudinal in ovo investigations on the same embryo...
November 16, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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