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High dose rate

P M Raste, B K Sahoo, J J Gaware, Anil Sharma, M R Waikar, A A Shaikh, R G Sonkawade
Researchers have already established that inhalation of high radon concentration is hazardous to human health. Radon concentration has been measured in water and soil, in various part of Kolhapur district has been carried out by the AQTEK Smart RnDuo which is an active device technique. The observed minimum value of the radon mass exhalation rate of the soil is 13.16 ± 0.83 mBq/kg/h and maximum is 35.11 ± 1.84 mBq/kg/h. The minimum value of the Radon concentration in water is 0.33 ± 0.052 Bq/L and maximum is 7...
March 19, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Rupen Shah, Kristopher Attwood, Shipra Arya, Daniel E Hall, Jason M Johanning, Emmanuel Gabriel, Anthony Visioni, Steven Nurkin, Moshim Kukar, Steven Hochwald, Nader N Massarweh
Importance: Failure to rescue (FTR), or death after a potentially preventable complication, is a nationally endorsed, publicly reported quality measure. However, little is known about the impact of frailty on FTR, in particular after low-risk surgical procedures. Objective: To assess the association of frailty with FTR in patients undergoing inpatient surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study assessed a cohort of 984 550 patients undergoing inpatient general, vascular, thoracic, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Zhao Dehua, Chu Mingming, Wang Jisheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine (GEM) at 30 min standard-dose infusion (30 min-SDI) compared with prolonged low-dose infusion (P-LDI) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Electronic databases including Pubmed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM, and VIP were searched using keywords "GEM", "P-LDI", and "NSCLC". Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. Primary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and 1-year survival rate (1-year SR)...
2018: PloS One
Kieran S O'Brien, Sun Y Cotter, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Nicole E Stoller, Zhaoxia Zhou, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Jeremy D Keenan, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman
BACKGROUND: Mass distributions of azithromycin for trachoma have been associated with secondary benefits, including reductions in child mortality. METHODS: In the PRET cluster-randomized trial for trachoma in Niger, 24 communities were randomized to annual treatment of everyone and 24 communities were randomized to biannual treatment of children under 12 for 3 years (, NCT00792922). Treatment was a single dose of directly observed oral azithromycin (20mg/kg up to 1gm in adults)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Bo Ma, Yingjun Zhu, Yixin Liu
Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) is a rare uterine lesion, which has a high rate of recurrence and malignant transformation. How to treat this disease is crucial for the prognosis, but there are few reports on it.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of all the patients diagnosed with APA after surgical therapy in our hospital. All the clinical information, pathological results, treatment, and outcome were retrieved from the clinical records.A total of 43 patients were diagnosed with APA. The median age was 56...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
Lucas Morin, Kristina Johnell, Marie-Laure Laroche, Johan Fastbom, Jonas W Wastesson
Objective: Polypharmacy is the concomitant use of several drugs by a single person, and it increases the risk of adverse drug-related events in older adults. Little is known about the epidemiology of polypharmacy at the population level. We aimed to measure the prevalence and incidence of polypharmacy and to investigate the associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted using register data with national coverage in Sweden. A total of 1,742,336 individuals aged ≥65 years at baseline (November 1, 2010) were included and followed until death or the end of the study (December 20, 2013)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Chih-Hsun Tai, Chi-Hao Shao, Chen-You Chen, Shu-Wen Lin, Chien-Chih Wu
Background: Treatment options are limited for infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with concentration-dependent killing characteristic and dose-dependent post-antibiotic effect. To achieve optimized pharma-codynamic effect, some experts advocated using a high dose of daptomycin (≥9 mg/kg) for severe infections. However, the safety of high-dose therapy in patients with renal impairment remains unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate the safety of daptomycin in patients with severe renal impairment...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Duygu Ferek Emir, Ibrahim Ulas Ozturan, Serkan Yilmaz
INTRODUCTION: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant used to treat a variety of disorders. Although ALA is considered a very safe supplement and intoxication is very rare, acute high-dose ingestions can cause mortality. In this report, we discuss a very rare case of ALA intoxication to increase awareness of this issue. CASE REPORT: A 22-year-old female was referred to our emergency department with ALA intoxication after ingesting a total of 18g of ALA with a suicidal intention...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marine Potez, Audrey Bouchet, Jeannine Wagner, Mattia Donzelli, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, John W Hopewell, Jean Laissue, Valentin Djonov
PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of micro-beam irradiation (MBI) on the normal tissues of the mouse ear. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Normal mouse ears are a unique model, which in addition to skin contain striated muscles, cartilage, blood and lymphatic vessels, and few hair follicles. This renders the mouse ear an excellent model for complex tissue studies. The ears of C57BL6 mice were exposed to MBI (50-μm-wide micro-beams, spaced 200 μm between centers) with peak entrance doses of 200, 400, or 800 Gy (at ultra-high dose rates)...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Melissa A L Vyfhuis, Whitney M Burrows, Neha Bhooshan, Mohan Suntharalingam, James M Donahue, Josephine Feliciano, Shahed Badiyan, Elizabeth M Nichols, Martin J Edelman, Shamus R Carr, Joseph Friedberg, Gavin Henry, Shelby Stewart, Ashutosh Sachdeva, Edward M Pickering, Charles B Simone, Steven J Feigenberg, Pranshu Mohindra
PURPOSE: To determine, in a retrospective analysis of a large cohort of stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with curative intent at our institution, whether having a pathologic complete response (pCR) influenced overall survival (OS) or freedom from recurrence (FFR) in patients who underwent definitive (≥60 Gy) neoadjuvant doses of chemoradiation (CRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: At our institution, 355 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were treated with curative intent with definitive CRT (January 2000-December 2013), of whom 111 underwent mediastinal reassessment for possible surgical resection...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ronny Kalash, Scott M Glaser, Balasubramanya Rangaswamy, Zachary D Horne, Hayeon Kim, Christopher Houser, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) response and outcome in the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based planning and to assess whether the addition of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) could more accurately classify treatment response and prognosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review identified 244 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation, including high-dose-rate image-based brachytherapy, between 2007 and 2016...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Mary Freire de Carvalho, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio A Pompei, Felipe Rocha, Alexandra Vokaty, Baldomero Molina Flores, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA)...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M Hasib Sidiqi, Mohammed A Aljama, Francis K Buadi, Rahma M Warsame, Martha Q Lacy, Angela Dispenzieri, David Dingli, Wilson I Gonsalves, Shaji Kumar, Prashant Kapoor, Taxiarchis Kourelis, William J Hogan, Morie A Gertz
Purpose Autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) has been used in patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis for more than two decades. Early experience raised concerns regarding safety with high early-mortality rates. Patients and Methods We report 20 years of experience with ASCT for AL amyloidosis at the Mayo Clinic Rochester. In all, 672 consecutive patients receiving ASCT for AL amyloidosis were divided into three cohorts on the basis of date of transplantation (cohort 1, 1996-2002 [n = 124]; cohort 2, 2003-2009 [n = 302]; and cohort 3, 2010-2016 [n = 246])...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Sławomir Jeka, Bogdan Batko, Mariusz Korkosz, Maria Majdan, Brygida Kwiatkowska, Iwona Dankiewicz-Fares, Jerzy M Sobiecki, Włodzimierz Samborski
BACKGROUND: The GO-MORE study was an open-label, multinational, prospective study that investigated the efficacy and safety of adding golimumab to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (sDMARDs) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of golimumab add-on therapy in the Polish subpopulation of the GO-MORE study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were administered 50 mg subcutaneous doses of golimumab once a month for 6 months, while continuing therapy with sDMARDs and/or glucocorticoids (GCS)...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Soad Ali Yehia, Sally Adel Abdel Halim, Mary Yosry Aziz
OBJECTIVE: Formulation of injectable in situ forming implant (ISI) systems of lornoxicam for dental and post operative pain management to decrease dosing frequency and increase patient compliance. METHOD: Polymeric in situ implant solutions were prepared using different concentrations and inherent viscosities of Poly-DL-lactide (PDL) or DL-lactide/glycolide copolymer (PDLG) using 22X4 factorial experimental design. Non polymeric systems were prepared using different concentrations of lipids like cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol and also sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) using 32 factorial experimental design...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Zuzana Čadková, Jiřina Száková, Jana Tremlová, Oldřich Kopecký, Ondřej Žíla, Pavel Tlustoš
Se-Enriched defatted rapeseed (Se-DRS), a by-product of rapeseed oil production, is high in Se. This study aimed to detect possible changes in Se-metabolism after Se-DRS consumption and to assess its suitability as a Se supplement in monogaster feed. In this experiment, rats were fed three types of diets differing in Se-form: soybean meal, Se-salt and Se-DRS. Potential differences in Se-metabolism were evaluated based on the total Se concentrations along with non-protein Se speciation patterns in the urine and blood serum of the rats...
March 20, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
B Jones, R G Dale
A summary of the key aspects of radiobiological modelling is provided, based on the theoretical and practical concepts of the linear quadratic (LQ) model, which gradually replaced other numerical approaches. The closely related biological effective dose (BED) concept is useful in many clinical applications. BED formulations in conventional photon-based radiotherapy continue to be developed, and can be extended to the now increasingly used proton and ion-beam therapy, to very low or high dose ranges, the dose rate effect, hypoxia and repopulation...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Kenrick Ng, Sarah Duncan, Jonathan Shamash, Constantine Alifrangis
The treatment of poor prognosis chemotherapy naïve or relapsed testicular cancer is challenging. In poor prognosis treatment naïve disease, the outlook for patients with standard approaches utilising three weekly cisplatin based regimens, most commonly bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) is suboptimal, and one can expect more than half of patients to relapse or progress and need salvage treatment. Recent randomised studies have lent weight to the use of dose intensified treatments in these selected patient groups...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
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