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Situational awareness

Muhammad Fahim, Thar Baker, Asad Masood Khattak, Babar Shah, Saiqa Aleem, Francis Chow
Sedentary behaviour is increasing due to societal changes and is related to prolonged periods of sitting. There is sufficient evidence proving that sedentary behaviour has a negative impact on people's health and wellness. This paper presents our research findings on how to mine the temporal contexts of sedentary behaviour by utilizing the on-board sensors of a smartphone. We use the accelerometer sensor of the smartphone to recognize user situations (i.e., still or active). If our model confirms that the user context is still, then there is a high probability of being sedentary...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Michael Hart
Daytime use of adaptive optics (AO) at large telescopes is hampered by shot noise from the bright sky background. Wave-front sensing may use a sodium laser guide star observed through a magneto-optical filter to suppress the background, but the laser beacon is not sensitive to overall image motion. To estimate that, laser-guided AO systems generally rely on light from the object itself, collected through the full aperture of the telescope. Daylight sets a lower limit to the brightness of an object that may be tracked at rates sufficient to overcome the image jitter...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Sarthak Ghosh, Lauren Winston, Nishant Panchal, Philippe Kimura-Thollander, Jeff Hotnog, Douglas Cheong, Gabriel Reyes, Gregory D Abowd
The proliferation of high resolution and affordable virtual reality (VR) headsets is quickly making room-scale VR experiences available in our homes. Most VR experiences strive to achieve complete immersion by creating a disconnect from the real world. However, due to the lack of a standardized notification management system and minimal context awareness in VR, an immersed user may face certain situations such as missing an important phone call (digital scenario), tripping over wandering pets (physical scenario), or losing track of time (temporal scenario)...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
M Cheetham, A Wiseman, B Khazaeli, E Gibson, P Gray, P Van der Graaf, R Rushmer
Background: Embedded research (ER) is recognized as one way to strengthen the integration of evidence into public health (PH) practice. In this paper, we outline a promising example of the co-production of research evidence between Fuse, the UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health and a local authority (LA) in north east England. Methods: We critically examine attempts to share and use research findings to influence decision-making in a LA setting, drawing on insights from PH practitioners, managers, commissioners and academic partners involved in this organizational case study...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jiang Long-Zhi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of key parasitic diseases in Tongcheng City, so as to provide an epidemiological reference for formulating the scientific planning for "13th Five-year" parasitic diseases prevention and control. METHODS: The villages of different levels in Tongcheng City were sampled to investigate the infection of parasitic diseases of residents aged three or more years. Soil-transmitted nemathelminth, intestinal protozoa and Enterobius vermicularis were investigated by the Kato-Katz technique (a fecal sample seized two), iodine smear method and cellophane tape method, respectively...
October 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Emily S Patterson
Objective To integrate and synthesize insights from recent studies of workarounds to the intended use of health information technology (HIT) by health care professionals. Background Systems are safest when the documentation of how work is done in policies and procedures closely matches what people actually do when they are working. Proactively identifying and managing workarounds to the intended use of technology, including deviations from expected workflows, can improve system safety. Method A narrative review of studies of workarounds with HIT was conducted to identify themes in the literature...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Cecilia Bartholdson, Bert Molewijk, Kim Lützén, Klas Blomgren, Pernilla Pergert
BACKGROUND: In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions...
March 2018: Nursing Ethics
Aadesh K Rakhra, Danny D Mann
If a user-centered approach is not used to design information displays, the quantity and quality of information presented to the user may not match the needs of the user, or it may exceed the capability of the human operator for processing and using that information. The result may be an excessive mental workload and reduced situation awareness of the operator, which can negatively affect the machine performance and operational outcomes. The increasing use of technology in agricultural machines may expose the human operator to excessive and undesirable information if the operator's information needs and information processing capabilities are ignored...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
Csanád Albert-Lőrincz
This study summarizes the results of the author's PhD thesis presenting the research process and the most important findings regarding the situation of Transylvanian healthcare. Our data are based on the knowledge and compliance of pediatric patients' rights as they are seen by healthcare specialists, parents and children. A number of 751 persons were involved in the research: 200 healthcare specialists, 200 parents, 200 children aged from 7 to 17 years who have been experiencing health services at least three times over the past year and a control group of 151 children who did not have this kind of experience...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Nitika Pradhan, Prakash Pradhan, Sanghamitra Pati, Rupenangshu K Hazra
A retrospective analysis of malaria incidence, patterns and trends in Bargarh, a western district of Odisha, India, over five consecutive years (2012 to 2016) among various socio-demographic components was established from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Bargarh, as well as from district survey reports. The increasing trend in malariometric indices such as the Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER), the Annual Parasite index (API) as well as the Total Positive Rate (TPR) reveals a better surveillance activity but an alarming situation for malaria...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Noora K Airaksinen, Ilona S Nurmi-Lüthje, J Matti Kataja, Heikki P J Kröger, Peter M J Lüthje
BACKGROUND: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. METHODS: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006...
March 3, 2018: Injury
Johan Vanderfaeillie, Karolien De Ruyck, Johan Galle, Erik Van Dooren, Chris Schotte
In 2015, 523 reports of suspected child abuse and neglect (CAN) were brought to the attention of the Confidential Center of Child Abuse and Neglect (CCCAN) of Brussels. Around 38% of these reports came from school personnel. This study investigated which factors affect the recognition of CAN by school personnel of Dutch-speaking primary education in Brussels and their intervention need. Two hundred seventy-nine staff members of 16 schools professionally working with children, filled in a Questionnaire Assessment of Situations of CAN...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
A F Crawshaw, H Kirkbride
Approximately 13% of the UK population in 2015 was born overseas. Most migrants have come to the UK to work or study although there has been a small increase in the number of asylum applications in the UK in recent years, reflective of the ongoing humanitarian situation across Europe. Migrants in the UK tend to be young and healthy, but some may face unique health needs as a result of their experiences before, during and after migration. For these needs to be appropriately recognised and addressed, evidence-based advice is needed for UK professionals...
March 7, 2018: Public Health
Vickie Hughes
Integrity is a highly desired leadership trait. Authentic leaders reflect on their behavior and seek feedback about how their actions affect others. How can a nurse develop as an authentic leader who consistently demonstrates integrity? The following are discussed: Reflection; Connection to Christ and others; Social and Emotional Intelligence providing perceptive competency and social awareness; Aesthetic Qualities whereby leaders apply experiential knowing in leadership situations; and effective expression of Gratitude as a meaningful act of valuing others...
April 2018: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
Christian E Vincenot
Progress in understanding and managing complex systems comprised of decision-making agents, such as cells, organisms, ecosystems or societies, is-like many scientific endeavours-limited by disciplinary boundaries. These boundaries, however, are moving and can actively be made porous or even disappear. To study this process, I advanced an original bibliometric approach based on network analysis to track and understand the development of the model-based science of agent-based complex systems (ACS). I analysed research citations between the two communities devoted to ACS research, namely agent-based (ABM) and individual-based modelling (IBM)...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Johannes Erhardt, Erwin Fuhrer, Oliver G Gruschke, Jochen Leupold, Matthias C Wapler, Jurgen Hennig, Thomas Stieglitz, Jan G Korvink
Patients suffering from neuronal degenerative diseases are increasingly being equipped with neural implants to treat symptoms or restore functions and increase their quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would be the modality of choice for diagnosis and compulsory post-operative monitoring of such patients. However, interactions between the MR environment and implants pose severe health risks to the patient. Nevertheless, neural implant recipients regularly underwent MRI examinations, and adverse events were reported rarely...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
C Bottger, L Bernard, V Briand, C Bougouma, J Triendebeogo, V Ridde
Background: In Africa, fever is the main reason for consultation, with malaria playing a prominent role. Studies have reported that the widespread use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, implemented since 2010, has revealed an increasing proportion of non-malaria acute febrile illnesses (NMAFI). It is an important public health issue because evidence shows that mortality is higher among patients presenting with non-malarial fever than among those with malaria. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the professional practices of healthcare providers in the management of NMAFI in urban and rural sites in Burkina Faso...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Allison M Cummins, Raechel Wight, Nicole Watts, Christine Catling
OBJECTIVE: first year midwifery students learn early in semester about situations in midwifery where a high level of emotion is expressed, such as taking a sexual history, being faced with the body image changes of pregnancy and working with women in the extreme pain of labour. Commencing students usually have not had exposure to the realities of studying and working in midwifery, and often have an idealised view of midwifery that may lead to attrition from the course. We aimed to equip students with personal and professional tools to discuss sensitive issues in midwifery and promote self-care through the development of two workshops...
February 15, 2018: Midwifery
Stephen Keddie, Ashok Adams, Andrew R C Kelso, Benjamin Turner, Klaus Schmierer, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Andrea Malaspina, Gavin Giovannoni, Ian Basnett, Alastair J Noyce
BACKGROUND: Whilst the dangers of 'legal highs' have been widely publicised in the media, very few cases of the neurological syndrome associated with the inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) have been reported. Here we set out to raise awareness of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord arising from recreational N2 O use so that formal surveillance programs and public health interventions can be designed. METHODS: Case series documenting the clinical and investigational features of ten consecutive cases of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord presenting to a hospital with a tertiary neurosciences service in East London...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Jasmin Dvorah Korbl, Benjamin Andrew Wood, Nathan Tobias Harvey
Certain diagnoses in dermatopathology have significant implications for patient management and on occasion appropriate clinical care may be facilitated by a phone call from the reporting dermatopathologist to the referring doctor. Whether this is appropriate depends on a number of factors. The concept of 'critical diagnoses' is now well established in surgical pathology, having evolved from critical value policies in clinical pathology and haematology. However, only limited attempts have been made to assess perceptions among different clinical groups...
February 26, 2018: Pathology
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