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latent autoimmune

Stefan Tukaj, Anna Görög, Konrad Kleszczyński, Detlef Zillikens, Sarolta Kárpáti, Michael Kasperkiewicz
Inflammation-induced heat shock proteins (HSPs) and hypovitaminosis D have been reported to impact immune responses and to be associated with autoimmune diseases including celiac disease (CD), a gluten-sensitive enteropathy mediated by autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Recently, we provided evidence for a role of autoantibodies to HSPs in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), an inflammatory skin disease induced by underlying latent CD. In this study, we aimed at investigating the humoral autoimmune response to HSPs and vitamin D status in CD patients (n=15) presenting without the cutaneous disease manifestation...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Katrina L Randall
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that depletes B cells from the circulation. It was originally used to treat lymphoma but is increasingly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Rituximab was found to be effective in randomised controlled trials for rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and other antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides. However, evidence of efficacy is very limited for many other autoimmune conditions. Before starting rituximab, it is important to check the patient's baseline immunoglobulins and immunisation status...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
L Duvnjak, K Blaslov, M Vučić Lovrenčić, J Knežević Ćuća
AIMS: We aimed to determine serum dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity in a group of persons with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and to compare it with persons with type 1, type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. METHODS: DPP-4 activity measurement was performed in 67 persons (21 with type 1, 26 type 2 and 19 with LADA) and 13 healthy age and gender matched controls. RESULTS: Persons with LADA showed highest DPP-4 activity among the study groups (32...
September 21, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Houssaine Ait Lhaj, Amine Benjelloun, Youssef Bouia, Youssef Bennouk, Yassine Mouzari, Youssef El Kamouni, Mohamed Kriet
BACKGROUND: Scleritis is a painful inflammatory process centered in the sclera that may involve the cornea and the underlying uvea. The etiology is commonly idiopathic or autoimmune but some cases are associated with systemic infection such as tuberculosis. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe an unusual case of a female Moroccan patient who had a long history of bilateral recurrent scleritis associated with peripheral keratopathy and anterior uveitis...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Emil Martinka, Mariana Rončáková, Michaela Mišániková, Arash Davani
BACKGROUND: It is not always easy to classify diabetes (DM) diagnosed in adults, with a significant group of patients initially classified and treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2T) presenting signs indicating the presence of autoimmune insulitis (AI), which is characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1T), or latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA). GOAL: Identify the proportion of patients entered with DM2T who present AI signs, and the number of patients of that proportion, who at the same time present low insulin secretion, and what clinical and laboratory manifestations could be used to differentiate between these patients...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Mats Martinell, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Jan Stålhammar, Petter Storm, Leif Groop, Carin Gustavsson
PURPOSE: To study prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) at diagnosis (DRAD) and to estimate contributing risk by sociodemographic, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics present in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA). METHODS: Patients (n=2174) recently diagnosed T2D (93%) or LADA (7%) were included upon arrival for their baseline DR screening. Fundus photographs of 4902 eyes were graded by a senior ophthalmologist according to the International Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Christoffer Polcwiartek, Torkel Vang, Christina Hedegård Bruhn, Nasseh Hashemi, Mary Rosenzweig, Jimmi Nielsen
RATIONALE: Patients exposed to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have approximately 10 times increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) compared with the general population. However, as DKA is a rare complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and susceptible patients exposed to antipsychotics may rapidly develop DKA independently of treatment duration and weight gain, this is rather suggestive of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review of current studies regarding antipsychotic-associated DKA with type 1 etiology and analyzed Danish adverse drug event (ADE) reports (previously unpublished cases)...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Nanette C Schloot, Minh N Pham, Mohammed I Hawa, Paolo Pozzilli, Werner A Scherbaum, Matthias Schott, Hubert Kolb, Steven Hunter, Guntram Schernthaner, Charles Thivolet, Jochen Seissler, Richard David Leslie
OBJECTIVE: We related organ-specific autoantibodies, including diabetes-associated autoantibodies (DAAs) and non-DAAs to systemic cytokines/chemokines in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From the European Action LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) cohort, patients with adult-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 80, of whom 50 had LADA and 30 had classic type 1 diabetes) and type 2 diabetes (n = 626) were analyzed for DAAs (GAD antibody [GADA], IA-2 antigen, islet cell antibody, and zinc transporter T8), non-DAAs (transglutaminase, thyroid peroxide autoantibodies, parietal cell antibodies), and 10 immune mediator concentrations (measured by LUMINEX)...
August 29, 2016: Diabetes Care
Attila A Seyhan, Yury O Nunez Lopez, Hui Xie, Fanchao Yi, Clayton Mathews, Magdalena Pasarica, Richard E Pratley
The clinical presentation of diabetes sometimes overlaps, contributing to ambiguity in the diagnosis. Thus, circulating pancreatic islet-enriched microRNAs (miRNAs) might be useful biomarkers of β-cell injury/dysfunction that would allow more accurate subtyping of diabetes. We measured plasma levels of selected miRNAs in subjects with prediabetes (n = 12), type 2 diabetes (T2D, n = 31), latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA, n = 6) and type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 16) and compared them to levels in healthy control subjects (n = 27)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martha Zewdie, Rawleigh Howe, Søren T Hoff, T Mark Doherty, Nahom Getachew, Azeb Tarekegne, Bamlak Tessema, Lawrence Yamuah, Abraham Aseffa, Markos Abebe
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg) are an essential arm of adaptive immunity not only in tolerance and autoimmunity but also in infectious diseases. In Tuberculosis (TB), it has been suggested that the frequency of Tregs is higher in the blood of TB patients when compared to healthy controls with subsequent decline after treatment. However, with the discovery that FOXP3, the hallmark marker of Tregs, is not exclusive to Tregs and the lack of specific markers for Tregs, it has been a challenge to fully understand the role of Tregs in TB...
September 2016: Tuberculosis
Hideharu Hagiya, Hisao Yoshida, Mikito Shimizu, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Tetsuya Iida, Norihisa Yamamoto, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazunori Tomono
Development of treatment with immunomodulatory agents has improved prognosis of various autoimmune-related diseases. A sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor modulator, or fingolimod, is the first licensed oral drug for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The agent reduces circulating lymphocytes by trapping T cells in lymph nodes, possibly leading to reactivation of latent viruses. A 41-year-old Japanese woman who had been treated with fingolimod for 2 years presented with unilateral sore throat. Laryngoscopy revealed exudates unilaterally emerging on the left side of her supraglottic region...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Philipp Roberts, Gerald A Fishman, Komal Joshi, Lee M Jampol
Importance: In recent years, the treatment of patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma has undergone substantial changes. Patients can now be offered treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are capable of increasing patient survival. However, these new treatments are associated with immune-related adverse effects that can involve different organ systems, including the eye. Observations: We describe the case of a patient who received a diagnosis of metastatic cutaneous melanoma and developed melanoma-associated retinopathy with unanticipated fundus findings while receiving treatment with the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Dürdal Us
Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial proteins produced by various microorganisms that elicit excessive and strong stimulation of T cells via an unconventional mechanism. They cause polyclonal activation of T cells in a non-specific manner, by binding to a particular variable-beta (Vβ) chain of T-cell receptor (TCR) and MHC class II molecule, in unprocessed form and outside of peptide-binding cleft, forming a bridge between the antigen presenting cell and the T cell. SAgs are classified into three groups, namely 1) exogenous (soluble proteins and exotoxins secreted by microorganisms), 2) endogenous (transmembrane proteins encoded by viruses which are integrated into the genome) and 3) B-cell SAgs (proteins which stimulate predominantly B cells)...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Chrysoula Rizava, Eleni Bekiari, Aris Liakos, Maria Sarigianni, Maria Rika, Anna Bettina Haidich, Asimina Galli-Tsinopoulou, Apostolos Tsapas
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of antigen-based immunotherapies in tertiary prevention of autoimmune diabetes. We searched for randomised controlled trials testing antigen-based immunotherapies in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults in MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases, trial registries, conference proceedings and reference lists of pertinent records. Primary outcomes were fasting and stimulated C-peptide (after glucagon or mixed meal stimulation)...
July 29, 2016: Endocrine
Jakob Appel Østergaard, Esben Laugesen, R David Leslie
Autoimmune diabetes has a heterogeneous phenotype. Although often considered a condition starting in childhood, a substantial proportion of type 1 diabetes presents in adult life. This holds important implications for our understanding of the factors that modify the rate of progression through the disease prodrome to clinical diabetes and for our management of the disease. When autoimmune diabetes develops in adulthood, insulin treatment is often not required at the time of diagnosis, and this autoimmune non-insulin requiring diabetes is generally termed latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)...
September 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Nawid M Sarwari, Joseph D Khoury, Cristhiam M Rojas Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Chronic Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection in an immunocompetent host has been described however it is not a common entity. It has been linked to many lymphoproliferative disorders and achieves such via many molecular mechanisms, some of which are poorly understood. In addition to infectious mononucleosis, the EBV is linked to various other hematological pathologies and autoimmune disorders. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of an elderly immunocompetent female who presented with non-specific symptomatology, lymphadenopathy, cytopenias, elevated autoantibody titers and a crescent EBV viral load that were suggestive of a multisystemic inflammatory disease related to EBV...
2016: BMC Hematology
Jean-Marie Berthelot, Benoit Le Goff, Antoine Neel, Yves Maugars, Mohamed Hamidou
Suicidal NETosis differs from other mechanisms of cell death by the release of a lattice, composed of DNA associated with proteins citrullinated by protein-arginine deiminase 4, from neutrophils. These 'NETs' are composed of granule-derived proteins with microbicidal activity. A similar type of release occurs during vital NETosis, in which anuclear neutrophils maintain their chemotactic ability and imprison live bacteria, even after NET extrusion. Mitochondrial NETosis is limited to the expulsion of oxidised mitochondrial DNA and cytoplasmic enzymes...
July 14, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Sayyedeh Rahmaneh Atyabi, Majid Bouzari, Mohammad Taghi Kardi
In healthy individuals John Cunningham virus is latent without any clinical signs, but in the cases of the use of immunosuppressive drugs in graft recipients, autoimmune diseases and also increasing of age, that the immune system is suppressed it may cause disease in reactivation. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the well-known disease caused by the virus. It has also been associated with nephropathy and tumorogensis. At present, based on vp1 capsid gene 7 genotypes have been detected. Genetic variations of JC virus in different geographical areas and the presence of different subtypes is a useful tool for reconstructing of the genetic information of JC virus and understanding of its evolution...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Hala Hussein, Fidaa Ibrahim, Eugène Sobngwi, Jean François Gautier, Philippe Boudou
OBJECTIVES: Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) is specifically expressed in the pancreatic β-cell and is more restricted in its tissue distribution than other auto-antigens as glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA2). ZnT8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A) assessment allows identifying rapid progression to clinical onset of the disease. We evaluated the prevalence of ZnT8A in adults of different ethnic and phenotypic groups and analyzed its potential utility as additional marker of autoimmunity in daily practice...
June 27, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
M Radenkovic, C Silver, J Arvastsson, K Lynch, Å Lernmark, R A Harris, C-D Agardh, C M Cilio
Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA) accounts for up to 12% of all patients with diabetes. Initially the disease resembles type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the typical presence of β cell autoantibodies indicates an autoimmune basis of LADA. While dysfunctional regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been implicated in autoimmune diabetes, these cells have been scarcely studied in LADA. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and phenotype of circulating Tregs in LADA patients early during disease progression...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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