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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621918/analyzing-research-trends-on-drug-safety-using-topic-modeling
#1
Chen Zou
Published drug safety data has evolved in the past decade due to scientific and technological advances in the relevant research fields. Considering that a vast amount of scientific literature has been published in this area, it is not easy to identify the key information. Topic modeling has emerged as a powerful tool to extract meaningful information from a large volume of unstructured texts. Areas covered: We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 4347 articles in four journals dedicated to drug safety from 2007 to 2016...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619531/autoantibodies-to-n-terminally-truncated-gad-improve-clinical-phenotyping-of-individuals-with-adult-onset-diabetes-action-lada-12
#2
Peter Achenbach, Mohammed I Hawa, Stephanie Krause, Vito Lampasona, Samuel T Jerram, Alistair J K Williams, Ezio Bonifacio, Anette G Ziegler, R David Leslie
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Adult-onset type 1 diabetes, in which the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) is a major autoantigen, has a broad clinical phenotype encompassing variable need for insulin therapy. This study aimed to evaluate whether autoantibodies against N-terminally truncated GAD65 more closely defined a type 1 diabetes phenotype associated with insulin therapy. METHODS: Of 1114 participants with adult-onset diabetes from the Action LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) study with sufficient sera, we selected those designated type 1 (n = 511) or type 2 diabetes (n = 603) and retested the samples in radiobinding assays for human full-length GAD65 autoantibodies (f-GADA) and N-terminally truncated (amino acids 96-585) GAD65 autoantibodies (t-GADA)...
April 4, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618665/b-lymphocytes-confer-immune-tolerance-via-cell-surface-garp-tgf-%C3%AE-complex
#3
Caroline H Wallace, Bill X Wu, Mohammad Salem, Ephraim A Ansa-Addo, Alessandra Metelli, Shaoli Sun, Gary Gilkeson, Mark J Shlomchik, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
GARP, a cell surface docking receptor for binding and activating latent TGF-β, is highly expressed by platelets and activated Tregs. While GARP is implicated in immune invasion in cancer, the roles of the GARP-TGF-β axis in systemic autoimmune diseases are unknown. Although B cells do not express GARP at baseline, we found that the GARP-TGF-β complex is induced on activated human and mouse B cells by ligands for multiple TLRs, including TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9. GARP overexpression on B cells inhibited their proliferation, induced IgA class-switching, and dampened T cell-independent antibody production...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615102/a-case-report-of-nifedipine-induced-hepatitis-with-jaundice
#4
Dimas Yusuf, Joanna Christy, David Owen, Meghan Ho, David Li, Martin J Fishman
BACKGROUND: Nifedipine is a generic, well-known and commonly-prescribed dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and Prinzmetal's angina. A known but very rare and serious adverse effect of nifedipine is clinically-apparent hepatitis which can take months to resolve. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a case of nifedipine-induced hepatitis in a 78-year-old Caucasian female with no prior history of liver or autoimmune disease...
April 3, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596402/prevalence-of-diagnosed-diabetes-in-adults-by-diabetes-type-united-states-2016
#5
Kai McKeever Bullard, Catherine C Cowie, Sarah E Lessem, Sharon H Saydah, Andy Menke, Linda S Geiss, Trevor J Orchard, Deborah B Rolka, Giuseppina Imperatore
Currently 23 million U.S. adults have been diagnosed with diabetes (1). The two most common forms of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of the pancreas's beta cells, which produce insulin. Persons with type 1 diabetes require insulin for survival; insulin may be given as a daily shot or continuously with an insulin pump (2). Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by a combination of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency (3). A small proportion of diabetes cases might be types other than type 1 or type 2, such as maturity-onset diabetes of the young or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (3)...
March 30, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589073/overweight-obesity-and-the-risk-of-lada-results-from-a-swedish-case-control-study-and-the-norwegian-hunt-study
#6
Rebecka Hjort, Emma Ahlqvist, Per-Ola Carlsson, Valdemar Grill, Leif Groop, Mats Martinell, Bahareh Rasouli, Anders Rosengren, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Sofia Carlsson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Excessive weight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but its role in the promotion of autoimmune diabetes is not clear. We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) in relation to overweight/obesity in two large population-based studies. METHODS: Analyses were based on incident cases of LADA (n = 425) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1420), and 1704 randomly selected control participants from a Swedish case-control study and prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT Study including 147 people with LADA and 1,012,957 person-years of follow-up (1984-2008)...
March 27, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568115/the-long-and-latent-road-to-autoimmunity
#7
EDITORIAL
Carlo Selmi, Bin Gao, M Eric Gershwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518492/lower-mortality-and-cardiovascular-event-rates-in-patients-with-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-lada-as-compared-with-type-2-diabetes-and-insulin-deficient-diabetes-a-cohort-study-of-4-368-patients
#8
Mette Wod, Reimar W Thomsen, Lars Pedersen, Knud B Yderstraede, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Kurt Højlund
BACKGROUND: Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is the second most common form of diabetes, but data on its clinical course and prognosis are scarce. We compared long-term risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with LADA, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and insulin deficient diabetes (IDD). METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 4,368 adults with diabetes referred to the Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, between 1997 and 2012...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512259/the-prevalence-of-diabetes-in-australia-insights-from-the-fremantle-diabetes-study-phase-ii
#9
Wendy A Davis, Kirsten E Peters, Ashley Makepeace, Shaye Griffiths, Christine Bundell, Struan F A Grant, Sian Ellard, Andrew T Hattersley, S A Paul Chubb, David G Bruce, Timothy Me Davis
BACKGROUND: Accurate diabetes prevalence estimates are important for health service planning and prioritisation. Available data have limitations, suggesting that the contemporary burden of diabetes in Australia is best assessed from multiple sources. AIMS: To use systematic active detection of diabetes cases in a postcode-defined urban area through the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2) to complement other epidemiological and survey data in estimating the national prevalence of diabetes and its types...
March 7, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506222/serum-sclerostin-and-bone-turnover-in-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults
#10
Nicola Napoli, Rocky Strollo, Giuseppe Defeudis, Gaetano Leto, Chiara Moretti, Simona Zampetti, Luca D'Onofrio, Giuseppe Campagna, Andrea Palermo, Valentina Greto, Silvia Manfrini, Mohammed I Hawa, R David Leslie, Paolo Pozzilli, Raffaella Buzzetti
Purpose: Bone formation is impaired in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T2D) while sclerostin, an antagonist of bone formation, is increased in T2D only. No data are available on latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), an autoimmune type of diabetes that may clinically resemble T2D at diagnosis. We evaluated serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in LADA compared with T2D, and whether sclerostin is affected by metabolic syndrome (MetS) in T2D or LADA. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 98 T2D and 89 LADA patients from the Action LADA and NIRAD cohorts...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487566/islet-cell-associated-autoantibodies-and-c-peptide-levels-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-symptoms-of-gastroparesis
#11
Elias S Siraj, Carol Homko, Laura A Wilson, Patrick May, Ajay D Rao, Jorge Calles, Gianrico Farrugia, William L Hasler, Kenneth L Koch, Linda Nguyen, William J Snape, Thomas L Abell, Irene Sarosiek, Richard W McCallum, Pankaj J Pasricha, John Clarke, James Tonascia, Frank Hamilton, Henry P Parkman
Introduction: Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for complications, including gastroparesis. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder resulting in decreased beta-cell function. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 antibody (GADA) is the most commonly used test to assess autoimmunity while C-peptide level is used to assess beta-cell function. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who are GADA positive, are labeled latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476184/natural-variation-in-the-parameters-of-innate-immune-cells-is-preferentially-driven-by-genetic-factors
#12
Etienne Patin, Milena Hasan, Jacob Bergstedt, Vincent Rouilly, Valentina Libri, Alejandra Urrutia, Cécile Alanio, Petar Scepanovic, Christian Hammer, Friederike Jönsson, Benoît Beitz, Hélène Quach, Yoong Wearn Lim, Julie Hunkapiller, Magge Zepeda, Cherie Green, Barbara Piasecka, Claire Leloup, Lars Rogge, François Huetz, Isabelle Peguillet, Olivier Lantz, Magnus Fontes, James P Santo, Stéphanie Thomas, Jacques Fellay, Darragh Duffy, Lluís Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert
The quantification and characterization of circulating immune cells provide key indicators of human health and disease. To identify the relative effects of environmental and genetic factors on variation in the parameters of innate and adaptive immune cells in homeostatic conditions, we combined standardized flow cytometry of blood leukocytes and genome-wide DNA genotyping of 1,000 healthy, unrelated people of Western European ancestry. We found that smoking, together with age, sex and latent infection with cytomegalovirus, were the main non-genetic factors that affected variation in parameters of human immune cells...
February 23, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462840/a-bayesian-semiparametric-markov-regression-model-for-juvenile-dermatomyositis
#13
Maria De Iorio, Natacha Gallot, Beatriz Valcarcel, Lucy Wedderburn
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare autoimmune disease that may lead to serious complications, even to death. We develop a 2-state Markov regression model in a Bayesian framework to characterise disease progression in JDM over time and gain a better understanding of the factors influencing disease risk. The transition probabilities between disease and remission state (and vice versa) are a function of time-homogeneous and time-varying covariates. These latter types of covariates are introduced in the model through a latent health state function, which describes patient-specific health over time and accounts for variability among patients...
February 20, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452961/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-dpp-4i-combined-with-vitamin-d3-an-exploration-to-treat-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-the-future
#14
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Felipe Moura Maia Pinheiro, Maria Luisa Trabachin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells through cell injury caused primarily by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 + ). The pathophysiological basis of T1DM seems to be an imbalance between a reduced function of T regulatory lymphocytes and an increased inflammatory activity of Th17 lymphocytes caused by increased production of inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-gamma due to environmental factors and genetic predisposition...
February 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377522/dulaglutide-treatment-results-in-effective-glycemic-control-in-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-lada-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-award-2-4-and-5-trials
#15
Paolo Pozzilli, Richard D Leslie, Anne L Peters, Raffaella Buzzetti, Sudha S Shankar, Zvonko Milicevic, Imre Pavo, Jeremie Lebrec, Sherry Martin, Nanette C Schloot
AIMS: Patients with a type-2-diabetes (T2D) phenotype positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) represent the majority of latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). The GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide, recently introduced for treatment of T2D, has yet to be evaluated in LADA patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of dulaglutide on glycemic control (HbA1c ) in GADA-positive LADA vs. GADA-negative T2D patients. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was performed using data from three randomized phase 3 trials (AWARD-2,-4,-5; patients with GADA assessment) which were part of the dulaglutide clinical development program in T2D...
January 27, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367719/the-cytomegalovirus-protein-us31-induces-inflammation-through-mono-macrophages-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-promoting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb2-activation
#16
Gangqiang Guo, Sisi Ye, Shangdan Xie, Lele Ye, Cong Lin, Min Yang, Xinyu Shi, Fangyan Wang, Baoqing Li, Ming Li, Chaosheng Chen, Lifang Zhang, Huidi Zhang, Xiangyang Xue
It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, especially in monocyte and CD34 (+) myeloid cells, acts as a important regulator of immune system to promote inflammation in multiple autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the HCMV gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients and demonstrate the effect and mechanism of viral gene associated with SLE in mono-macrophages functions. Using two RNA-Seq techniques in combination with RT-PCR, 11 viral genes mainly associated with latent HCMV infection were identified in the PBMCs of SLE patients...
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358494/low-grade-inflammatory-marker-profile-may-help-to-differentiate-patients-with-lada-classic-adult-onset-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Esmeralda Castelblanco, Marta Hernández, Andrea Castelblanco, Mònica Gratacòs, Aureli Esquerda, Àngels Molló, Anna Ramírez-Morros, Jordi Real, Josep Franch-Nadal, José-Manuel Fernández-Real, Dídac Mauricio
OBJECTIVE: To test whether differences in serum concentrations of adiposity-related low-grade inflammatory mediators could help to differentiate patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), classic adult-onset type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 75 patients with LADA, 67 with classic adult-onset type 1 diabetes, and 390 with type 2 diabetes. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (sTNFRII), interleukin-6, hs-CRP, and total leukocyte number were measured...
January 22, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245940/mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-t-cell-activation-by-releasing-tgf-%C3%AE-1-from-tgf-%C3%AE-1-garp-complex
#18
Jian Niu, Wang Yue, Zhu Le-Le, Liu Bin, Xin Hu
Intervention with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reveals a promising therapeutic tool to treat transplantation and autoimmune disease due to their immunoregulation capability. But the mechanisms of action are not fully investigated yet. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibit multiple effects in migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation of MSCs. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) is an important marker of activated Treg (regulatory T cells). GARP binds latent TGF-β1 to regulate its activation, which is the indispensable step in Treg suppressing effector T cells...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221139/epstein-barr-virus-in-tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-of-myasthenia-gravis-thymoma-an-innocent-bystander-or-an-autoimmunity-mediator
#19
Paola Cavalcante, Stefania Marcuzzo, Sara Franzi, Barbara Galbardi, Lorenzo Maggi, Teresio Motta, Raffaella Ghislandi, Antonella Buzzi, Luisella Spinelli, Lorenzo Novellino, Fulvio Baggi, Carlo Antozzi, Fabio Conforti, Tommaso Martino De Pas, Massimo Barberis, Pia Bernasconi, Renato Mantegazza
The thymus plays a key role in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B cell-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction. Most MG patients have thymic abnormalities, including hyperplasia and thymoma, a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with autoimmune diseases and tumors. Recently, we showed EBV persistence and reactivation in hyperplastic MG thymuses, suggesting that EBV might contribute to intra-thymic B cell dysregulation in MG patients. Here, we investigated EBV involvement in thymoma-associated MG, by searching for EBV markers in MG (n=26) and non-MG (n=14) thymomas...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220505/metabolic-characteristics-of-recently-diagnosed-adult-onset-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Oana P Zaharia, Pavel Bobrov, Klaus Strassburger, Kálmán Bódis, Yanislava Karusheva, Michaela Scholz, Daniel F Markgraf, Volker Burkart, Nanette C Schloot, Karsten Müssig, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
Context and Objective: Among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diabetes often remains undetected. Metabolic features of these patients are insufficiently characterized at present. Design, Setting, and Patients: This study compared age- and sex-matched adult (aged 41 to 62 years) humans with recent-onset diabetes: patients positive for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and/or cytoplasmic islet-cell antigen with an insulin-free period of >6 months [antibody positive/insulin negative (ab+/ins-); previously termed latent autoimmune diabetes of adults], type 1 diabetes [antibody positive/insulin positive (ab+/ins+)], and type 2 diabetes [antibody negative/insulin negative (ab-/ins-)], as well as glucose-tolerant humans (controls) of the German Diabetes Study (n = 41/group)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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