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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452961/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-dpp-4i-combined-with-vitamin-d3-an-exploration-to-treat-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-the-future
#1
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Felipe Moura Maia Pinheiro, Maria Luisa Trabachin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells through cell injury caused primarily by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 + ). The pathophysiological basis of T1DM seems to be an imbalance between a reduced function of T regulatory lymphocytes and an increased inflammatory activity of Th17 lymphocytes caused by increased production of inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-gamma due to environmental factors and genetic predisposition...
February 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377522/dulaglutide-treatment-results-in-effective-glycemic-control-in-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-lada-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-award-2-4-and-5-trials
#2
Paolo Pozzilli, Richard D Leslie, Anne L Peters, Raffaella Buzzetti, Sudha S Shankar, Zvonko Milicevic, Imre Pavo, Jeremie Lebrec, Sherry Martin, Nanette C Schloot
AIMS: Patients with a type-2-diabetes (T2D) phenotype positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) represent the majority of latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). The GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide, recently introduced for treatment of T2D, has yet to be evaluated in LADA patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of dulaglutide on glycemic control (HbA1c ) in GADA-positive LADA vs. GADA-negative T2D patients. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was performed using data from three randomized phase 3 trials (AWARD-2,-4,-5; patients with GADA assessment) which were part of the dulaglutide clinical development program in T2D...
January 27, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367719/the-cytomegalovirus-protein-us31-induces-inflammation-through-mono-macrophages-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-promoting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb2-activation
#3
Gangqiang Guo, Sisi Ye, Shangdan Xie, Lele Ye, Cong Lin, Min Yang, Xinyu Shi, Fangyan Wang, Baoqing Li, Ming Li, Chaosheng Chen, Lifang Zhang, Huidi Zhang, Xiangyang Xue
It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, especially in monocyte and CD34 (+) myeloid cells, acts as a important regulator of immune system to promote inflammation in multiple autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the HCMV gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients and demonstrate the effect and mechanism of viral gene associated with SLE in mono-macrophages functions. Using two RNA-Seq techniques in combination with RT-PCR, 11 viral genes mainly associated with latent HCMV infection were identified in the PBMCs of SLE patients...
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358494/low-grade-inflammatory-marker-profile-may-help-to-differentiate-patients-with-lada-classic-adult-onset-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
Esmeralda Castelblanco, Marta Hernández, Andrea Castelblanco, Mònica Gratacòs, Aureli Esquerda, Àngels Molló, Anna Ramírez-Morros, Jordi Real, Josep Franch-Nadal, José-Manuel Fernández-Real, Dídac Mauricio
OBJECTIVE: To test whether differences in serum concentrations of adiposity-related low-grade inflammatory mediators could help to differentiate patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), classic adult-onset type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 75 patients with LADA, 67 with classic adult-onset type 1 diabetes, and 390 with type 2 diabetes. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (sTNFRII), interleukin-6, hs-CRP, and total leukocyte number were measured...
January 22, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245940/mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-t-cell-activation-by-releasing-tgf-%C3%AE-1-from-tgf-%C3%AE-1-garp-complex
#5
Jian Niu, Wang Yue, Zhu Le-Le, Liu Bin, Xin Hu
Intervention with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reveals a promising therapeutic tool to treat transplantation and autoimmune disease due to their immunoregulation capability. But the mechanisms of action are not fully investigated yet. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibit multiple effects in migration, differentiation, and immunomodulation of MSCs. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) is an important marker of activated Treg (regulatory T cells). GARP binds latent TGF-β1 to regulate its activation, which is the indispensable step in Treg suppressing effector T cells...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221139/epstein-barr-virus-in-tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-of-myasthenia-gravis-thymoma-an-innocent-bystander-or-an-autoimmunity-mediator
#6
Paola Cavalcante, Stefania Marcuzzo, Sara Franzi, Barbara Galbardi, Lorenzo Maggi, Teresio Motta, Raffaella Ghislandi, Antonella Buzzi, Luisella Spinelli, Lorenzo Novellino, Fulvio Baggi, Carlo Antozzi, Fabio Conforti, Tommaso Martino De Pas, Massimo Barberis, Pia Bernasconi, Renato Mantegazza
The thymus plays a key role in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B cell-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction. Most MG patients have thymic abnormalities, including hyperplasia and thymoma, a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with autoimmune diseases and tumors. Recently, we showed EBV persistence and reactivation in hyperplastic MG thymuses, suggesting that EBV might contribute to intra-thymic B cell dysregulation in MG patients. Here, we investigated EBV involvement in thymoma-associated MG, by searching for EBV markers in MG (n=26) and non-MG (n=14) thymomas...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220505/metabolic-characteristics-of-recently-diagnosed-adult-onset-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Oana P Zaharia, Pavel Bobrov, Klaus Strassburger, Kálmán Bódis, Yanislava Karusheva, Michaela Scholz, Daniel F Markgraf, Volker Burkart, Nanette C Schloot, Karsten Müssig, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
Context and Objective: Among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diabetes often remains undetected. Metabolic features of these patients are insufficiently characterized at present. Design, Setting and Patients: This study compared age- and sex-matched adult (41-62 years) humans with recent-onset diabetes: patients positive for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and/or cytoplasmic islet-cell antigen with an insulin-free period of >6 months (ab+/ins-; previously termed latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, LADA), type 1 (ab+/ins+), type 2 diabetes (ab-/ins-) and glucose-tolerant humans (controls) of the German Diabetes Study (n=41/group)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218028/the-folate-cycle-as-a-cause-of-natural-killer-cell-dysfunction-and-viral-etiology-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Allison L Bayer, Christopher A Fraker
The folate pathway is critical to proper cellular function and metabolism. It is responsible for multiple functions, including energy (ATP) production, methylation reactions for DNA and protein synthesis and the production of immunomodulatory molecules, inosine and adenosine. These play an important role in immune signaling and cytotoxicity. Herein, we hypothesize that defects in the folate pathway in genetically susceptible individuals could lead to immune dysfunction, permissive environments for chronic cyclical latent/lytic viral infection, and, ultimately, the development of unchecked autoimmune responses to infected tissue, in this case islet beta cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217651/interleukin-18-serum-level-is-elevated-in-type-2-diabetes-and-latent-autoimmune-diabetes
#9
Emanuela Zaharieva, Zdravko Kamenov, Tsvetelina Velikova, Adelina Tsakova, Yosif El-Darawish, Haruki Okamura
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammatory cytokine found to be elevated in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a part of the chronic low-grade inflammatory process in these states. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interleukin level in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of the adults (LADA) in comparison to that in T2D subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IL-18 was analyzed through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in 76 participants with T2D and 24 with LADA and 14 control subjects...
December 7, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214049/latent-autoimmune-diabetes-of-adulthood-case-report
#10
Cristen P Page, Brian Fitzgerald, Emily M Hawes
Background: Primary care clinicians will see a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in adult patients, and the diagnosis and management of an initial presentation of type 1 diabetes can pose challenges to clinicians who see it less frequently. Symptoms of hyperglycemia and risk of ketoacidosis may be missed. Further, endocrine autoimmune disease can run together in patients and families. Case presentation: A 49-year-old Caucasian female with history of pituitary adenoma and Graves' disease with history of thyroid ablation presented in the outpatient setting due to hand tingling of her right middle finger that was worse in the mornings and improved throughout the day...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203948/optimal-detection-of-weak-positive-latent-dependence-between-two-sequences-of-multiple-tests
#11
Sihai Dave Zhao, T Tony Cai, Hongzhe Li
It is frequently of interest to jointly analyze two paired sequences of multiple tests. This paper studies the problem of detecting whether there are more pairs of tests that are significant in both sequences than would be expected by chance. The asymptotic detection boundary is derived in terms of parameters such as the sparsity of non-null cases in each sequence, the effect sizes of the signals, and the magnitude of the dependence between the two sequences. A new test for detecting weak dependence is also proposed, shown to be asymptotically adaptively optimal, studied in simulations, and applied to study genetic pleiotropy in 10 pediatric autoimmune diseases...
August 2017: Journal of Multivariate Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193951/-disseminated-tuberculosis-in-a-patient-with-overlap-syndrome-challenges-in-preventing
#12
Sergio García-Méndez, Lamberto Miguel Caballero-Zavala, Imelda García-Olivera, Fortunato Vásquez-Manuel, Gerardo Pérez-Bustamante, Fabián Tafoya-Ramírez
Patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases are at increased risk for developing infections and these are associated with increased morbidity and mortality from these diseases, especially in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis and autoimmune inflammatory myopathies. The objective of this paper is to address the challenges in detecting latent tuberculosis in immunosuppressed patients and the initiation of prophylactic treatment because currently there are no well-defined guidelines indicating what action to take for detection and treatment; so far the available scientific evidence is scarce and some methodological shortcomings...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183861/bilateral-striopallidodentate-calcinosis-associated-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-and-igd%C3%AE-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance
#13
Taro Horino, Tatsuki Matsumoto, Kosuke Inoue, Osamu Ichii, Yoshio Terada
We presented the first case of bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis secondary to Sjögren's syndrome. Further consideration should be given to the association between Sjögren's syndrome and bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis, because Sjögren's syndrome is latent, but more frequent than other autoimmune diseases.
November 25, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177692/dermatological-complications-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Luigi Naldi, Anna Venturuzzo, Pietro Invernizzi
Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are a population at high risk for cutaneous adverse events. Their early recognition and appropriate treatment is an important component of the clinical management of OTRs and should be optimally dealt with by dermatologists working in the context of a transplant dermatology clinic. Skin examination should be a standard procedure before performing organ transplantation to assess conditions which may be difficult to manage after the transplant procedure has been performed or which may represent a contraindication to transplantation, e...
November 25, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154389/latent-autoimmune-diabetes-and-limbic-encephalitis-with-antibodies-against-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase
#15
Stoyan Popkirov, Seena Sebastian, Fatme Seval Ismail, Jörg Wellmer
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are a hallmark of type 1 diabetes and its late-onset variant, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA).(1) While cerebrovascular disease and dementia are common causes of cognitive dysfunction and neurological deficits in diabetic patients,(2,3) rare autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system such as stiff-person syndrom or limbic encephalits can also occur on the basis of shared GAD autoimmunity.(4,5).
November 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120577/epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#16
Awatef M Awwad, Nesrine F Hanafi, Ghada A Achmawi, Amira M Naguib
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory autoimmune CNS disease, with unknown etiology. We aimed to determine the coexistence of MS with antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus and its gene sequences (EBNA1 and BHRF1). The study included 60 MS patients and 60 control subjects. Serum samples were processed by ELISA for detection of EBV antibodies, and latent EBV genes were determined by Real Time PCR in blood samples. While 18 (30%) MS cases had anti- EBV IgM antibodies, all controls were free. For IgG, no difference was noted (cases 96...
January 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113292/nod-mice-susceptible-to-pancreatic-autoimmunity-demonstrate-delayed-growth-of-pancreatic-cancer
#17
James Dooley, Emanuela Pasciuto, Vasiliki Lagou, Yulia Lampi, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich, Adrian Liston
Pancreatic cancer is a high mortality form of cancer, with a median survival only six months. There are multiple associated risk factors associated, most importantly type 2 diabetes, obesity, pancreatitis and smoking. The relative rarity of the disease, however, has made it difficult to dissect causative risk factors, especially with related risk factors. A major unanswered question with important therapeutic implications is the effect of immunological responses on pancreatic cancer formation, with data from other cancers suggesting the potential for local immunological responses to either increase cancer development or increase cancer elimination...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093087/early-ebv-genomic-diversity-and-convergence-towards-the-b95-8-genome-in-primary-infection
#18
Eric R Weiss, Susanna L Lamers, Jennifer L Henderson, Alexandre Melnikov, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa Selin, Chad Nusbaum, Katherine Luzuriaga
Over 90% of the world's population is persistently infected with Epstein-Barr virus. While EBV does not cause disease in most individuals, it is the common cause of acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM), has been associated with several cancers and autoimmune diseases, highlighting a need for a preventive vaccine. At present, very few primary, circulating EBV genomes have been sequenced directly from infected individuals. While low levels of diversity and viral evolution rates have been predicted for dsDNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated appreciable diversity in common dsDNA pathogens (e...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090023/a-human-stool-derived-bilophila-wadsworthia-strain-caused-systemic-inflammation-in-specific-pathogen-free-mice
#19
Zhou Feng, Wenmin Long, Binhan Hao, Ding Ding, Xiaoqing Ma, Liping Zhao, Xiaoyan Pang
BACKGROUND: Bilophila wadsworthia is a major member of sulfidogenic bacteria in human gut, it was originally recovered from different clinical specimens of intra-abdominal infections and recently was reported potentially linked to different chronic metabolic disorders. However, there is still insufficient understanding on its detailed function and mechanism to date. METHODS: A B. wadsworthia strain was isolated from fresh feces of a latent autoimmune diabetes in adults patient and we investigated its pathogenicity by oral administration to specific-pathogen-free mice...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073308/15-year-old-girl-with-aps-type-iiic-12-months-post-thymectomy-remission-of-myasthenia
#20
Milena Jamiołkowska, Artur Bossowski
Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) is a group of heterogenous conditions characterized by the association of at least two organ-specific autoimmune disorders, concerning both endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Type III is defined as the combination of autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune condition (other than Addison's disease) and is divided into four subtypes. We describe a teenage female patient - with the family history of autoimmune diseases, who has simultaneously developed the symptoms of autoimmune thyroid disease with the clinical picture of hyperthyroidism and myasthenia gravis at the age of fifteen...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
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