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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020651/is-negative-self-referent-bias-an-endophenotype-for-depression-an-fmri-study-of-emotional-self-referent-words-in-twins-at-high-vs-low-risk-of-depression
#1
K W Miskowiak, J E Larsen, C J Harmer, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, J Macoveanu, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow-up cohort study...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992894/chronic-prostatitis-and-comorbid-non-urological-overlapping-pain-conditions-a-co-twin-control-study
#2
Marianna Gasperi, John N Krieger, Christopher Forsberg, Jack Goldberg, Dedra Buchwald, Niloofar Afari
OBJECTIVES: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is characterized by pain and voiding symptoms in the absence of an obvious infection or other cause. CP/CPPS frequently occurs with non-urological chronic overlapping pain conditions (COPCs) of unknown etiology. We conducted a co-twin control study in men discordant for chronic prostatitis (CP), an overarching diagnosis of which approximately 90% is CP/CPPS. The primary aim was to investigate the contribution of familial factors, including shared genetic and common environmental factors, to the comorbidity of CP and COPCs...
November 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985290/shared-genetic-influence-on-frailty-and-chronic-widespread-pain-a-study-from-twinsuk
#3
Gregory Livshits, Mary Ni Lochlainn, Ida Malkin, Ruth Bowyer, Serena Verdi, Claire J Steves, Frances M K Williams
Introduction: frailty is an increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes, across multiple physiological systems, with both environmental and genetic drivers. The two most commonly used measures are Rockwood's frailty index (FI) and Fried's frailty phenotype (FP). Material and methods: the present study included 3626 individuals from the TwinsUK Adult Twin Registry. We used the classical twin model to determine whether FI and FP share the same latent aetiological factors...
July 7, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977668/sleep-duration-mortality-and-heredity-a-prospective-twin-study
#4
Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Jurgita Narusyte, Kristina Alexanderson, Pia Svedberg
Introduction: A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. Methods: We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. Results: A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1...
July 29, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975873/associations-between-asthma-and-sensitization-to-pet-or-pollen-allergens-in-young-swedish-twins-the-stoppa-study
#5
Cecilia Lindemalm, Björn Nordlund, Anne K Örtqvist, Cecilia Lundholm, Marianne van Hage, Tong Gong, Catarina Almqvist
BACKGROUND: An association between childhood asthma and IgE sensitization has been established, but our understanding of the genetic and environmental contribution to it is incomplete. Our aim was to estimate the associations and dose-response relationship between asthma and sensitization to airborne allergens in Swedish 9- to 14-year-old twins. Additionally, we aimed to explore the importance of familial confounding from shared genes and environment using co-twin controls. METHODS: In the STOPPA cohort, 752 same-sex twin children were screened with Phadiatop® (Thermo Fisher Scientific; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden); if positive further analysis of IgE antibodies to airborne allergens of pets (cat, horse, dog), pollens (birch, timothy, mugwort), mites, and mold were performed...
October 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965437/midtrimester-isolated-oligohydramnios-in-monochorionic-diamniotic-multiple-gestations
#6
Andrew H Chon, Lisa M Korst, Ryan D Assaf, Arlyn Llanes, Joseph G Ouzounian, Ramen H Chmait
OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history and perinatal outcomes of monochorionic diamniotic twins with midtrimester isolated oligohydramnios (iOligo). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of iOligo patients who were initially referred for the management of evolving twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) or selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR). iOligo was defined as a maximum vertical pocket of amniotic fluid of ≤ 2 cm in the iOligo twin's sac and normal fluid level (> 2 and < 8 cm) in the co-twin's sac...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942204/can-flow-experiences-be-protective-of-work-related-depressive-symptoms-and-burnout-a-genetically-informative-approach
#7
Miriam A Mosing, Ana Butkovic, Fredrik Ullén
BACKGROUND: Genetic research on depression and burnout has focused mostly on adverse factors, although various aspects in daily life related to positive coping and well-being have been shown to potentially be protective. Using a large genetically informative sample, we aim to explore the potential relationship between flow proneness and work-related depressive symptoms and burnout. METHODS: About 10,000 Swedish twins filled in the Swedish Flow Proneness Questionnaire, a subscale of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL) depression scale, and the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941767/a-proton-mr-spectroscopy-study-of-the-thalamus-in-twins-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
John P Hegarty, Meng Gu, Daniel M Spielman, Sue C Cleveland, Joachim F Hallmayer, Laura C Lazzeroni, Mira M Raman, Thomas W Frazier, Jennifer M Phillips, Allan L Reiss, Antonio Y Hardan
Multiple lines of research have reported thalamic abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that are associated with social communication impairments (SCI), restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB), or sensory processing abnormalities (SPA). Thus, the thalamus may represent a common neurobiological structure that is shared across symptom domains in ASD. Same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs with and without ASD underwent cognitive/behavioral evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging to assess the thalamus...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884971/testing-the-face-shape-hypothesis-in-twins-discordant-for-nonsyndromic-orofacial-clefting
#9
Jasmien Roosenboom, Karlijne Indencleef, Greet Hens, Hilde Peeters, Kaare Christensen, Mary L Marazita, Peter Claes, Elizabeth J Leslie, Seth M Weinberg
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are complex traits characterized by multifactorial inheritance and wide phenotypic variability. Numerous studies have shown subtle differences in the faces of unaffected relatives from cleft families compared to controls, the implication being that such outward differences are an incomplete expression reflecting an underlying genetic predisposition. Twins discordant for OFCs provide a unique opportunity to further test this idea, as the unaffected co-twin shares on average 50% (for dizygotic twins) and 100% (for monozygotic twins) of the genetic risk factors as the affected twin...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852208/assessing-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-epicardial-and-abdominal-adipose-tissue-quantities-a-classical-twin-study
#10
A L Jermendy, M Kolossvary, Z D Drobni, A D Tarnoki, D L Tarnoki, J Karady, S Voros, H J Lamb, B Merkely, G Jermendy, P Maurovich-Horvat
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Various adipose tissue compartments play an important role in the development of cardiometabolic diseases. The quantity of different fat compartments is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on epicardial, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (EAT, SAT and VAT) quantities in a cohort of adult twin pairs. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we investigated adult twins (57 monozygotic [MZ] and 33 dizygotic [DZ] same-gender twin pairs; 180 twin subjects)...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852152/functional-and-effective-whole-brain-connectivity-using-magnetoencephalography-to-identify-monozygotic-twin-pairs
#11
M Demuru, A A Gouw, A Hillebrand, C J Stam, B W van Dijk, P Scheltens, B M Tijms, E Konijnenberg, M Ten Kate, A den Braber, D J A Smit, D I Boomsma, P J Visser
Resting-state functional connectivity patterns are highly stable over time within subjects. This suggests that such 'functional fingerprints' may have strong genetic component. We investigated whether the functional (FC) or effective (EC) connectivity patterns of one monozygotic twin could be used to identify the co-twin among a larger sample and determined the overlap in functional fingerprints within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs using resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG). We included 32 cognitively normal MZ twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register who participate in the EMIF-AD preclinAD study (average age 68 years)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843010/telomerase-activity-telomere-length-and-htert-dna-methylation-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-monozygotic-twins-with-discordant-smoking-habits
#12
Francesca Marcon, Ester Siniscalchi, Cristina Andreoli, Alessandra Allione, Giovanni Fiorito, Emanuela Medda, Simonetta Guarrera, Giuseppe Matullo, Riccardo Crebelli
Increased telomerase expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and, since the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, an association between telomerase reactivation and tobacco smoke has been proposed. In this work an investigation has been performed to assess the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and telomerase activity (TA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy smokers. The methylation status of the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT was concurrently investigated to assess the possible association between epigenetic modifications of hTERT and TA...
August 26, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838251/increased-risk-of-smoking-in-female-adolescents-who-had-childhood-adhd
#13
Irene J Elkins, Gretchen R B Saunders, Stephen M Malone, Margaret A Keyes, Diana R Samek, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, on the development of smoking in male and female adolescents. METHOD: Twin difference methods were used to control for shared genetic and environmental confounders in three population-based, same-sex twin samples (N=3,762; 64% monozygotic). One cohort oversampled female adolescents with ADHD beginning in childhood...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835820/the-coexistence-of-psychiatric-and-gastrointestinal-problems-in-children-with-restrictive-eating-in-a-nationwide-swedish-twin-study
#14
Jakob Täljemark, Maria Råstam, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Anckarsäter, Nóra Kerekes
BACKGROUND: Restrictive eating problems are rare in children but overrepresented in those with neurodevelopmental problems. Comorbidities decrease wellbeing in affected individuals but research in the area is relatively scarce. This study describes phenotypes, regarding psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidities, in children with restrictive eating problems. METHODS: A parental telephone interview was conducted in 9- or 12-year old twins (n = 19,130) in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833625/physical-activity-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-monozygotic-twin-pairs-discordant-for-bmi
#15
Bram Berntzen, Sakari Jukarainen, Mikko Kataja, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Tuija Tammelin, Riitta Simonen, Päivi Piirilä, Aila Rissanen, Jaakko Kaprio, E Juulia Paavonen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate 1) how monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who are discordant for body mass index (BMI) differ for objectively and subjectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max), and 2) associations of PA and VO2max with adiposity and measures of metabolic health, in individual twins and independent of genetic and shared environmental effects within twin pairs. METHODS: We examined 27 BMI-discordant and 14 BMI-concordant MZ twin pairs...
August 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821800/gender-differences-in-infant-mortality-and-neonatal-morbidity-in-mixed-gender-twins
#16
Dongying Zhao, Lile Zou, Xiaoping Lei, Yongjun Zhang
In the present study, we aimed to explore gender differences in infant mortality and neonatal morbidity in mixed-gender twin pairs. Data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics Linked Birth-Infant Death Cohort. A total of 108,038 pairs of mixed-gender twins were included in this analysis. Among the mixed-gender twins, no significant difference in the odds of fetal mortality between male twins (1.05%) and female co-twins (1.04%). However, male twins were at increased odds of neonatal mortality (adjusted OR 1...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797086/epigenetic-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-provide-clues-to-disease-pathogenesis
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Paul E Young, Stephen Kum Jew, Michael E Buckland, Roger Pamphlett, Catherine M Suter
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which only a small proportion of patients carry an identifiable causative genetic lesion. Despite high heritability estimates, a genetic etiology for most sporadic ALS remains elusive. Here we report the epigenetic profiling of five monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ALS, four with classic ALS and one with the progressive muscular atrophy ALS variant, in whom previous whole genome sequencing failed to uncover a genetic basis for their disease discordance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792107/intrafetal-laser-ablation-for-embryo-reduction-from-dichorionic-triplets-to-dichorionic-twins
#18
P Chaveeva, G Peeva, S G Pugliese, A Shterev, K H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To report the outcome of dichorionic (DC) triplet pregnancies reduced to DC twins by laser ablation of the pelvic vessels of one of the monochorionic (MC) twins. METHODS: Intrafetal laser embryo reduction (ER) from DC triplets to DC twins was carried out in 61 pregnancies at 11 + 0 to 14 + 3 weeks' gestation. Pregnancy outcome was examined. RESULTS: Intrafetal laser was successfully carried out in all cases, but ultrasound examination within 2 weeks of the procedure demonstrated that the MC cotwin had died in 28 (45...
August 9, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761079/alterations-in-resting-state-connectivity-along-the-autism-trait-continuum-a-twin-study
#19
J Neufeld, R Kuja-Halkola, K Mevel, É Cauvet, P Fransson, S Bölte
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been found to be associated with alterations in resting state (RS) functional connectivity, including areas forming the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). However, insufficient control for confounding genetic and environmental influences and other methodological issues limit the generalizability of previous findings. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that ASD might be marked by early hyper-connectivity followed by later hypo-connectivity. To date, only a few studies have explicitly tested age-related influences on RS connectivity alterations in ASD...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755788/concordance-of-autoimmune-disease-in-a-nationwide-danish-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-twin-cohort
#20
Constance Jensina Ulff-Møller, Anders Jørgen Svendsen, Louise Nørgaard Viemose, Søren Jacobsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the concordance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and co-aggregating autoimmune diseases among Danish twins. METHODS: SLE-affected twins were ascertained by record linkage between the National Patient Register (NPR) and the Danish Twin Registry (DTR). Registered SLE codes were validated through medical chart review and information from the treating physicians. Twin pairs with at least one chart-validated SLE proband were invited to participate in a personal interview and clinical validation of the SLE diagnoses...
June 23, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
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