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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907843/plasma-metabolites-reveal-distinct-profiles-associating-with-different-metabolic-risk-factors-in-monozygotic-twin-pairs
#1
Maheswary Muniandy, Vidya Velagapudi, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Aila Rissanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Miina Ollikainen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to a myriad of cardiometabolic outcomes, each of which may have a specific metabolomic signature and a genetic basis. We identified plasma metabolites associating with different cardiometabolic risk factors (adiposity, cholesterol, insulin resistance, and inflammation) in monozygotic (MZ) twins. Additionally, we assessed if metabolite profiling can identify subgroups differing by cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: We quantified 111 plasma metabolites (Acquity UPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry), and measured blood lipids, HOMA index, CRP, and adiposity (BMI, %bodyfat by DEXA, fat distribution by MRI) in 40 MZ twin pairs (mean BMI 27...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885414/family-occurrence-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-danish-nationwide-registry-based-cohort-study
#2
Lisbet Grønbæk, Hendrik Vilstrup, Lars Pedersen, Kaare Christensen, Peter Jepsen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is widely believed that autoimmune hepatitis accumulates in families, but the degree of familial clustering has not been clarified. We conducted a population-based study on the family occurrence of autoimmune hepatitis. METHODS: Through Danish nationwide registries we identified 8,582 first-degree and 9,230 second-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis in 1994-2015; and 64 co-twins of index patients diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis in 1977-2011...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877546/neutron-diffraction-studies-on-the-thermal-expansion-and-anomalous-mechanics-in-the-perovskite-type-c-nd-2-3-me-2-dcoo-3-me-cu-mn-co
#3
M Viswanathan
The thermomechanical characteristics of [C(ND2)3]Me2+(DCOO)3 [Me = Cu, Co, Mn] have been evaluated by single-crystal and powder neutron diffraction. [C(ND2)3]Cu2+(DCOO)3, presenting with the polar space group Pna21, exhibits lattice expansion along the a and c axes, while the b-axis shows a crossover from negative to positive thermal expansion. The relative change in lattice parameters is independent in all directions, resulting in anisotropic thermal characteristics. The thermomechanical response is a collective effect of hingeing and deformation, with the former as the dominant factor...
June 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873870/whole-genome-sequencing-in-a-pair-of-monozygotic-twins-with-discordant-cleft-lip-and-palate-subtypes
#4
Masahiro Takahashi, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Ryo Nagahama, Hiroshi Yoshida, Koutaro Maki, Mary L Marazita, Seth M Weinberg, Atsushi Tajima
OBJECTIVE: Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common and aetiologically complex birth defects. This study explored potential genetic differences in a pair of Japanese monozygotic (MZ) twins with different forms of OFC using whole-genome sequencing. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One co-twin (MZ-1) presented with non-syndromic bilateral cleft lip and palate; the other co-twin (MZ-2) had non-syndromic bilateral cleft lip and unilateral left-sided cleft alveolus. Neither parent had an OFC...
June 6, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866174/risk-of-epilepsy-in-opposite-sex-and-same-sex-twins-a-twin-cohort-study
#5
Yanyan Mao, Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt, Kaare Christensen, Chunsen Wu, Jakob Christensen, Jørn Olsen, Yuelian Sun
BACKGROUND: There is a complex interaction between female and male sex hormones and the risk of epilepsy. Whether prenatal exposure to higher levels of sex hormones affects the development of epilepsy in childhood or later in life is not well known. The sex hormone environment of fetuses may be affected by the sex of the co-twin. We estimated the risk of epilepsy for twins with an opposite-sex (OS) co-twin compared with twins with a same-sex (SS) co-twin. METHODS: From the Danish Twin Registry, we identified OS female twins (n = 11,078), SS female twins (n = 19,186), OS male twins (n = 11,080), and SS male twins (n = 20,207) born between 1977 and 2009...
June 4, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848580/association-between-birth-weight-and-educational-attainment-an-individual-based-pooled-analysis-of-nine-twin-cohorts
#6
Aline Jelenkovic, Janne Mikkonen, Pekka Martikainen, Antti Latvala, Yoshie Yokoyama, Reijo Sund, Eero Vuoksimaa, Esther Rebato, Joohon Sung, Jina Kim, Jooyeon Lee, Sooji Lee, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Sonia Brescianini, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth J F Loos, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas S Nilsen, Jennifer R Harris, Tessa L Cutler, John L Hopper, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jaakko Kaprio, Karri Silventoinen
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that birth weight is positively associated with education, but it remains unclear whether this association is explained by familial environmental factors, genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birth weight and educational years within twin pairs, which controls for genetic factors and the environment shared between co-twins. METHODS: The data were derived from nine twin cohorts in eight countries including 6116 complete twin pairs...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777239/inference-about-causation-between-body-mass-index-and-dna-methylation-in-blood-from-a-twin-family-study
#7
Shuai Li, Ee Ming Wong, Minh Bui, Tuong L Nguyen, Ji-Hoon Eric Joo, Jennifer Stone, Gillian S Dite, Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Roger L Milne, Graham G Giles, Richard Saffery, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported DNA methylation in blood to be associated with body mass index (BMI), but few have investigated causal aspects of the association. We used a twin family design to assess this association at two life points and applied a novel analytical approach to appraise the evidence for causality. METHODS: The methylation profile of DNA from peripheral blood was measured for 479 Australian women from 130 twin families. Linear regression was used to estimate the associations of DNA methylation at ~410,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs), and of the average DNA methylation at ~20,000 genes, with current BMI, BMI at age 18-21 years, and the change between the two (BMI change)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745699/maladaptive-personality-traits-and-romantic-relationship-satisfaction-a-monozygotic-co-twin-control-analysis
#8
Sylia Wilson, Irene J Elkins, Jessica L Bair, Victoria C Oleynick, Stephen M Malone, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
The recent inclusion of an alternative model for personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) highlights the importance of extreme variants of personality for psychopathology. The maladaptive personality traits described in the alternative model comprise 5 higher-order domains and 25 lower-order facets that capture pathological levels of personality. The present report adds to a growing body of research on the implications of maladaptive personality traits for functioning by demonstrating significant associations between each of the higher-order domains (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism) and most of the lower-order facets and lower romantic relationship satisfaction in a population-based sample of 284 monozygotic (MZ) adult twins...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740832/perinatal-outcomes-of-single-fetal-survivor-after-fetal-intervention-for-complicated-monochorionic-twins
#9
Mallory Hoffman, Mounira Habli, Roopali Donepudi, Noemi Boring, Anthony Johnson, Kenneth J Moise, Ramesha Papanna
OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal outcomes between acute single fetal demise following FLP to planned selective reduction (SR) in complicated monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data in complicated MC twin pregnancies from two fetal centers from 2011-2016. Group 1 included women undergoing FLP for TTTS who experienced a single fetal demise within 24 hours of the procedure. Group 2 consisted of women undergoing planned SR with TTTS, and Group 3 SR for indications other than TTTS...
May 9, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730993/outcome-of-twin-pregnancies-complicated-by-a-neural-tube-defect
#10
Vanessa Ross, Karen Reidy, Lex W Doyle, Ricardo Palma-Dias, Mark P Umstad
Twin pregnancies discordant for neural tube defects (NTD) is a management dilemma. Risks of preterm delivery from polyhydramnios must be balanced with the risks of selective termination (ST) of the anomalous fetus. We investigated the prevalence of twin pregnancies discordant for NTD and the rate of pregnancy complications in our institution over a 10-year period. Cases were obtained by searching the hospital ultrasound database and findings were confirmed by expert review of ultrasound images. Outcomes of ST and expectant management were assessed...
May 7, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717905/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-the-associations-between-uric-acid-levels-and-metabolic-syndrome-over-time
#11
Yun-Mi Song, Kayoung Lee
BACKGROUND: The longitudinal associations between serum uric acid (UA) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, as well as the shared genetic and environmental correlations between these traits, were evaluated. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: In a total of 1803 participants (675 men and 1128 women; 695 monozygotic twin individuals, 159 dizygotic twin individuals, and 949 non-twin family members; 44.3 ± 12.8 years old) and 321 monozygotic twin pairs with data on UA levels and MetS components at baseline and follow-up, mixed linear model, conditional logistic regression, and bivariate variance component analysis were conducted...
May 2, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688161/brain-injured-survivors-of-monochorionic-twin-pregnancies-complicated-by-single-intrauterine-death-mr-findings-in-a-multicenter-study
#12
Giorgio Conte, Andrea Righini, Paul D Griffiths, Mariangela Rustico, Mariano Lanna, Fiona L Mackie, Lorenzo Pinelli, Federico Prefumo, Nicola Persico, Mark S Igra, Cecilia Parazzini, Chiara Doneda, Anna Fichera, Claudia Ambrosi, Mark Kilby, Mariasavina Severino, Fabio Triulzi, Andrea Rossi, Nicholas Skipper
Purpose To describe and classify the range of brain injuries present at prenatal, in-utero magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in co-twin survivors of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies complicated by single intrauterine death (SIUD). Materials and Methods This retrospective, observational study from six tertiary fetal medicine centers that perform tertiary-level prenatal in-utero MR studies reviewed cases in which prenatal in-utero MR imaging had shown a brain injury in a surviving co-twin of a twin pregnancy with a MC component complicated by SIUD...
April 24, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674730/birth-size-and-gestational-age-in-opposite-sex-twins-as-compared-to-same-sex-twins-an-individual-based-pooled-analysis-of-21-cohorts
#13
Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Yoshie Yokoyama, Yoon-Mi Hur, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Catarina Almqvist, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Gonneke Willemsen, Meike Bartels, Catharina Em van Beijsterveldt, Leonie H Bogl, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Eero Vuoksimaa, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Esther Rebato, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Syuichi Ooki, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Sonia Brescianini, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Frank Vitaro, Tessa L Cutler, John L Hopper, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Claire Ma Haworth, Robert Plomin, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Robert F Vlietinck, Catherine A Derom, Ruth Jf Loos, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jaakko Kaprio, Karri Silventoinen
It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), including 67,850 dizygotic twin individuals. Linear regression analyses showed that boys having a co-twin sister were, on average, 31 g (95% CI 18 to 45) heavier and 0...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659773/gut-barrier-dysfunction-a-primary-defect-in-twins-with-crohn-s-disease-predominantly-caused-by-genetic-predisposition
#14
Åsa V Keita, Carl Mårten Lindqvist, Åke Öst, Carlos D L Magana, Ida Schoultz, Jonas Halfvarson
Background and aims: The aetiology of Crohn's disease is poorly understood. By investigating twin pairs discordant for Crohn's disease we aimed to assess if the dysregulated barrier represents a cause or a consequence of inflammation and to evaluate the impact of genetic predisposition on barrier function. Methods: Ileal biopsies from 15 twin pairs discordant for Crohn's disease (monozygotic n=9, dizygotic n=6) and 10 external controls were mounted in Ussing chambers to assess paracellular permeability to51Chromium (Cr)-EDTA and trancellular passage to non-pathogenic E...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659658/effect-of-dietary-fat-intake-and-genetics-on-fat-taste-sensitivity-a-co-twin-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Andrew Costanzo, Caryl Nowson, Liliana Orellana, Dieuwerke Bolhuis, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Background: Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651684/social-support-and-strain-across-close-relationships-a-twin-study
#16
Julia Kutschke, May-Bente Bengtson, Teresa E Seeman, Jennifer R Harris
Social relationships play a critical role in health and well-being throughout life. We analyzed the genetic and environmental variance co-variance structure for social support and strain across four sets of relationships including with one's co-twin, spouse/partner, family and friends. The sample included 5288 Norwegian twins aged 40-80. Older people reported less support from their co-twin and friends and less strain from their family and friends. Genetic influences contribute importantly to variation across all the measures, with estimates ranging from 0 to 58%; variance due to shared environmental influences was most important for the twin-relationship, ranging from 0...
May 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624797/prosocial-and-self-interested-intra-twin-pair-behavior-in-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins-in-the-early-to-middle-childhood-transition
#17
Karen Yirmiya, Nancy L Segal, Guy Bloch, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Several related and complementary theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain the existence of prosocial behavior, despite its potential fitness cost to the individual. These include kin selection theory, proposing that organisms have a propensity to help those to whom they are genetically related, and reciprocity, referring to the benefit of being prosocial, depending on past and future mutual interactions. A useful paradigm to examine prosociality is to compare mean levels of this behavior between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins...
April 6, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614968/biological-clocks-and-physical-functioning-in-monozygotic-female-twins
#18
Elina Sillanpää, Eija K Laakkonen, Elina Vaara, Taina Rantanen, Vuokko Kovanen, Sarianna Sipilä, Jaakko Kaprio, Miina Ollikainen
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of biological aging - DNA methylation age (DNAm age) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL)- correlate strongly with chronological age across the life course. It is, however, unclear how these measures of cellular wear and tear are associated with muscle strength and functional capacity, which are known to decline with older age and are associated with mortality. We investigated if DNAm age and LTL were associated with body composition and physical functioning by examining 48 monozygotic twin sisters...
April 4, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582724/definitive-zygosity-scores-in-the-peas-in-the-pod-questionnaire-is-a-sensitive-and-accurate-assessment-of-the-zygosity-of-adult-twins
#19
Zakariya A Jarrar, Kirsten J Ward, Massimo Mangino, Lynn F Cherkas, Raj Gill, Irina Gillham-Nasenya, Darioush Yarand, Deborah Hart, Christopher J Hammond, Tim D Spector
Twin researchers face the challenge of accurately determining the zygosity of twins for research. As part of the annual questionnaire between 1999 and 2006, 8,307 twins from the TwinsUK registry were asked to complete five questions (independently from their co-twin) to ascertain their self-perceived zygosity during childhood on up to five separate occasions. This questionnaire is known as the 'peas in the pod' questionnaire (PPQ), but there is little evidence of its validation. Answers were scored and classified as monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic (DZ), or unknown zygosity (UZ) and were compared with 4,484 twins with genotyping data who had not been selected for zygosity...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566433/diabetes-in-midlife-and-risk-of-cancer-in-late-life-a-nationwide-swedish-twin-study
#20
Cuiping Bao, Nancy L Pedersen, Rongrong Yang, Anna Marseglia, Weige Xu, Yaogang Wang, Xiuying Qi, Weili Xu
The association between diabetes and cancer risk remains controversial. Hence, we examined whether midlife diabetes is related to the risk of cancer in late-life, and whether genetic and early-life environmental factors play a role in this association. This study included 25,154 twin individuals born in 1958 or earlier from the Swedish Twin Registry. Information on cancer diagnosis in late life (aged ≥ 65) during 1998-2014, was derived from the National Patient and Cancer Registries. Diabetes was ascertained based on self- or informant-reported history, patient registry and antidiabetic medication use...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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