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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659773/gut-barrier-dysfunction-a-primary-defect-in-twins-with-crohn-s-disease-predominantly-caused-by-genetic-predisposition
#1
Åsa V Keita, Mårten Carl Lindqvist, Åke Öst, Carlos D L Magana, Ida Schoultz, Jonas Halfvarson
Background and aims: The aetiology of Crohn's disease is poorly understood. By investigating twin pairs discordant for Crohn's disease we aimed to assess if the dysregulated barrier represents a cause or a consequence of inflammation and to evaluate the impact of genetic predisposition on barrier function. Methods: Ileal biopsies from 15 twin pairs discordant for Crohn's disease (monozygotic n=9, dizygotic n=6) and 10 external controls were mounted in Ussing chambers to assess paracellular permeability to51Chromium (Cr)-EDTA and trancellular passage to non-pathogenic E...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659658/effect-of-dietary-fat-intake-and-genetics-on-fat-taste-sensitivity-a-co-twin-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Andrew Costanzo, Caryl Nowson, Liliana Orellana, Dieuwerke Bolhuis, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Background: Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651684/social-support-and-strain-across-close-relationships-a-twin-study
#3
Julia Kutschke, May-Bente Bengtson, Teresa E Seeman, Jennifer R Harris
Social relationships play a critical role in health and well-being throughout life. We analyzed the genetic and environmental variance co-variance structure for social support and strain across four sets of relationships including with one's co-twin, spouse/partner, family and friends. The sample included 5288 Norwegian twins aged 40-80. Older people reported less support from their co-twin and friends and less strain from their family and friends. Genetic influences contribute importantly to variation across all the measures, with estimates ranging from 0 to 58%; variance due to shared environmental influences was most important for the twin-relationship, ranging from 0...
April 12, 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624797/prosocial-and-self-interested-intra-twin-pair-behavior-in-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins-in-the-early-to-middle-childhood-transition
#4
Karen Yirmiya, Nancy L Segal, Guy Bloch, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Several related and complementary theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain the existence of prosocial behavior, despite its potential fitness cost to the individual. These include kin selection theory, proposing that organisms have a propensity to help those to whom they are genetically related, and reciprocity, referring to the benefit of being prosocial, depending on past and future mutual interactions. A useful paradigm to examine prosociality is to compare mean levels of this behavior between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins...
April 6, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614968/biological-clocks-and-physical-functioning-in-monozygotic-female-twins
#5
Elina Sillanpää, Eija K Laakkonen, Elina Vaara, Taina Rantanen, Vuokko Kovanen, Sarianna Sipilä, Jaakko Kaprio, Miina Ollikainen
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of biological aging - DNA methylation age (DNAm age) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL)- correlate strongly with chronological age across the life course. It is, however, unclear how these measures of cellular wear and tear are associated with muscle strength and functional capacity, which are known to decline with older age and are associated with mortality. We investigated if DNAm age and LTL were associated with body composition and physical functioning by examining 48 monozygotic twin sisters...
April 4, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582724/definitive-zygosity-scores-in-the-peas-in-the-pod-questionnaire-is-a-sensitive-and-accurate-assessment-of-the-zygosity-of-adult-twins
#6
Zakariya A Jarrar, Kirsten J Ward, Massimo Mangino, Lynn F Cherkas, Raj Gill, Irina Gillham-Nasenya, Darioush Yarand, Deborah Hart, Christopher J Hammond, Tim D Spector
Twin researchers face the challenge of accurately determining the zygosity of twins for research. As part of the annual questionnaire between 1999 and 2006, 8,307 twins from the TwinsUK registry were asked to complete five questions (independently from their co-twin) to ascertain their self-perceived zygosity during childhood on up to five separate occasions. This questionnaire is known as the 'peas in the pod' questionnaire (PPQ), but there is little evidence of its validation. Answers were scored and classified as monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic (DZ), or unknown zygosity (UZ) and were compared with 4,484 twins with genotyping data who had not been selected for zygosity...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566433/diabetes-in-midlife-and-risk-of-cancer-in-late-life-a-nationwide-swedish-twin-study
#7
Cuiping Bao, Nancy L Pedersen, Rongrong Yang, Anna Marseglia, Weige Xu, Yaogang Wang, Xiuying Qi, Weili Xu
The association between diabetes and cancer risk remains controversial. Hence, we examined whether midlife diabetes is related to the risk of cancer in late-life, and whether genetic and early-life environmental factors play a role in this association. This study included 25,154 twin individuals born in 1958 or earlier from the Swedish Twin Registry. Information on cancer diagnosis in late life (aged ≥ 65) during 1998-2014, was derived from the National Patient and Cancer Registries. Diabetes was ascertained based on self- or informant-reported history, patient registry and antidiabetic medication use...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542428/a-possible-twin-the-1960s-twin-study-revisited-twin-research-twin-to-twin-heart-transplantation-distinguishing-monozygotic-twins-twin-conceptions-via-oocyte-donation-factors-affecting-craniofacial-traits-in-the-media-triplet-delivery-in-the-uk-conjoined-twins
#8
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
March 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505954/white-matter-hyperintensities-and-vascular-risk-factors-in-monozygotic-twins
#9
Mara Ten Kate, Carole H Sudre, Anouk den Braber, Elles Konijnenberg, Michel G Nivard, M Jorge Cardoso, Philip Scheltens, Sébastien Ourselin, Dorret I Boomsma, Frederik Barkhof, Pieter Jelle Visser
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been associated with vascular risk factors, both of which are under genetic influence. We examined in a monozygotic twin sample whether the association between vascular risk and WMHs is influenced by overlapping genetic factors. We included 195 cognitively normal monozygotic twins (age = 70 ± 7 years), including 94 complete pairs. Regional WMH load was estimated using an automated algorithm. Vascular risk was summarized with the Framingham score. The within-twin pair correlation for total WMHs was 0...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499503/increased-sensitivity-to-positive-social-stimuli-in-monozygotic-twins-at-risk-of-bipolar-vs-unipolar-disorder
#10
S Kærsgaard, I Meluken, L V Kessing, M Vinberg, K W Miskowiak
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in affective cognition are putative endophenotypes for bipolar and unipolar disorders but it is unclear whether some abnormalities are disorder-specific. We therefore investigated affective cognition in monozygotic twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder relative to those at risk of unipolar disorder and to low-risk twins. METHODS: Seventy monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of bipolar disorder (n = 11), of unipolar disorder (n = 38) or without co-twin history of affective disorder (n = 21) were included...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456763/causal-effect-of-smoking-on-dna-methylation-in-peripheral-blood-a-twin-and-family-study
#11
Shuai Li, Ee Ming Wong, Minh Bui, Tuong L Nguyen, Ji-Hoon Eric Joo, Jennifer Stone, Gillian S Dite, Graham G Giles, Richard Saffery, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper
Background: Smoking has been reported to be associated with peripheral blood DNA methylation, but the causal aspects of the association have rarely been investigated. We aimed to investigate the association and underlying causation between smoking and blood methylation. Methods: The methylation profile of DNA from the peripheral blood, collected as dried blood spots stored on Guthrie cards, was measured for 479 Australian women including 66 monozygotic twin pairs, 66 dizygotic twin pairs, and 215 sisters of twins from 130 twin families using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip array...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428705/risk-factors-for-failure-in-the-newborn-hearing-screen-test-in-very-preterm-twins
#12
So Young Kim, Byung Yoon Choi, Eun Young Jung, Hyunsoo Park, Ha-Na Yoo, Kyo Hoon Park
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify prenatal and postnatal risk factors associated with abnormal newborn hearing screen (NHS) results and subsequently confirmed sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in preterm twin neonates. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 159 twin neonates who were born alive after ≤32 weeks were retrospectively reviewed for hearing loss in both ears. Histopathologic examination of the placenta was performed and clinical data, including method of conception and factors specific to twins, were retrieved from a computerized perinatal database...
January 31, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402677/associations-between-childhood-adhd-gender-and-adolescent-alcohol-and-marijuana-involvement-a-causally-informative-design
#13
Irene J Elkins, Gretchen R B Saunders, Stephen M Malone, Margaret A Keyes, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
BACKGROUND: We report whether the etiology underlying associations of childhood ADHD with adolescent alcohol and marijuana involvement is consistent with causal relationships or shared predispositions, and whether it differs by gender. METHODS: In three population-based twin samples (N = 3762; 64% monozygotic), including one oversampling females with ADHD, regressions were conducted with childhood inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms predicting alcohol and marijuana outcomes by age 17...
March 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381639/condylar-hyperplasia-in-a-monozygotic-twin-girl-an-argument-about-etiology
#14
Douglas Rangel Goulart, Eder Alberto Sigua-Rodriguez, Rodrigo Fariña, Sergio Olate
The diagnosis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) requires a combined assessment consisting of clinical, radiological, and histopathological examination. The etiology of this condition is unknown. The purpose of this study is to report a rare case of UCH in a monozygotic twin. A 15-year-old girl was referred to our department complaining of facial asymmetry and malocclusion. Computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging reveal enlargement of the left condyle and condylar neck, and an increased uptake that was diagnosed as active UCH...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381493/is-the-association-between-obesity-and-hip-osteoarthritis-surgery-explained-by-familial-confounding
#15
Karin Magnusson, Katrina J Scurrah, Ragnhild Elise Ørstavik, Thomas Sevenius Nilsen, Ove Furnes, Kåre Birger Hagen
OBJECTIVE: Familial confounding is confounding due to genetics or environmental exposures shared by family members. We aimed to study whether familial confounding explains the association between body mass index (BMI) and severe hip osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: We linked data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Registry with the Norwegian Twin Registry on the National ID-number in 2014, generating a population-based prospective cohort study of same-sex twins born 1915-60 (53...
January 29, 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361205/twin-dna-methylation-profiling-reveals-flare-dependent-interferon-signature-and-b-cell-promoter-hypermethylation-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
Constance J Ulff-Møller, Fazila Asmar, Yi Liu, Anders J Svendsen, Florence Busato, Kirsten Grønbaek, Jörg Tost, Søren Jacobsen
OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has limited monozygotic (MZ) twin concordance, implying a role for other pathogenic factors than genetic variation, such as epigenetic changes. Using the disease discordant twin model, we investigated genome-wide DNA methylation changes in sorted CD4+ T-cells, monocytes, granulocytes and B-cells in twin pairs with at least one SLE-affected twin. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 15 SLE twin pairs (six MZ, nine dizygotic (DZ)) was processed using gradient density centrifugation for the granulocyte fraction...
January 23, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360944/migraine-with-visual-aura-associated-with-thicker-visual-cortex
#17
David Gaist, Anders Hougaard, Ellen Garde, Nina Linde Reislev, Rikke Wiwie, Pernille Iversen, Camilla Gøbel Madsen, Morten Blaabjerg, Helle Hvilsted Nielsen, Thomas Krøigård, Kamilla Østergaard, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Jacob Hjelmborg, Kristoffer Madsen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Messoud Ashina
Until recent years it was believed that migraine with aura was a disorder causing intermittent neurological symptoms, with no impact on brain structure. However, recent MRI studies have reported increased cortical thickness of visual and somatosensory areas in patients with migraine with aura, suggesting that such structural alterations were either due to increased neuronal density in the areas involved, or a result of multiple episodes of cortical spreading depression as part of aura attacks. Subsequent studies have yielded conflicting results, possibly due to methodological reasons, e...
January 18, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326865/rectal-atresia-and-congenital-hypothyroidism-an-association-or-coincidence
#18
Feride Mehmetoğlu
Rectal atresia is a rare anorectal malformation, and its association with other anomalies is even more rare. This study presents a unique case of co-twin in which the surviving newborn male underwent surgery due to rectal atresia. Newborn screening tests identified congenital hypothyroidism. The surgical treatment consisted of three stages and thyroid hormones were replaced.
January 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325449/analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-young-people-limited-evidence-for-an-association-between-victimization-stress-and-epigenetic-variation-in-blood
#19
Sarah J Marzi, Karen Sugden, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Joe Burrage, David L Corcoran, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Eilis Hannon, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Carmine Pariante, Richie Poulton, Benjamin S Williams, Chloe C Y Wong, Jonathan Mill, Avshalom Caspi
OBJECTIVE: DNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which early-life experiences become "embedded" in the genome and alter transcriptional processes to compromise health. The authors sought to investigate whether early-life victimization stress is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation. METHOD: The authors tested the hypothesis that victimization is associated with DNA methylation in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales and assessed at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18 years...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290038/tight-co-twin-similarity-of-monozygotic-twins-for-htert-protein-level-of-t-cell-subsets-for-telomere-length-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-but-not-for-telomerase-activity
#20
Dóra Melicher, Anett Illés, Éva Pállinger, Árpád Ferenc Kovács, Levente Littvay, Ádám Domonkos Tárnoki, Dávid László Tárnoki, András Bikov, Mária Judit Molnár, Edit Irén Buzás, András Falus
Our study analyzed lymphocyte subpopulations of 32 monozygotic twins and compared the level of the catalytic reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) in T lymphocytes (Tly), helper- (Th), cytotoxic- (Tc) and regulatory T cell (Treg) subgroups. Four variables related to telomere and mitochondrial biology were simultaneously assessed, applying multi-parametric flow cytometry, TRAP-ELISA assay and qPCR standard curve method on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples of genetically matched individuals...
December 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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