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Pekka Hautasaari, Andrej M Savić, Otto Loberg, Eini Niskanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Ina M Tarkka
Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images...
October 19, 2016: Brain Topography
Y Wang, Y Wei, P B Yuan, X J Wang, Y Y Zhao
Objective: To analyze the prognosis of surviving monochorionic co-twin after single intrauterine fetal demise (sIUFD). Methods: Retrospectively analyzed the twin pregnancy cases admitted in Peking University Third Hospital between Jan 2008 and Feb 2015. We recorded perinatal characteristics, neuroimage in co-twin, and followed up the neonatal outcome. Results: 47 cases were found, including 45 cases of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) and 2 cases of monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA). Median gestational age at sIUFD was 27 weeks...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Barbra A Dickerman, Sarah C Markt, Markku Koskenvuo, Christer Hublin, Eero Pukkala, Lorelei A Mucci, Jaakko Kaprio
PURPOSE: Sleep disruption and shift work have been associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer remains limited. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife sleep- and circadian-related parameters and later prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,370 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Over the study period, 602 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred...
October 12, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sini Heinonen, Maheswary Muniandy, Jana Buzkova, Adil Mardinoglu, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Jaakko Kaprio, Aila Rissanen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low mitochondrial activity in adipose tissue is suggested to be an underlying factor in obesity and its metabolic complications. We aimed to find out whether mitochondrial measures are downregulated in obesity also in isolated adipocytes. METHODS: We studied young adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant (n = 14, intrapair difference ΔBMI ≥ 3 kg/m(2)) and concordant (n = 5, ΔBMI < 3 kg/m(2)) for BMI, identified from ten birth cohorts of 22- to 36-year-old Finnish twins...
October 12, 2016: Diabetologia
Sarah Meaney, Paul Corcoran, Keelin O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Perinatal death is one of the most difficult bereavements due to the shock and profound grief experienced by parents. It has been established that such bereavement has a life-lasting impact. Twin pregnancy is associated with increased perinatal risk, with higher rates of perinatal mortality than in singleton pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To date, few studies have examined the effect of the loss of one twin diagnosed with a congenital abnormality during pregnancy...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Tellervo Korhonen, Anu Ranjit, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, Jaakko Kaprio
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and depression are major public health concerns, but longitudinal research on the association between smoking and antidepressant use is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate, whether smoking predicts antidepressant medication during a 10-year follow-up. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to Finnish adult twins in 1990. Antidepressant prescription data during 1995-2004 were obtained from the register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution and linked to the survey data...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Elizabeth C Corfield, Nicholas G Martin, Dale R Nyholt
Depression and fatigue have previously been suggested to share an underlying genetic contribution. The present study aims to investigate and characterize the familiality and genetic relationship between depression and fatigue. The familiality of depression and fatigue was assessed by calculating relative risks, measured by the prevalence ratio, within 643 monozygotic (MZ) and 577 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Bivariate twin modeling was utilized to assess the magnitude of shared heritability between depression and fatigue...
October 5, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Maj Vinberg
This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected)...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
L Squarcina, C Fagnani, M Bellani, C A Altamura, P Brambilla
The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) is to date not entirely clear. Classical genetic research showed that there is a contribution of genetic factors in BD, with high heritability. Twin studies, thanks to the fact that confounding factors as genetic background or family environment are shared, allow etiological inferences. In this work, we selected twin studies, which focus on the relationship between BD, genetic factors and brain structure, evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. All the studies found differences in brain structure between BD patients and their co-twins, and also in respect to healthy controls...
September 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Nathaniel F Watson, Dedra Buchwald, Jeff J Delrow, Willian A Altemeier, Michael V Vitiello, Allan I Pack, Mike Bamshad, Carolyn Noonan, Sina Gharib
INTRODUCTION: Habitual short sleep duration is associated with adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory effects. Co-twin study methodologies account for familial (e.g., genetics and shared environmental) confounding, allowing assessment of subtle environmental effects, such as the effect of habitual short sleep duration on gene expression. Therefore, we investigated gene expression in monozygotic twins discordant for actigraphically phenotyped habitual sleep duration. METHODS: Eleven healthy monozygotic twin pairs (82% female; mean age 42...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Philipp Wagner, Jiri Sonek, Stefanie Mayr, Harald Abele, Rangmar Goelz, Markus Hoopmann, Karl Oliver Kagan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the outcome in dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies with rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks' gestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of fetal and neonatal outcomes in women with spontaneous PPROM before 24 weeks' gestation that were treated at a single tertiary center. RESULTS: Twenty-nine pregnancies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean gestational age at the time of PPROM was 20...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
J Macoveanu, M Vinberg, K Madsen, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, W Baaré
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological mechanisms mediating an increased risk to develop affective disorders remain poorly understood. In a group of individuals with a family history of major depressive (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD), we investigated the microstructural properties of white matter fiber tracts, that is, cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus, anterior limb of the internal capsule, and corpus callosum, that facilitate the communication between brain regions implicated in affective disorders...
November 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Marina B Pinheiro, Kevin K Ho, Manuela L Ferreira, Kathryn M Refshauge, Ron Grunstein, John L Hopper, Christopher G Maher, Bart W Koes, Juan R Ordoñana, Paulo H Ferreira
Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in patients with low back pain (LBP) and is associated with high levels of pain, psychological distress, and physical disability. Studies have reported a bidirectional relationship between sleep problems and intensity of LBP. Accordingly, effective management of LBP should address sleep quality. In addition, genetics has been found to significantly affect the prevalence of both LBP and insomnia. Our study aims to establish the feasibility of a trial exploring the efficacy of a web-based sleep quality intervention in people with LBP, with the genetic influences being controlled for...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Nancy L Segal
The 2016 Satellite Meeting of the International Society of Twin Studies took place on June 20 in Brisbane, Australia. The host institution was the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute. An overview of selected presentations and activities is provided. This synopsis is followed by a brief tribute to the recent passing of our esteemed colleague, Dr Irving I. Gottesman. Next, there are summaries of research on monozygotic twinning after single embryo transfer, a twin study of mononucleosis susceptibility, cerebral injury following twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome surgery, and a correction and clarification regarding an article by Segal (2016) on the Brazilian Twin Registry...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Shoko Sasaki, Koken Ozaki, Shinji Yamagata, Yusuke Takahashi, Chizuru Shikishima, Tamara Kornacki, Koichi Nonaka, Juko Ando
The present study examined: (1) gender and age differences of mean gender identity disorder (GID) trait scores in Japanese twins; (2) the validity of the prenatal hormone transfer theory, which predicts that, in dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, twins with an opposite-gender co-twin more frequently exhibit GID traits than twins with a same-gender co-twin; and (3) the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on GID traits as a function of age and gender. Data from 1450 male twin pairs, 1882 female twin pairs, and 1022 DZ male-female pairs ranging from 3 to 26 years of age were analyzed...
October 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Jesper Lundbom, Alessandra Bierwagen, Kálmán Bodis, Julia Szendrödi, Jaakko Kaprio, Aila Rissanen, Nina Lundbom, Michael Roden, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
BACKGROUND: Obese twins have lower saturated and higher long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compared to their lean monozygotic (MZ) co-twin. Whether this holds for metabolically distinct deep (DSAT) and superficial (SSAT) depots is unknown. Here we use non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the FA unsaturation in body mass index (BMI) discordant MZ twins in DSAT and SSAT and their relationship to ectopic fat content and body fat distribution...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Maarit Piirtola, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Kauko Heikkilä, Markku Koskenvuo, Pia Svedberg, Karri Silventoinen, Annina Ropponen
BACKGROUND: Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. METHODS: This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (59 % women), of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs...
2016: BMC Public Health
Laura E Løkkegaard, Lisbeth A Larsen, Kaare Christensen
Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We aimed to investigate the association between self-reported lifestyle factors and subsequent survival in 347 Danish twin pairs aged 70 years and older and, additionally, to investigate the reliability of these self-reports...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Peter Nordström, Nancy L Pedersen, Yngve Gustafson, Karl Michaëlsson, Anna Nordström
Importance: Observational studies have shown that obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. The extent of genetic confounding in these associations is unclear. Objective: To compare the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes, and death in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI). Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 4046 MZ twin pairs with discordant BMIs (difference >0...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Karri Silventoinen, Charlotte Huppertz, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Meike Bartels, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma
OBJECTIVE: A higher prevalence of obesity in lower socioeconomic classes is common in Western societies. This study examined the role of gene-environment interactions in the association between parental education and body mass index (BMI) from infancy to the onset of adulthood. METHODS: Parentally reported BMI from 1 to 13 and self-reported BMI from 14 to 20 years of age were collected in 16,646 complete Dutch twin pairs and analyzed by genetic twin modeling. RESULTS: At 7 to 8 years of age, children whose parents had middle or low educational levels had more excess weight than the children of more highly educated parents, and the difference increased until 18 to 20 years of age...
September 2016: Obesity
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