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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240646/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-sleep-quality-and-low-back-pain-a-population-based-twin-study
#1
Marina B Pinheiro, Jose J Morosoli, Manuela L Ferreira, Juan J Madrid-Valero, Kathryn Refshauge, Paulo H Ferreira, Juan R Ordoñana
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which the co-occurrence of poor sleep quality and low back pain is due to the same genetic and/or environmental risk factors or due to a causal association. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index) and low back pain were collected in a population-based sample of adult twins (n=2,134) registered with the Murcia Twin Registry. Bivariate analysis and structural equation modelling were used...
December 13, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239485/comparison-of-umbilical-cord-occlusion-methods-radiofrequency-ablation-versus-laser-photocoagulation
#2
Mira Abdel-Sattar, Andrew H Chon, Arlyn Llanes, Lisa M Korst, Joseph G Ouzounian, Ramen H Chmait
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes between two umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) methods: radiofrequency ablation (RFA) versus fetoscopic-guided laser photocoagulation. METHODS: Retrospective study of all monochorionic diamniotic multiple gestations that underwent UCO with RFA (preferred after 2014) or laser (preferred before 2014). In bivariate analysis, patients treated with RFA were compared to laser. Risk factors for intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) and 30-day survival of the co-twin were identified, and multiple logistic models were fitted to examine whether the UCO method was associated with these outcomes...
December 14, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228364/age-dependent-changes-in-mean-and-variance-of-gene-expression-across-tissues-in-a-twin-cohort
#3
Ana Viñuela, Andrew A Brown, Alfonso Buil, Pei-Chien Tsai, Matthew N Davies, Jordana T Bell, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Timothy D Spector, Kerrin S Small
Changes in mean and variance of gene expression with age have consequences for healthy aging and disease development. Age-dependent changes in phenotypic variance have been associated to a decline in regulatory functions leading to increase in disease risk. Here we investigate age-related mean and variance changes in gene expression measured by RNA-seq of fat, skin, whole blood and derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) expression from 855 adult female twins. We see evidence of up to 60% of age effects on transcription levels shared across tissues, and 47% of those on splicing...
December 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227233/examination-of-cross-sectional-associations-of-neighborhood-deprivation-and-alcohol-outlet-density-with-hazardous-drinking-using-a-twin-design
#4
Isaac C Rhew, Rick Kosterman, Glen E Duncan, Christina Mair
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and alcohol outlet density are associated with hazardous drinking using a co-twin design to control for confounding because of genetic and shared environmental factors. METHOD: The study sample included cross-sectional data from 1,996 same-sex adult twin pairs (mean age = 36.6; 65.9% female) from the Washington State Twin Registry. The Singh Index was used to characterize neighborhood social deprivation for participants' census tract of residence...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212571/expression-of-homeobox-gene-hlx-and-its-downstream-target-genes-are-altered-in-placentae-from-discordant-twin-pregnancies
#5
Nicola Yuen, Shaun P Brennecke, Mark P Umstad, Hannah E J Yong, Anthony J Borg, Gayathri Rajaraman, Bill Kalionis, Padma Murthi
A discordant twin gestation, in which one fetus is significantly growth restricted, compared to the other normal twin, is a unique model that can be used to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the intrauterine environment affects fetal growth. In many model systems, placental transcription factor genes regulate fetal growth. Transcription factors regulate growth through their activation or repression of downstream target genes that mediate important cell functions. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of the placental HLX homeobox gene transcription factor and its downstream target genes in dizygotic twins with growth discordance...
December 7, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181591/post-zygotic-genomic-changes-in-glutamate-and-dopamine-pathway-genes-may-explain-discordance-of-monozygotic-twins-for-schizophrenia
#6
C A Castellani, M G Melka, J L Gui, A J Gallo, R L O'Reilly, S M Singh
BACKGROUND: Monozygotic twins are valuable in assessing the genetic vs environmental contribution to diseases. In the era of complete genome sequences, they allow identification of mutational mechanisms and specific genes and pathways that offer predisposition to the development of complex diseases including schizophrenia. METHODS: We sequenced the complete genomes of two pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia (MZD), including one representing a family tetrad...
November 28, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173210/psychosocial-functioning-among-regular-cannabis-users-with-and-without-cannabis-use-disorder
#7
Katherine T Foster, Brooke J Arterberry, William G Iacono, Matt McGue, Brian M Hicks
BACKGROUND: In the United States, cannabis accessibility has continued to rise as the perception of its harmfulness has decreased. Only about 30% of regular cannabis users develop cannabis use disorder (CUD), but it is unclear if individuals who use cannabis regularly without ever developing CUD experience notable psychosocial impairment across the lifespan. Therefore, psychosocial functioning was compared across regular cannabis users with or without CUD and a non-user control group during adolescence (age 17; early risk) and young adulthood (ages 18-25; peak CUD prevalence)...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163289/network-approach-to-understanding-emotion-dynamics-in-relation-to-childhood-trauma-and-genetic-liability-to-psychopathology-replication-of-a-prospective-experience-sampling-analysis
#8
Laila Hasmi, Marjan Drukker, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Bart P F Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os
Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down"-collected using the ESM method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125095/social-comparison-orientation-in-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins
#9
Pascal Huguet, Michèle Carlier, Conor V Dolan, Eco J de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Twin research has offered evidence that monozygotic (MZ) twins are more socially close than dizygotic (DZ) twins, but has not paid much attention to the way twins compare themselves with their co-twin. The few studies in this area suggest that 'horizontal comparisons' (social comparison motivated by solidarity or communion with others) matter more for MZ twins than for DZ twins, at least when the co-twin is the social comparison standard. Consistent with this view, we predicted higher interest in MZ twins relative to DZ twins to select their co-twin rather than other people in general as the social comparison standard...
November 10, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122542/twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-what-we-have-learned-from-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Fatiha Djaafri, Julien Stirnemann, Imen Mediouni, Claire Colmant, Yves Ville
Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcome compared to dichorionic twin pregnancies and singletons. Monochorionic-specific complications include twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), twin anemia-polycythemia sequence, single intrauterine fetal demise and its consequences on the co-twin, and selective intrauterine growth restriction. Whereas the natural history of monochorionic-specific complications carries a high risk of fetal death or severe neurologic disability, a framework now exists, based on well-designed clinical trials, for optimal treatment of these entities...
November 6, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108528/problematic-alcohol-use-and-hippocampal-volume-in-a-female-sample-disentangling-cause-from-consequence-using-a-co-twin-control-study-design
#11
Sylia Wilson, Stephen M Malone, Ruskin H Hunt, Kathleen M Thomas, William G Iacono
BACKGROUND: Although there is extensive evidence that problematic alcohol use is associated with smaller hippocampal volume, the typical cross-sectional study design cannot determine whether hippocampal deviations reflect pre-existing liability toward problematic alcohol use or instead reflect an alcohol exposure-related effect. We used the co-twin control study design, which capitalizes upon differences within a twin pair in levels of drinking, to differentiate pre-existing liability from an effect of alcohol exposure...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108521/minority-stressors-rumination-and-psychological-distress-in-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-sexual-minority-status
#12
Liam Timmins, Katharine A Rimes, Qazi Rahman
BACKGROUND: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080969/altruistic-behavior-among-twins-willingness-to-fight-and-self-sacrifice-for-their-closest-relatives
#13
Encarnación Tornero, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, José J Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez, Juan R Ordoñana
According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity...
October 28, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054888/lung-cancer-genetic-predisposition-and-smoking-the-nordic-twin-study-of-cancer
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jacob Hjelmborg, Tellervo Korhonen, Klaus Holst, Axel Skytthe, Eero Pukkala, Julia Kutschke, Jennifer R Harris, Lorelei A Mucci, Kaare Christensen, Kamila Czene, Hans-Olov Adami, Thomas Scheike, Jaakko Kaprio
BACKGROUND: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. METHODS: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time-to-event analyses accounting for censoring and competing risk of death to estimate incidence, concordance risk and heritability of liability to develop lung cancer by smoking status...
November 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020651/is-negative-self-referent-bias-an-endophenotype-for-depression-an-fmri-study-of-emotional-self-referent-words-in-twins-at-high-vs-low-risk-of-depression
#15
K W Miskowiak, J E Larsen, C J Harmer, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, J Macoveanu, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow-up cohort study...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992894/chronic-prostatitis-and-comorbid-non-urological-overlapping-pain-conditions-a-co-twin-control-study
#16
Marianna Gasperi, John N Krieger, Christopher Forsberg, Jack Goldberg, Dedra Buchwald, Niloofar Afari
OBJECTIVES: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is characterized by pain and voiding symptoms in the absence of an obvious infection or other cause. CP/CPPS frequently occurs with non-urological chronic overlapping pain conditions (COPCs) of unknown etiology. We conducted a co-twin control study in men discordant for chronic prostatitis (CP), an overarching diagnosis of which approximately 90% is CP/CPPS. The primary aim was to investigate the contribution of familial factors, including shared genetic and common environmental factors, to the comorbidity of CP and COPCs...
November 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985290/shared-genetic-influence-on-frailty-and-chronic-widespread-pain-a-study-from-twinsuk
#17
Gregory Livshits, Mary Ni Lochlainn, Ida Malkin, Ruth Bowyer, Serena Verdi, Claire J Steves, Frances M K Williams
Introduction: frailty is an increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes, across multiple physiological systems, with both environmental and genetic drivers. The two most commonly used measures are Rockwood's frailty index (FI) and Fried's frailty phenotype (FP). Material and methods: the present study included 3626 individuals from the TwinsUK Adult Twin Registry. We used the classical twin model to determine whether FI and FP share the same latent aetiological factors...
July 7, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977668/sleep-duration-mortality-and-heredity-a-prospective-twin-study
#18
Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Jurgita Narusyte, Kristina Alexanderson, Pia Svedberg
Introduction: A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. Methods: We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. Results: A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1...
July 29, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975873/associations-between-asthma-and-sensitization-to-pet-or-pollen-allergens-in-young-swedish-twins-the-stoppa-study
#19
Cecilia Lindemalm, Björn Nordlund, Anne K Örtqvist, Cecilia Lundholm, Marianne van Hage, Tong Gong, Catarina Almqvist
BACKGROUND: An association between childhood asthma and IgE sensitization has been established, but our understanding of the genetic and environmental contribution to it is incomplete. Our aim was to estimate the associations and dose-response relationship between asthma and sensitization to airborne allergens in Swedish 9- to 14-year-old twins. Additionally, we aimed to explore the importance of familial confounding from shared genes and environment using co-twin controls. METHODS: In the STOPPA cohort, 752 same-sex twin children were screened with Phadiatop® (Thermo Fisher Scientific; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden); if positive further analysis of IgE antibodies to airborne allergens of pets (cat, horse, dog), pollens (birch, timothy, mugwort), mites, and mold were performed...
October 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965437/midtrimester-isolated-oligohydramnios-in-monochorionic-diamniotic-multiple-gestations
#20
Andrew H Chon, Lisa M Korst, Ryan D Assaf, Arlyn Llanes, Joseph G Ouzounian, Ramen H Chmait
OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history and perinatal outcomes of monochorionic diamniotic twins with midtrimester isolated oligohydramnios (iOligo). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of iOligo patients who were initially referred for the management of evolving twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) or selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR). iOligo was defined as a maximum vertical pocket of amniotic fluid of ≤2 cm in the iOligo twin's sac and normal fluid level (>2 and <8 cm) in the co-twin's sac...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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