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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821800/gender-differences-in-infant-mortality-and-neonatal-morbidity-in-mixed-gender-twins
#1
Dongying Zhao, Lile Zou, Xiaoping Lei, Yongjun Zhang
In the present study, we aimed to explore gender differences in infant mortality and neonatal morbidity in mixed-gender twin pairs. Data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics Linked Birth-Infant Death Cohort. A total of 108,038 pairs of mixed-gender twins were included in this analysis. Among the mixed-gender twins, no significant difference in the odds of fetal mortality between male twins (1.05%) and female co-twins (1.04%). However, male twins were at increased odds of neonatal mortality (adjusted OR 1...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797086/epigenetic-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-provide-clues-to-disease-pathogenesis
#2
Paul E Young, Stephen Kum Jew, Michael E Buckland, Roger Pamphlett, Catherine M Suter
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which only a small proportion of patients carry an identifiable causative genetic lesion. Despite high heritability estimates, a genetic etiology for most sporadic ALS remains elusive. Here we report the epigenetic profiling of five monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ALS, four with classic ALS and one with the progressive muscular atrophy ALS variant, in whom previous whole genome sequencing failed to uncover a genetic basis for their disease discordance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792107/intrafetal-laser-for-embryo-reduction-from-dichorionic-triplets-to-dichorionic-twins
#3
Petya Chaveeva, Gergana Peeva, Savino Gil Pugliese, Atanas Shterev, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To report the outcome of dichorionic (DC) triplet pregnancies reduced to DC twins by laser ablation of the pelvic vessels of one of the monochorionic twins. METHODS: Intrafetal laser embryo reduction (ER) from DC triplet to DC twins was carried out in 61 pregnancies at 11(+0) - 14(+3) weeks' gestation. Pregnancy outcome was examined and compared to previous studies in DC triplets managed expectantly or by ER to twins or singleton with fetal intracardiac injection of potassium chloride (KCl)...
August 9, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761079/alterations-in-resting-state-connectivity-along-the-autism-trait-continuum-a-twin-study
#4
J Neufeld, R Kuja-Halkola, K Mevel, É Cauvet, P Fransson, S Bölte
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been found to be associated with alterations in resting state (RS) functional connectivity, including areas forming the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). However, insufficient control for confounding genetic and environmental influences and other methodological issues limit the generalizability of previous findings. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that ASD might be marked by early hyper-connectivity followed by later hypo-connectivity. To date, only a few studies have explicitly tested age-related influences on RS connectivity alterations in ASD...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755788/concordance-of-autoimmune-disease-in-a-nationwide-danish-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-twin-cohort
#5
Constance Jensina Ulff-Møller, Anders Jørgen Svendsen, Louise Nørgaard Viemose, Søren Jacobsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the concordance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and co-aggregating autoimmune diseases among Danish twins. METHODS: SLE-affected twins were ascertained by record linkage between the National Patient Register (NPR) and the Danish Twin Registry (DTR). Registered SLE codes were validated through medical chart review and information from the treating physicians. Twin pairs with at least one chart-validated SLE proband were invited to participate in a personal interview and clinical validation of the SLE diagnoses...
June 23, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734078/associations-between-adolescent-cannabis-use-and-neuropsychological-decline-a-longitudinal-co-twin-control-study
#6
Madeline H Meier, Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt
AIMS: This study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation. DESIGN: A longitudinal co-twin control study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 1,989 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of twins born in England and Wales from 1994-1995...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727977/the-vanishing-twin-syndrome-two-cases-of-extreme-malformations-associated-with-vanished-twins
#7
Julia K Shinnick, Nasim Khoshnam, Sydney R Archer, Philip C Quigley, Haynes Robinson, Sarah Keene, Matthew T Santore, Sarah Hill, Binita Patel, Bahig M Shehata
Two cases of devastating fetal malformations associated with vanished monochorionic twins were identified upon review of pathology files. A 35-year-old G1P0 woman and 36-year-old G3P1 woman were both diagnosed with an intrauterine twin gestation via transvaginal ultrasound at 10 weeks. The spectrum of fetal anomalies ranged from omphalocele, bilateral upper extremity, and unilateral lower extremity hypoplasia, to craniofacial malformation with diaphragmatic hernia. On histopathologic examination, the placentas demonstrated vascular anastomoses between the surviving co-twin and the "vanished" fetal sac...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727730/do-mz-twins-have-discordant-experiences-of-friendship-a-qualitative-hypothesis-generating-mz-twin-differences-study
#8
Kathryn Asbury, Nicola Moran, Robert Plomin
Using a qualitative monozygotic (MZ) twin differences design we explored whether adolescent MZ twins report discordant peer relationships and, if so, whether they perceive them as causes, consequences or correlates of discordant behaviour. We gathered free-response questionnaire data from 497 families and conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 97 of them. Within this dataset n = 112 families (23% of the sample) described discordant peer relationships. Six categories of discordance were identified (peer victimisation, peer rejection, fewer friends, different friends, different attitudes to friendship and dependence on co-twin)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724477/oliver-sacks-our-correspondence-about-twins-twin-research-vanishing-twins-syndrome-discordant-sex-in-mz-twins-pregnancy-outcomes-in-ivf-and-icsi-conceived-twins-print-and-media-superfetated-twins-twins-discordant-for-smoking-twins-in-fashion-yale-university
#9
Nancy L Segal
The late neurologist and author, Oliver Sacks, published an insightful 1986 review of Marjorie Wallace's book, The Silent Twins, in the New York Times. Taking exception to his assertion about Sir Francis Galton, I wrote a letter to the Times' editor. The letter was unpublished, but it brought a wonderful response from Sacks himself that is reproduced and examined. Next, brief reviews of twin research concerning the vanishing twin syndrome (VTS), discordant sex in a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair, and multiple pregnancy outcomes from assisted reproductive technology (ART) are presented...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718512/overweight-is-associated-with-lower-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-females-after-eliminating-genetic-effects-a-twin-study
#10
Stieneke Doornweerd, Eelco van Duinkerken, Eco J de Geus, Parniane Arbab-Zadeh, Dick J Veltman, Richard G IJzerman
Obesity is related to altered functional connectivity of resting state brain networks that are involved in reward and motivation. It is unknown to what extent these associations reflect genetic confounding and whether the obesity-related connectivity changes are associated with differences in dietary intake. In this study, resting state functional MRI was performed after an overnight fast in 16 female monozygotic twin pairs (aged 48.8 ± 9.8 years) with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) (range 0...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704197/expectant-management-in-di-chorionic-pregnancies-complicated-by-discordant-anomalous-twin
#11
Paola Algeri, Francesca M Russo, Maddalena Incerti, Sabrina Cozzolino, Francesca Pelizzoni, Davido P Bernasconi, Luca Montanelli, Luca Locatelli, Patrizia Vergani
Fetal malformations are more frequent in twins than in singletons. The aim of our study was to define the influence of a malformed twin on di-chorionic pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of di-chorionic pregnancies delivered between 2000 and 2015. Exclusion criteria were: both twins affected by fetal malformations, double intra-uterine fetal death in pregnancies without fetal malformation, selective feticide and therapeutic pregnancy termination. We compared maternal and fetal outcomes of di-chorionic pregnancies not complicated by fetal malformations with pregnancies affected by a single malformed fetus with conservative management...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679550/differences-in-genetic-and-environmental-variation-in-adult-bmi-by-sex-age-time-period-and-region-an-individual-based-pooled-analysis-of-40-twin-cohorts
#12
Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Yoshie Yokoyama, Yoon-Mi Hur, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, Thomas M Mack, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Yoshinori Iwatani, Mikio Watanabe, Rie Tomizawa, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Aila Rissanen, Sisira H Siribaddana, Matthew Hotopf, Athula Sumathipala, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Zengchang Pang, Maarit Piirtola, Sari Aaltonen, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Esther Rebato, Jacob B Hjelmborg, Kaare Christensen, Axel Skytthe, Kirsten O Kyvik, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Tessa L Cutler, Juan R Ordoñana, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Yun-Mi Song, Sarah Yang, Kayoung Lee, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Michael J Lyons, Andreas Busjahn, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Christian Kandler, Kerry L Jang, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D'Ippolito, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Hoe-Uk Jeong, Gary E Swan, Ruth Krasnow, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Alice M Gregory, Per Tynelius, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Timothy D Spector, Massimo Mangino, Genevieve Lachance, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Jennifer R Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas S Nilsen, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Meike Bartels, Catharina Em van Beijsterveldt, Gonneke Willemsen, Jack H Goldberg, Finn Rasmussen, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth Jf Loos, John L Hopper, Joohon Sung, Hermine H Maes, Eric Turkheimer, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Jaakko Kaprio
Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity.Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins ≥20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs)...
August 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661110/-single-fetal-demise-in-monochorionic-twins
#13
REVIEW
Isaac Blickstein
Single fetal death in a monochorionic twin pregnancy is more frequent than in a dichorionic twin gestation. Due to inter-twin vascular anastomosis in the monochorionic common placenta, the death of one twin causes a drop in blood pressure due to a shift of blood from the survivor to the dead fetus. If the drop of blood pressure is abrupt and serious, the survivor will die soon after (as occurs in 15% of cases). If the drop is less serious, the survivor may sustain ischemic injury (in about 26% of the cases) and if the drop in blood pressure is subtle, the survivor will be intact...
June 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637897/heritability-of-resting-heart-rate-and-association-with-mortality-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-twins
#14
Magnus T Jensen, Mette Wod, Søren Galatius, Jacob B Hjelmborg, Gorm B Jensen, Kaare Christensen
OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) possibly has a hereditary component and is associated with longevity. We used the classical biometric twin study design to investigate the heritability of RHR in a population of middle-aged and elderly twins and, furthermore, studied the association between RHR and mortality. METHODS: In total, 4282 twins without cardiovascular disease were included from the Danish Twin Registry, hereof 1233 twin pairs and 1816 'single twins' (twins with a non-participating co-twin); mean age 61...
June 21, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619249/metabolism-of-sex-steroids-is-influenced-by-acquired-adiposity-a-study-of-young-adult-male-monozygotic-twin-pairs
#15
Veera Vihma, Jussi Naukkarinen, Ursula Turpeinen, Esa Hämäläinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Aila Rissanen, Sini Heinonen, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Tomi S Mikkola, Matti J Tikkanen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
Obesity and ageing are associated with lower serum testosterone levels in men. How fat distribution or adipose tissue metabolism, independent of genetic factors and age, are related to sex steroid metabolism is less clear. We studied the associations between adiposity and serum sex hormone concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes regulating sex hormone metabolism in adipose tissue in young adult male monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The subjects [n=18 pairs; mean age, 32 years; individual body mass indexes (BMIs) 22-36kg/m(2)] included 9 male MZ twin pairs discordant for BMI [intra-pair difference (Δ) in BMI ≥3kg/m(2)]...
September 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597337/brain-reward-responses-to-food-stimuli-among-female-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-bmi
#16
Stieneke Doornweerd, Eco J De Geus, Frederik Barkhof, Liselotte Van Bloemendaal, Dorret I Boomsma, Jenny Van Dongen, Madeleine L Drent, Gonneke Willemsen, Dick J Veltman, Richard G IJzerman
Obese individuals are characterized by altered brain reward responses to food. Despite the latest discovery of obesity-associated genes, the contribution of environmental and genetic factors to brain reward responsiveness to food remains largely unclear. Sixteen female monozygotic twin pairs with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) were selected from the Netherlands Twin Register to undergo functional MRI scanning while watching high- and low-calorie food and non-food pictures and during the anticipation and receipt of chocolate milk...
June 8, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581026/cross-sectional-association-between-testosterone-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-and-metabolic-syndrome-the-healthy-twin-study
#17
Heesun Moon, Inyoung Choi, Somi Kim, Hyeonyoung Ko, Jinyoung Shin, Kayoung Lee, Joohon Sung, Yun-Mi Song
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated an association between testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and metabolic syndrome (MetS).We also evaluated the genetic and environmental influence on the association. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,098 Korean adult men including 139 monozygotic twin pairs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria...
June 5, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575460/testing-familial-transmission-of-smoking-with-two-different-research-designs
#18
Jorien L Treur, Karin J H Verweij, Abdel Abdellaoui, Iryna O Fedko, Eveline L de Zeeuw, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jacqueline M Vink
Introduction: Classical twin studies show that smoking is heritable. To determine if shared family environment plays a role in addition to genetic factors, and if they interact (GxE), we use a children-of-twins design. In a second sample, we measure genetic influence with polygenic risk scores (PRS) and environmental influence with a question on exposure to smoking during childhood. Methods: Data on smoking initiation were available for 723 children of 712 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR;64...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571031/perimortem-demonstration-and-treatment-of-recipient-to-donor-transfusion-in-monochorionic-diamniotic-twin-gestation
#19
Jessica Parrott, Tricia Schwartz, Tracy Cowles, Marium Holland, Carl P Weiner
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome is a complication of monochorionic-diamniotic placentation. Should one twin die, ≈30% of co-twins will also die, and if they survive, ≈30% experience severe morbidity rates, each believed secondary to hemorrhage of the co-twin into the deceased twin. We report apparently the first ultrasound-documented case of perimortem hemorrhage in twin-twin transfusion syndrome and its treatment by emergent ultrasound-guided percutaneous cord occlusion followed by percutaneous fetal intravascular transfusion...
June 2, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559893/upregulation-of-early-and-downregulation-of-terminal-pathway-complement-genes-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-adipocytes-in-acquired-obesity
#20
Sanna Kaye, A Inkeri Lokki, Anna Hanttu, Eija Nissilä, Sini Heinonen, Antti Hakkarainen, Jesper Lundbom, Nina Lundbom, Lilli Saarinen, Olli Tynninen, Maheswary Muniandy, Aila Rissanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Seppo Meri, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
Inflammation is an important mediator of obesity-related complications such as the metabolic syndrome but its causes and mechanisms are unknown. As the complement system is a key mediator of inflammation, we studied whether it is activated in acquired obesity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and isolated adipocytes. We used a special study design of genetically matched controls of lean and heavy groups, rare monozygotic twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI) [n = 26, within-pair difference (Δ) in body mass index, BMI >3 kg/m(2)] with as much as 18 kg mean Δweight...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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