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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675466/parallel-evolution-of-batesian-mimicry-supergene-in-two-papilio-butterflies-p-polytes-and-p-memnon
#1
Takuro Iijima, Rei Kajitani, Shinya Komata, Chung-Ping Lin, Teiji Sota, Takehiko Itoh, Haruhiko Fujiwara
Batesian mimicry protects animals from predators when mimics resemble distasteful models. The female-limited Batesian mimicry in Papilio butterflies is controlled by a supergene locus switching mimetic and nonmimetic forms. In Papilio polytes , recent studies revealed that a highly diversified region (HDR) containing doublesex ( dsx -HDR) constitutes the supergene with dimorphic alleles and is likely maintained by a chromosomal inversion. In the closely related Papilio memnon , which exhibits a similar mimicry polymorphism, we performed whole-genome sequence analyses in 11 butterflies, which revealed a nearly identical dsx -HDR containing three genes ( dsx , Nach-like , and UXT ) with dimorphic sequences strictly associated with the mimetic/nonmimetic phenotypes...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672770/clustered-regularly-interspaced-short-palindromic-repeats-crispr-crispr-associated-protein-9-with-improved-proof-reading-enhances-homology-directed-repair
#2
Tomoko Kato-Inui, Gou Takahashi, Szuyin Hsu, Yuichiro Miyaoka
Genome editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) predominantly induces non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which generates random insertions or deletions, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR), which generates precise recombination products, is useful for wider applications. However, the factors that determine the ratio of HDR to NHEJ products after CRISPR/Cas9 editing remain unclear, and methods by which the proportion of HDR products can be increased have not yet been fully established...
April 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663634/barakat-syndrome-revisited
#3
Amin J Barakat, Margarita Raygada, Owen M Rennert
Barakat syndrome also known as HDR syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 146255), was first described by Barakat et al. in . It is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the triad of hypoparathyroidism "H," sensorineural deafness "D," and renal disease "R." The defect is caused by deletions in chromosome 10p14 or mutations in the GATA3 gene. Although the syndrome has been phenotypically defined by this triad the literature identifies cases with different components with, or without GATA3 defects making the definition of the syndrome confusing...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655920/suppressing-ku70-ku80-expression-elevates-homology-directed-repair-efficiency-in-primary-fibroblasts
#4
Guoling Li, Dewu Liu, Xianwei Zhang, Rong Quan, Cuili Zhong, Jianxin Mo, Yaoqiang Huang, Haoqiang Wang, Xiaofang Ruan, Zheng Xu, Enqin Zheng, Ting Gu, Linjun Hong, Zicong Li, Zhenfang Wu, Huaqiang Yang
The main DNA repair pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR), are complementary to each other; hence, interruptions of the NHEJ pathway can favor HDR. Improving HDR efficiency in animal primary fibroblasts can facilitate the generation of gene knock-in animals with agricultural and biomedical values by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we used siRNA to suppress the expression of Ku70 and Ku80, which are the key factors in NHEJ pathway, to investigate the effect of Ku silencing on the HDR efficiency in pig fetal fibroblasts...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628630/interfraction-variations-in-organ-filling-and-their-impact-on-dosimetry-in-ct-image-based-hdr-intracavitary-brachytherapy
#5
Ramya Rangarajan
Aim: Since anatomical and geometric variations occur with every fraction, planning, and dose optimization is necessary for every fraction of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy of carcinoma cervix. In this study, we have tried to quantify the differences in doses to organs at risk (OAR) for each fraction of brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy computed tomography datasets of cervical cancer patients receiving intracavitary brachytherapy at our institution between January and April 2015 were analyzed...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628224/high-dynamic-range-ultrasound-application-for-imaging-tendon-pathology
#6
Yiming Xiao, Mathieu Boily, Hoda Sadat Hashemi, Hassan Rivaz
Raw ultrasound (US) signal has a very high dynamic range (HDR) and, as such, is compressed in B-mode US using a logarithmic function to fit within the dynamic range of digital displays. However, in some cases, hyper-echogenic tissue can be overexposed at high gain levels with the loss of hypo-echogenic detail at low gain levels. This can cause the loss of anatomic detail and tissue texture and frequent and inconvenient gain adjustments, potentially affecting the diagnosis. To mitigate these drawbacks, we employed tone mapping operators (TMOs) in HDR photography to create HDR US...
April 5, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625808/high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer-a-prospective-toxicity-evaluation-of-a-one-day-schedule-including-two-13-5-gy-fractions
#7
Gorka Nagore, Jose Luis Lopez Guerra, Evita Krumina, Mark Lagos, Beatriz Ovalles, Antonio Miró, Lourdes Beltran, Emilia Gómez, Juan Manuel Praena-Fernandez, Eleonor Rivin Del Campo, Ignacio Azinovic, Alfonso Gomez-Iturriaga
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) provides a highly conformal method of dose delivery to the prostate. The purpose of this study is to prospectively determine the toxicity of the treatment protocol of 13.5 Gy × 2 fractions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 through 2017, 119 patients with low (71%) or intermediate-risk prostate cancer were prospectively treated in a single institute with HDR-BT at 13.5 Gy × 2 fractions within one day...
April 3, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624775/highly-efficient-ssodn-mediated-homology-directed-repair-of-dsbs-generated-by-cripsr-cas9-in-human-3pn-zygotes
#8
Lichun Tang, Yanting Zeng, Xuewei Zhou, Hongzi Du, Chuang Li, Jianqiao Liu, Pumin Zhang
Ma et al. published data in Nature Journal using human zygotes that showed that double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by CRISPR/Cas9 could be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using the wild-type allele as a template, by inter-homologue recombination (Ma et al., 2017). This result received great attention from the scientific community, however, in a recent publication, researchers have raised some concerns about Ma's interpretation of their results (Egli et al., 2017). Our previous work showed that ssODN-mediated HDR could repair 75% of DSBs generated by CRISPR/Cas9 at G6PD mutant alleles (Tang et al...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622782/multiple-sgrnas-with-overlapping-sequences-enhance-crispr-cas9-mediated-knock-in-efficiency
#9
Da Eun Jang, Jae Young Lee, Jae Hoon Lee, Ok Jae Koo, Hee Sook Bae, Min Hee Jung, Ji Hyun Bae, Woo Sung Hwang, Yoo Jin Chang, Yoon Hoo Lee, Han Woong Lee, Su Cheong Yeom
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is widely applied in genome engineering due to its simplicity and versatility. Although this has revolutionized genome-editing technology, knockin animal generation via homology directed repair (HDR) is not as efficient as nonhomologous end-joining DNA-repair-dependent knockout. Although its double-strand break activity may vary, Cas9 derived from Streptococcus pyogenens allows robust design of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) within the target sequence; However, prescreening for different sgRNA activities delays the process of transgenic animal generation...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619060/reduction-of-applicator-displacement-in-mr-ct-guided-cervical-cancer-hdr-brachytherapy-by-the-use-of-patient-hover-transport-system
#10
Megan Andrew, Yusung Kim, Timothy Ginader, Brian J Smith, Wenqing Sun, Dongxu Wang
Purpose: To quantify the reduction of relative displacement between the implanted intracavitary applicator and the patient bony anatomy, due to the use of a hover transport system during the patient transports between the imaging table and the treatment table. Material and methods: The displacement of the applicator inside the patient was measured by comparing the distance between the tip of the tandem and the pubic bone on X-ray radiography images taken before and after moving a patient to magnetic resonance/computed tomography imaging...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619059/a-comparative-assessment-of-inhomogeneity-and-finite-patient-dimension-effects-in-60-co-and-192-ir-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy
#11
Irina Fotina, Kyveli Zourari, Vasileios Lahanas, Evaggelos Pantelis, Panagiotis Papagiannis
Purpose: To perform a comparative study of heterogeneities and finite patient dimension effects in60 Co and192 Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Material and methods: Clinically equivalent plans were prepared for 19 cases (8 breast, 5 esophagus, 6 gynecologic) using the Ir2.A85-2 and the Co0.A86 HDR sources, with a TG-43 based treatment planning system (TPS). Phase space files were obtained for the two source designs using MCNP6, and validated through comparison to a single source dosimetry results in the literature...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619058/long-term-outcome-of-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-and-perioperative-brachytherapy-in-early-mobile-tongue-cancer
#12
Mahadev Potharaju, Hemanth Raj E, Manavalan Muthukumaran, Murali Venkataraman, Bhargavi Ilangovan, Selvan Kuppusamy
Purpose: To evaluate long-term outcome of high-dose-rate brachytherapy and perioperative brachytherapy in early mobile tongue cancer. Material and methods: Seventy-three patients with clinically staged T1/T2 N0 M0 of mobile tongue cancer were studied retrospectively. Between January 2000 and September 2010, 47 patients underwent high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) alone and 26 patients underwent perioperative brachytherapy (PB). Endpoints were overall survival, disease-free survival, loco-regional control, and late side effects...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619057/accelerated-partial-breast-irradiation-in-a-single-18-gy-fraction-with-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-preliminary-results
#13
Javier Anchuelo Latorre, Piedad Galdós, Lucía Alonso Buznego, Ana García Blanco, Juan Cardenal, María Ferri, Iván Díaz de Cerio, Elisabet Arrojo, Nicolás Sierrasesúmaga, Mónica González Noriega, Ana De Juan Ferré, Rosa Fabregat, Samuel Ruíz, Pedro J Prada
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of acute and chronic toxicity in patients suitable for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a single 18 Gy fraction with multicatheter high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, as well as cosmetic and oncological outcomes. Material and methods: Between September 2014 and March 2016, twenty consecutive patients with low-risk invasive and ductal carcinoma in situ were treated with interstitial multicatheter HDR brachytherapy in a single 18 Gy fraction...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619055/late-g2-vagina-toxicity-in-post-operative-endometrial-carcinoma-is-associated-with-a-68-gy-dose-equivalent-to-2-gy-per-fraction-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-3gy-at-2-cm-3-of-vagina
#14
María Del Valle Aguilera, Ángeles Rovirosa, Carlos Ascaso, Antonio Herreros, Joan Sánchez, Julia Garcia-Migue, Stephanía Cortes, Eduardo Agusti, Cristina Camacho, Yaowen Zhang, Yan Li, Sebastià Sabater, Aureli Torne, Meritxell Arenas
Purpose: To evaluate if the dose equivalent to 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2)(α/β=3Gy) at 0.1 cm3 , 1 cm3 , and 2 cm3 of vagina in vaginal-cuff-brachytherapy (VBT) (high-dose-rate [HDR]192 Ir-source) ± external-beam-irradiation (EBRT) is associated with toxicity in post-operative endometrial carcinoma (P-EC). Material and methods: From June 2014 till November 2015, 67 consecutive P-EC patients underwent VBT ± EBRT; 44 patients received EBRT (median, 45 Gy; range, 44-50...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619054/clinical-analysis-of-speculum-based-vaginal-packing-for-high-dose-rate-intracavitary-tandem-and-ovoid-brachytherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#15
Shivani Sud, Toni Roth, Ellen Jones
Purpose: Intra-vaginal packing is used to fix the applicator and displace organs at risk (OAR) during high-dose-rate intracavitary tandem and ovoid brachytherapy (HDR-ICB). We retain the speculum from applicator placement as a dual-function bladder and rectum retractor during treatment. Our objective is to review salient techniques for OAR displacement, share our packing technique, and determine the reduction in dose to OAR and inter-fraction variability of dose to OAR, associated with speculum-based vaginal packing (SBVP) in comparison to conventional gauze packing during HDR-ICB...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619053/dosimetric-analysis-of-the-effects-of-the-bladder-volume-on-organs-at-risk-oar-in-high-dose-rate-intracavitary-brachytherapy-in-carcinoma-cervix-an-institutional-study
#16
Ashutosh Das Sharma, Jyoti Poddar, U Suryanarayan K, Sonal Patel Shah, Ankita Parikh, Vimesh Mehta, Med Phys, Tarun Kumar, Med Phys
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish a dosimetric correlation between the bladder volume and its effects on the dose received by the organs at risk (OARs) (urinary bladder, rectum, and sigmoid) during computed tomography (CT)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in carcinoma cervix, and to determine an optimum bladder volume to limit the dose to OARs. Material and methods: Seventy-five intracavitary applications in patients of carcinoma cervix (stage IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVA) treated with external beam radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy followed by CT-based HDR intracavitary brachytherapy (tandem and ovoid type) at our institute between July 2014 to January 2016 were studied...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619050/time-to-psa-rise-differentiates-the-psa-bounce-after-hdr-and-ldr-brachytherapy-of-prostate-cancer
#17
Wojciech Burchardt, Janusz Skowronek
Purpose: To investigate the differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce (PB) after high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) or low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) brachytherapy alone in prostate cancer patients. Materials and methods: Ninety-four patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2cN0), age ranged 50-81 years, were treated with brachytherapy alone between 2008 and 2010. Patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, Gleason score ≤ 7. The LDR-BT total dose was 144-145 Gy, in HDR-BT - 3 fractions of 10...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618951/importance-of-hypersensitivity-in-adverse-reactions-to-drugs-in-the-elderly
#18
Maria Teresa Ventura, Elisa Boni, Rosa Cecere, Rosalba Buquicchio, Gian Franco Calogiuri, Irene Martignago, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Erminia Ridolo
Background: The use of drugs in the elderly is very extensive because of the frequent occurrence of chronic diseases. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) commonly occur in geriatric patients receiving multiple therapeutic regimens. In the literature, little attention has been given to ADRs in the elderly, and particularly to allergic reactions. Objective: The aim of the present study is to provide data on possible inappropriate prescriptions in the elderly in relation to allergic reactions and to identify a list of drugs which are likely inducers of allergic reactions...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616659/introduction-of-a-hybrid-treatment-delivery-system-used-for-quality-assurance-in-multi-catheter-interstitial-brachytherapy
#19
Karoline Kallis, Stephan Kreppner, Michael Lotter, Vratislav Strnad, Rainer Fietkau, Christoph Bert
Multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy (iBT) is a treatment option for breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery. Typically, only a few additional quality interventions after the first irradiation have been introduced to ensure the planned treatment delivery. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to show the possibilities of an electromagnetic tracking (EMT) system integrated into the afterloader for quality assurance (QA) in high-dose rate (HDR) iBT of patients with breast cancer. 
 The hybrid afterloader system equipped with an electromagnetic sensor was used for all phantom and patient measurements...
April 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611893/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-propionate-degradation-by-syntrophobacter-fumaroxidans-in-pure-culture-and-in-coculture-with-methanogens
#20
Vicente T Sedano-Núñez, Sjef Boeren, Alfons J M Stams, Caroline M Plugge
Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans is a sulfate-reducing bacterium able to grow on propionate axenically or in syntrophic interaction with methanogens or other sulfate-reducing bacteria. We performed a proteome analysis of S. fumaroxidans growing with propionate axenically with sulfate or fumarate, and in syntrophy with Methanospirillum hungatei, Methanobacterium formicicum or Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Special attention was put on the role of hydrogen and formate in interspecies electron transfer (IET) and energy conservation...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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