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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334931/rgf1p-rho1p-gef-is-required-for-double-strand-break-repair-in-fission-yeast
#1
Elvira Manjón, Tomás Edreira, Sofía Muñoz, Yolanda Sánchez
Rho GTPases are conserved molecules that control cytoskeletal dynamics. These functions are expedited by Rho GEFs that stimulate the release of GDP to enable GTP binding, thereby allowing Rho proteins to initiate intracellular signaling. How Rho GEFs and Rho GTPases protect cells from DNA damage is unknown. Here, we explore the extreme sensitivity of a deletion mutation in the Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p to the DNA break/inducing antibiotic phleomycin (Phl). The Rgf1p mutant cells are defective in reentry into the cell cycle following the induction of severe DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334779/targeted-gene-knock-in-by-homology-directed-genome-editing-using-cas9-ribonucleoprotein-and-aav-donor-delivery
#2
Thomas Gaj, Brett T Staahl, Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Prajit Limsirichai, Freja K Ekman, Jennifer A Doudna, David V Schaffer
Realizing the full potential of genome editing requires the development of efficient and broadly applicable methods for delivering programmable nucleases and donor templates for homology-directed repair (HDR). The RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease can be introduced into cells as a purified protein in complex with a single guide RNA (sgRNA). Such ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) can facilitate the high-fidelity introduction of single-base substitutions via HDR following co-delivery with a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide...
March 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333633/no-reference-quality-assessment-of-tone-mapped-hdr-pictures
#3
Debarati Kundu, Deepti Ghadiyaram, Alan Bovik, Brian Evans
Being able to automatically predict digital picture quality, as perceived by human observers, has become important in many applications where humans are the ultimate consumers of displayed visual information. Standard dynamic range (SDR) images provide 8 bits/color/pixel. High dynamic range (HDR) images which are usually created from multiple exposures of the same scene, can provide 16 or 32 bits/color/pixel, but must be tonemapped to SDR for display on standard monitors. Multi-exposure fusion (MEF) techniques bypass HDR creation, by fusing the exposure stack directly to SDR format while aiming for aesthetically pleasing luminance and color distributions...
March 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333018/nationwide-multicenter-retrospective-study-on-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-as-monotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#4
Yasuo Yoshioka, Tadayuki Kotsuma, Akira Komiya, Shinji Kariya, Koji Konishi, Norio Nonomura, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Eiichi Tanaka, Kensaku Nishimura, Yasuyoshi Fujiuchi, Hiroshi Kitamura, Takuji Yamagami, Ichiro Yamasaki, Kazuo Nishimura, Teruki Teshima, Katsumasa Nakamura, Jun Itami
PURPOSE: To present, analyze, and discuss results of a nationwide, multicenter, retrospective study on high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) as monotherapy for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1995 through 2013, 524 patients, 73 (14%) with low-risk, 207 (40%) with intermediate-risk, and 244 (47%) with high-risk prostate cancer, were treated with HDR-BT as monotherapy at 5 institutions in Japan. Dose fractionations were 27 Gy/2 fractions for 69 patients (13%), 45...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325472/dosimetric-comparison-between-treatment-plans-of-patients-treated-with-low-dose-rate-vs-high-dose-rate-interstitial-prostate-brachytherapy-as-monotherapy-initial-findings-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
T Major, C Polgár, K Jorgo, G Stelczer, P Ágoston
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetry of intraoperative dose plans of prostate cancer patients treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (BT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A randomized clinical trial was initiated at our institution to compare the results and side effects of LDR and HDR BT as monotherapy in the treatment of early, organ-confined prostate cancer patients. Eighty-seven patients were randomly assigned to receive HDR afterloading BT with one fraction of 19 Gy or permanent LDR (125)I seed BT with 145 Gy...
March 15, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318644/comparison-of-outcomes-for-mr-guided-versus-ct-guided-high-dose-rate-interstitial-brachytherapy-in-women-with-locally-advanced-carcinoma-of-the-cervix
#6
Sophia C Kamran, Matthias M Manuel, Linda P Cho, Antonio L Damato, Ehud J Schmidt, Clare Tempany, Robert A Cormack, Akila N Viswanathan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to compare local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and dose to the organs at risk (OAR) in women with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with MR-guided versus CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy (BT). METHODS: 56 patients (29 MR, 27 CT) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial BT between 2005-2015. The MR patients had been prospectively enrolled on a Phase II clinical trial. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier (K-M) and Cox proportional hazards statistical modeling in JMP® & R®...
March 17, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303854/clinical-auditory-phenotypes-associated-with-gata3-gene-mutations-in-familial-hypoparathyroidism-deafness-renal-dysplasia-syndrome
#7
Li Wang, Qiong-Fen Lin, Hong-Yang Wang, Jing Guan, Lan Lan, Lin-Yi Xie, Lan Yu, Ju Yang, Cui Zhao, Jin-Long Liang, Han-Lin Zhou, Huan-Ming Yang, Wen-Ping Xiong, Qiu-Jing Zhang, Da-Yong Wang, Qiu-Ju Wang
BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroidism-deafness-renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder primarily caused by haploinsufficiency of GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) gene mutations, and hearing loss is the most frequent phenotypic feature. This study aimed at identifying the causative gene mutation for a three-generation Chinese family with HDR syndrome and analyzing auditory phenotypes in all familial HDR syndrome cases. METHODS: Three affected family members underwent otologic examinations, biochemistry tests, and other clinical evaluations...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303228/molecular-cloning-and-functional-identification-of-a-cdna-encoding-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate-reductase-from-tripterygium-wilfordii
#8
Qiqing Cheng, Yuru Tong, Zihao Wang, Ping Su, Wei Gao, Luqi Huang
The 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) is the last step key enzyme of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, synthesizing isopentenyl diphosphate and its allyl isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate, which is important for regulation of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Here the full-length cDNA of HDR, designated TwHDR (GenBank Accession No. KJ933412.1), was isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii for the first time. TwHDR has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1386 bp encoding 461 amino acids. TwHDR exhibits high homology with HDRs of other plants, with an N-terminal conserved domain and three conserved cysteine residues...
March 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300641/genome-editing-using-crispr-cas9-based-knock-in-approaches-in-zebrafish
#9
REVIEW
Shahad Albadri, Filippo Del Bene, Céline Revenu
With its variety of applications, the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology has been rapidly evolving in the last few years. In the zebrafish community, knock-out reports are constantly increasing but insertion studies have been so far more challenging. With this review, we aim at giving an overview of the homologous directed repair (HDR)-based knock-in generation in zebrafish. We address the critical points and limitations of the procedure such as cutting efficiency of the chosen single guide RNA, use of cas9 mRNA or Cas9 protein, homology arm size etc...
March 11, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297433/secondary-cancer-incidence-risk-estimates-for-external-radiotherapy-and-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-in-cervical-cancer-phantom-study
#10
Boram Lee, Sung Hwan Ahn, Hyeyoung Kim, Jaeman Son, Jiwon Sung, Youngyih Han, Seung Jae Huh, Jin Sung Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Myonggeun Yoon
This study was designed to estimate radiation-induced secondary cancer risks from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer based on measurements of doses absorbed by various organs. Organ doses from HDR brachytherapy and external radiotherapy were measured using glass rod dosimeters. Doses to out-of-field organs were measured at various locations inside an anthropomorphic phantom. Brachytherapy-associated organ doses were measured using a specialized phantom that enabled applicator insertion, with the pelvis portion of the existing anthropomorphic phantom replaced by this new phantom...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297424/dosimetric-impact-of-cylinder-size-in-high-dose-rate-vaginal-cuff-brachytherapy-vcbt-for-primary-endometrial-cancer
#11
Hualin Zhang, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan, Plato Lee, Zhuang Kang, Vythialingam Sathiaseelan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of cylinder size in high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT). Sample plans of HDR VCBT in a list of cylinders ranging from 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter at 0.5 cm increment were created and analyzed. The doses were prescribed either at the 0.5 cm depth with 5.5 Gy for 4 fractions or at the cylinder surface with 8.8 Gy for 4 fractions, in various treatment lengths. A 0.5 cm shell volume called PTV_Eval was contoured for each plan and served as the target volume for dosimetric evaluation...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297420/thin-film-cdte-detector-for-microdosimetric-study-of-radiation-dose-enhancement-at-gold-tissue-interface
#12
Nava Raj Paudel, Diana Shvydka, E Ishmael Parsai
Presence of interfaces between high and low atomic number (Z) materials, often encountered in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy, leads to radiation dose perturbation. It is characterized by a very narrow region of sharp dose enhancement at the interface. A rapid falloff of the dose enhancement over a very short distance from the interface makes the experimental dosimetry nontrivial. We use an in-house-built inexpensive thin-film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) photodetector to study this effect at the gold-tissue interface and verify our experimental results with Monte Carlo (MC) modeling...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297313/a-comparison-of-organs-at-risk-doses-in-gyn-intracavitary-brachytherapy-for-different-tandem-lengths-and-bladder-volumes
#13
Zahra Siavashpour, Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, Ramin Jaberi, Naser ZareAkha, Hamid Reza Dehghan Manshadi, Christian Kirisits, Mahbod Sedaghat
The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent effects of tandem length and bladder volume on dose to pelvic organs at risk (OARs) in HDR intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of cervical cancer. Twenty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were selected for brachytherapy using Rotterdam applicators. The patients were CT scanned twice with empty and full bladder. Two treatment plans were prepared on each of the image sets. Patients were categorized into two groups; those treated with a tandem length of 4 cm or smaller (T≤4 cm) and those with tandem length larger than 4 cm (T>4 cm)...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297312/anatomy-based-definition-of-point-a-utilizing-three-dimensional-volumetric-imaging-approach-for-high-dose-rate-hdr-intracavitary-brachytherapy-dose-prescription-when-treating-cervical-cancer-using-limited-resources
#14
Manish K Goyal, D V Rai, Than S Kehwar, Jayanand Manjhi, Bret H Heintz, Kathleen L Shide, Jerry L Barker
This study was designed to determine whether volumetric imaging could identify consistent alternative prescription methods to Manchester/point A when prescribing radiation dose in the treatment of cervical cancer using HDR intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). One hundred and twenty-five treatment plans of 25 patients treated for carcinoma of the cervix were reviewed retrospectively. Each patient received 5 fractions of HDR ICBT following initial cisplatin-based pelvic chemoradiation, and radiation dose was originally prescribed to point A (ICRU-38)...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297292/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-adaptive-daily-planning-for-cervical-cancer-hdr-brachytherapy
#15
Rebecca Meerschaert, Adrian Nalichowski, Jay Burmeister, Arun Paul, Steven Miller, Zhenghui Hu, Ling Zhuang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-BT) using comprehensive interfractional organ motion measurements. This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR-BT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were clinically treated with adaptive daily plans (ADP), which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297280/an-innovative-method-to-acquire-the-location-of-point-a-for-cervical-cancer-treatment-by-hdr-brachytherapy
#16
Liyun Chang, Sheng-Yow Ho, Shyh-An Yeh, Tsair-Fwu Lee, Pang-Yu Chen
Brachytherapy of local cervical cancer is generally accomplished through film-based treatment planning with the prescription directed to point A, which is invisible on images and is located at a high-dose gradient area. Through a standard reconstruction method by digitizing film points, the location error for point A would be 3 mm with a condition of 30° curvature tandem, which is 10° away from the gantry rotation axis of a simulator, and has an 8.7 cm interval between the flange and the isocenter. To reduce the location error of the reconstructed point A, this paper proposes a method and demonstrates its accuracy...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296214/morphological-secondary-metabolite-and-its-rdna-variability-within-usnic-acid-containing-lichen-thalli-of-the-genus-xanthoparmelia-explored-at-the-local-scale-of-rock-outcrop-in-western-italian-alps
#17
Enrica Matteucci, Andrea Occhipinti, Rosanna Piervittori, Massimo E Maffei, Sergio E Favero-Longo
Lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs) are regarded with interest for valuable biological properties, but chemical variability among/within lichen taxa has been only fragmentarily characterized by advanced analytical techniques. Knowledge of variability at a local geographic scale has been particularly neglected, while it should address the collection of chemically homogeneous materials to test and exploit LSMs. Here we evaluated the chemical variability of 48 Xanthoparmelia specimens from two rock outcrops in Western Italian Alps, representative of nine morphotypes and sixteen rDNA ITS haplotypes...
March 11, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295403/toward-a-3d-transrectal-ultrasound-system-for-verification-of-needle-placement-during-high-dose-rate-interstitial-gynecologic-brachytherapy
#18
Jessica Robin Rodgers, Kathleen Surry, Eric Leung, David D'Souza, Aaron Fenster
PURPOSE: Treatment for gynecologic cancers, such as cervical, recurrent endometrial, and vaginal malignancies, commonly includes external-beam radiation and brachytherapy. In high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy, radiation treatment is delivered via hollow needles that are typically inserted through a template on the perineum with a cylinder placed in the vagina for stability. Despite the need for precise needle placement to minimize complications and provide optimal treatment, there is no standard intra-operative image-guidance for this procedure...
March 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291934/electromagnetic-tracking-emt-technology-for-improved-treatment-quality-assurance-in-interstitial-brachytherapy
#19
Markus Kellermeier, Jens Herbolzheimer, Stephan Kreppner, Michael Lotter, Vratislav Strnad, Christoph Bert
Electromagnetic Tracking (EMT) is a novel technique for error detection and quality assurance (QA) in interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-iBT). The purpose of this study is to provide a concept for data acquisition developed as part of a clinical evaluation study on the use of EMT during interstitial treatment of breast cancer patients. The stability, accuracy, and precision of EMT-determined dwell positions were quantified. Dwell position reconstruction based on EMT was investigated on CT table, HDR table and PDR bed to examine the influence on precision and accuracy in a typical clinical workflow...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291925/improved-prostate-delineation-in-prostate-hdr-brachytherapy-with-trus-ct-deformable-registration-technology-a-pilot-study-with-mri-validation
#20
Xiaofeng Yang, Peter J Rossi, Ashesh B Jani, Hui Mao, Zhengyang Zhou, Walter J Curran, Tian Liu
Accurate prostate delineation is essential to ensure proper target coverage and normal-tissue sparing in prostate HDR brachytherapy. We have developed a prostate HDR brachytherapy technology that integrates intraoperative TRUS-based prostate contour into HDR treatment planning through TRUS-CT deformable registration (TCDR) to improve prostate contour accuracy. In a perspective study of 16 patients, we investigated the clinical feasibility as well as the performance of this TCDR-based HDR approach. We compared the performance of the TCDR-based approach with the conventional CT-based HDR in terms of prostate contour accuracy using MRI as the gold standard...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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