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X M Lü, C Feng, Y F Dong, G Fu, Y Guo
Objective: To explore the influence of the labro-chondral complex (LLC) on the development of the acetabulum after close reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Methods: Sixty-one cases (72 hips) with DDH presented in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital were reviewed, all the patients were treated by closed reduction, arthrogram and Spica casting from March 2010 to December 2013. The anterior-posterior pelvic radiography was performed to evaluate the morphology of the labro-chondral complex and reduction of the hip...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Tejinder Kataria, Deepak Gupta, Shikha Goyal, Shyam Singh Bisht, Ravi Chaudhary, Kushal Narang, Susovan Banerjee, Trinanjan Basu, Ashu Abhishek, Sasikumar Sambasivam, Nisha T Vishnu
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being increasingly utilized in the treatment of prostate cancer. With the advent of high precision radiosurgery systems, it is possible to obtain dose distributions akin to High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy with SBRT. However, urethral toxicity has a significant impact on the quality of life in prostate cancer patients. Contouring the male urethra on a computed tomography scan is difficult in the absence of an indwelling catheter. In this pictorial essay, we have used the magnetic resonance imaging obtained for radiotherapy planning to aid in delineation of the male urethra and have attempted to define guidelines for the same...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Eric Vigneault, Khaly Mbodji, Louis-Gabriel Racine, Eric Chevrette, Marie-Claude Lavallée, André-Guy Martin, Philippe Després, Luc Beaulieu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost to the dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including spectroscopy (MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS]). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between December 2009 and March 2011, 20 patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer underwent multiparametric MRI/MRS protocol before treatment. All patients were treated with an external beam radiotherapy dose of 40 Gy, combined with an HDR brachytherapy boost of 15 Gy...
October 12, 2016: Brachytherapy
Vicent Giménez-Alventosa, Javier Vijande, Facundo Ballester, Jose Perez-Calatayud
The goal of this study is to evaluate the ambient dose due to the transit of high dose rate (HDR) (60)Co sources along a transfer tube as compared to (192)Ir ones in a realistic clinical scenario. This goal is accomplished by evaluating air-kerma differences with Monte Carlo calculations using PENELOPE2011. Scatter from both the afterloader and the patient was not taken into account. Two sources, mHDR-v2 and Flexisource Co-60, (Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal, the Netherlands) have been considered. These sources were simulated within a standard transfer tube located in an infinite air phantom...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Juliana E Bajic, Georgina L Eden, Lorrinne S Lampton, Ker Y Cheah, Kerry A Lymn, Jinxin V Pei, Andrea J Yool, Gordon S Howarth
AIM: To investigate the effects of orally gavaged aqueous rhubarb extract (RE) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. METHODS: Female Dark Agouti rats (n = 8/group) were gavaged daily (1 mL) with water, high-dose RE (HDR; 200 mg/kg) or low-dose RE (LDR; 20mg/kg) for eight days. Intestinal mucositis was induced (day 5) with 5-FU (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. Intestinal tissue samples were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological examination...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Linda P Cho, Matthias Manuel, Paul Catalano, Larissa Lee, Antonio L Damato, Robert A Cormack, Ivan Buzurovic, Mandar Bhagwat, Desmond O'Farrell, Phillip M Devlin, Akila N Viswanathan
OBJECTIVE: To determine prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for stage I-II cervical-cancer patients treated using computed-tomography (CT)-planned high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (BT). METHODS: A total of 150 patients were treated for Stage I-II cervical cancer using CT-planned BT between 4/2004 and 10/2014. Of these, 128 were eligible for inclusion. Kaplan-Meier local control (LC), pelvic control (PC), overall survival (OS), and PFS estimates were calculated...
October 6, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Annette M Ilg, Aaron A Laviana, Mitchell Kamrava, Darlene Veruttipong, Michael Steinberg, Sang-June Park, Michael A Burke, Douglas Niedzwiecki, Patrick A Kupelian, Christopher Saigal
PURPOSE: Cost estimates through traditional hospital accounting systems are often arbitrary and ambiguous. We used time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to determine the true cost of low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer and demonstrate opportunities for cost containment at an academic referral center. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We implemented TDABC for patients treated with I-125, preplanned LDR and computed tomography based HDR brachytherapy with two implants from initial consultation through 12-month followup...
October 3, 2016: Brachytherapy
Chaolong Lin, Huanhuan Li, Mengru Hao, Dan Xiong, Yong Luo, Chenghao Huang, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
Genetically modified HSV-1 viruses serve as promising vectors for tumour therapy and vaccine development. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of the most powerful tools for precise gene editing of the genomes of organisms. However, whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely and efficiently make gene replacements in the genome of HSV-1 remains essentially unknown. Here, we reported CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the HSV-1 genome in human cells, including the knockout and replacement of large genes. In established cells stably expressing CRISPR/Cas9, gRNA in coordination with Cas9 could direct a precise cleavage within a pre-defined target region, and foreign genes were successfully used to replace the target gene seamlessly by HDR-mediated gene replacement...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marvin Dörries, Lars Wöhlbrand, Ralf Rabus
The marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2 belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobacteraceae and stands out for its capacity of facultative chemolithoautotrophic growth (next to heterotrophy). Here, proteomics-driven metabolic reconstruction was based on a combination of 2D DIGE, shotgun proteomics and analysis of the membrane protein-enriched fraction applied to 8 different substrate adaptation conditions (7 aliphatic compounds plus H2 /CO2 ). In total 1,344 different proteins were identified (∼27% of the 4,947 genome-predicted) from which a complex metabolic network was reconstructed consisting of 136 proteins (124 detected; ∼91%)...
October 4, 2016: Proteomics
Salomon Manier, Karma Salem, Siobhan V Glavey, Aldo M Roccaro, Irene M Ghobrial
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically complex disease. The past few years have seen an evolution in cancer research with the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS), enabling high throughput sequencing of tumors-including whole exome, whole genome, RNA, and single-cell sequencing as well as genome-wide association study (GWAS). A few inherited variants have been described, counting for some cases of familial disease. Hierarchically, primary events in MM can be divided into hyperdiploid (HDR) and nonhyperdiploid subtypes...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, Donald F Newgreen
Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nava Raj Paudel, Diana Shvydka, E Ishmael Parsai
Presence of interfaces between high and low atomic number (Z) materials, often encountered in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy, leads to radiation dose perturbation. It is characterized by a very narrow region of sharp dose enhancement at the interface. A rapid falloff of dose enhancement over a very short distance from the interface makes the experimental dosimetry nontrivial. We use an in-house-built inexpensive thin-film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) photodetector to study this effect at the gold-tissue interface and verify our experimental results with Monte Carlo (MC) modeling...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Hualin Zhang, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan, Plato Lee, Zhuang Kang, Vythialingam Sathiaseelan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of cylinder size in high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT). Sample plans of HDR VCBT in a list of cylinders ranging from 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter at 0.5 cm incre-ment were created and analyzed. The doses were prescribed either at the 0.5cm depth with 5.5 Gy for 4 fractions or at the cylinder surface with 8.8 Gy for 4 frac-tions, in various treatment lengths. A 0.5 cm shell volume called PTV_Eval was contoured for each plan and served as the target volume for dosimetric evaluation...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Boram Lee, Sung Hwan Ahn, Hyeyoung Kim, Jaeman Son, Jiwon Sung, Youngyih Han, Seung Jae Huh, Jin Sung Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Myonggeun Yoon
This study was designed to estimate radiation-induced secondary cancer risks from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer based on measurements of doses absorbed by various organs. Organ doses from HDR brachytherapy and external radiotherapy were measured using glass rod dosimeters. Doses to out-of-field organs were measured at various loca-tions inside an anthropomorphic phantom. Brachytherapy-associated organ doses were measured using a specialized phantom that enabled applicator insertion, with the pelvis portion of the existing anthropomorphic phantom replaced by this new phantom...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
R Yaparpalvi, K J Mehta, S C Desai, H C Kuo, W A Tome, S Kalnicki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Saptarshi Ghosh, Pamidimukalabramhananda Rao
INTRODUCTION: Though high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is now an integral part in the treatment of cervical cancer, the quest for optimum dose and fractionation schedule is still ongoing. While the American Brachytherapy Society recommends individual fraction size of <7.5 Gy, there are few studies where the authors obtained similar results with higher dose per fraction. OBJECTIVE: To compare and analyse two high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy schedules-7 Gy per fraction for three fractions with 9 Gy per fraction for two fractions...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Rodolfo Chicas-Sett, Francisco Celada-Alvarez, Susana Roldán, Asunción Torregrosa, Jesus Betancourt, Juan Bautista-Ballesteros, Dolores Farga, Blanca Ibañez, Alejandro Tormo, Jose Perez-Calatayud
PURPOSE: Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie (GEC) and European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) has proposed a rectal dose constraint of the most exposed 2-cc volume (D2cc of ≤ 75 Gy EQD2α/β = 3) during external-beam plus high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in localized prostate cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate D2cc for rectal contouring via interobserver variability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four blinded observers contoured rectums of 5 patients...
August 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Grzegorz Zwierzchowski, Grzegorz Bielęda, Janusz Skowronek, Magdalena Mazur
PURPOSE: Well-known defect of TG-43 based algorithms used in brachytherapy is a lack of information about interaction cross-sections, which are determined not only by electron density but also by atomic number. TG-186 recommendations with using of MBDCA (model-based dose calculation algorithm), accurate tissues segmentation, and the structure's elemental composition continue to create difficulties in brachytherapy dosimetry. For the clinical use of new algorithms, it is necessary to introduce reliable and repeatable methods of treatment planning systems (TPS) verification...
August 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Ivan M Buzurovic, Jorgen L Hansen, Mandar S Bhagwat, Desmond A O'Farrell, Scott Friesen, Thomas C Harris, Antonio L Damato, Robert A Cormack, Neil E Martin, Phillip M Devlin
PURPOSE: In this study, we present the clinical implementation of a novel transoral balloon centering esophageal applicator (BCEA) and the initial clinical experience in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment of esophageal cancer, using this applicator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Acceptance testing and commissioning of the BCEA were performed prior to clinical use. Full performance testing was conducted including measurements of the dimensions and the catheter diameter, evaluation of the inflatable balloon consistency, visibility of the radio-opaque markers, congruence of the markers, absolute and relative accuracy of the HDR source in the applicator using the radiochromic film and source position simulator, visibility and digitization of the applicator on the computed tomography (CT) images under the clinical conditions, and reproducibility of the offset...
August 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Peter W Henderson, David I Kutler, Bhupesh Parashar, David M Otterburn, Marc A Cohen, Jason A Spector
PURPOSE: While brachytherapy is often used concurrently with flap reconstruction following surgical ablation for head and neck cancer, it remains unclear whether it increases morbidity in the particularly high risk subset of patients undergoing salvage treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer (RH&NC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was undertaken that evaluated patients with RH&NC who underwent flap coverage after surgical re-resection and concomitant brachytherapy...
August 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
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