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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239812/dosimetric-impact-of-inter-observer-catheter-reconstruction-variability-in-ultrasound-based-high-dose-rate-prostate-brachytherapy
#1
Alexandru Nicolae, Jure Murgic, Ivan Kruljac, Lior Dubnitzky, Laura D'Alimonte, Lin Lu, Aaron Cumal, Niki Law, Gerard Morton, Andrew Loblaw, Hans T Chung, Ananth Ravi
PURPOSE: To investigate the dosimetric impact of interobserver catheter reconstruction variability in transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer were treated with a single, 15-Gy HDR brachytherapy boost as part of this study. The treated plan was used as the study reference plan (PR). Three expert treatment planners (observers) manually reconstructed the catheter paths on the static three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound images, and new plans were generated from the updated positions (POBS); subsequently, the dwell time and positions from the POBS plans were superimposed on the PR catheter paths to evaluate the dosimetric effect of the interobserver variations (PEVAL)...
November 24, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235494/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-two-key-genes-hds-and-hdr-in-the-mep-pathway-in-pyropia-haitanensis
#2
Yuan He, Zhihong Yan, Yu Du, Yafeng Ma, Songdong Shen
The 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene and the 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) gene are two important genes in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we reported the isolation and characterization of full-length HDS (MF101802) and HDR (MF159558) from Pyropia haitanensis. Characteristics of 3-D structures of the PhHDS and PhHDR proteins were analysed respectively. The results showed that the full-length cDNA of PhHDS, which is 1801 bp long, contained a 1455 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative 484 amino acid residue protein with a predicted molecular mass of 51...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233960/multiplexed-in-vivo-homology-directed-repair-and-tumor-barcoding-enables-parallel-quantification-of-kras-variant-oncogenicity
#3
Ian P Winters, Shin-Heng Chiou, Nicole K Paulk, Christopher D McFarland, Pranav V Lalgudi, Rosanna K Ma, Leszek Lisowski, Andrew J Connolly, Dmitri A Petrov, Mark A Kay, Monte M Winslow
Large-scale genomic analyses of human cancers have cataloged somatic point mutations thought to initiate tumor development and sustain cancer growth. However, determining the functional significance of specific alterations remains a major bottleneck in our understanding of the genetic determinants of cancer. Here, we present a platform that integrates multiplexed AAV/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) with DNA barcoding and high-throughput sequencing to simultaneously investigate multiple genomic alterations in de novo cancers in mice...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232869/position-tracking-during-human-walking-using-an-integrated-wearable-sensing-system
#4
Giulio Zizzo, Lei Ren
Progress has been made enabling expensive, high-end inertial measurement units (IMUs) to be used as tracking sensors. However, the cost of these IMUs is prohibitive to their widespread use, and hence the potential of low-cost IMUs is investigated in this study. A wearable low-cost sensing system consisting of IMUs and ultrasound sensors was developed. Core to this system is an extended Kalman filter (EKF), which provides both zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs) and Heuristic Drift Reduction (HDR). The IMU data was combined with ultrasound range measurements to improve accuracy...
December 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221042/image-processing-pipeline-for-segmentation-and-material-classification-based-on-multispectral-high-dynamic-range-polarimetric-images
#5
Miguel Ángel Martínez-Domingo, Eva M Valero, Javier Hernández-Andrés, Shoji Tominaga, Takahiko Horiuchi, Keita Hirai
We propose a method for the capture of high dynamic range (HDR), multispectral (MS), polarimetric (Pol) images of indoor scenes using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF). We have included the adaptive exposure estimation (AEE) method to fully automatize the capturing process. We also propose a pre-processing method which can be applied for the registration of HDR images after they are already built as the result of combining different low dynamic range (LDR) images. This method is applied to ensure a correct alignment of the different polarization HDR images for each spectral band...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219633/brain-activity-during-phonation-in-healthy-female-singers-with-supraglottic-compression-an-fmri-pilot-study
#6
Maryna Kryshtopava, Kristiane Van Lierde, Charlotte Defrancq, Michiel De Moor, Zoë Thijs, Evelien D'Haeseleer, Iris Meerschman, Pieter Vandemaele, Guy Vingerhoets, Sofie Claeys
This pilot study evaluated the usability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect brain activation during phonation in healthy female singers with supraglottic compression. Four healthy female classical singers (mean age: 26 years) participated in the study. All subjects had normal vocal folds and vocal characteristics and showed supraglottic compression. The fMRI experiment was carried out using a block design paradigm. Brain activation during phonation and exhalation was analyzed using Brain Voyager software (Brain Innovation B...
December 8, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218415/timing-of-cortical-activation-during-spontaneous-swallowing
#7
Erin Kamarunas, Rachel Mulheren, Katie Palmore, Christy Ludlow
Saliva accumulation in the oropharynx generates an automatic pattern of swallowing in the brainstem in animals. Previous fMRI studies have found that spontaneous saliva and water swallows in humans evoked activation following swallow onset in both precentral motor and postcentral somatosensory cortical regions. Using event-related averaging of continuous functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we examined cortical hemodynamic responses (HDR) from 5 s before to 35 s after spontaneous reflexive saliva swallow onset in the lateral postcentral somatosensory and precentral motor regions in both hemispheres in healthy volunteers...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212152/prpf8-is-important-for-brca1-mediated-homologous-recombination
#8
David O Onyango, Gabriella Lee, Jeremy M Stark
Disruption of RNA splicing causes genome instability, which could contribute to cancer etiology. Furthermore, RNA splicing is an emerging anti-cancer target. Thus, we have evaluated the influence of the spliceosome factor PRPF8 and the splicing inhibitor Pladienolide B (PlaB) on homologous recombination (HR). We find that PRPF8 depletion and PlaB treatment cause a specific defect in homology-directed repair (HDR), and single strand annealing (SSA), which share end resection as a common intermediate, and BRCA1 as a required factor...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210569/modulating-dna-repair-pathways-to-improve-precision-genome-engineering
#9
Katherine S Pawelczak, Navnath S Gavande, Pamela S VanderVere-Carozza, John J Turchi
Programmable nucleases like the popular CRISPR/Cas9 system allow for precision genome engineering by inducing a site-specific DNA double strand break (DSB) within a genome. The DSB is repaired by endogenous DNA repair pathways, either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR). The predominant and error-prone NHEJ pathway often results in small nucleotide insertions or deletions that can be used to construct knockout alleles. Alternatively, HDR activity can result in precise modification incorporating exogenous DNA fragments into the cut site...
December 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205851/regulated-cell-death-of-lymphoma-cells-after-graded-mitochondrial-damage-is-differentially-affected-by-drugs-targeting-cell-stress-responses
#10
Tomás Lombardo, Martín Gil Folgar, Luciana Salaverry, Estela Rey-Roldán, Elida M Alvarez, María C Carreras, Laura Kornblihtt, Guillermo A Blanco
Collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is often considered the initiation of regulated cell death (RCD). Carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain (ETC) that facilitates the translocation of protons into the mitochondrial matrix leading to the collapse of the MMP. Several cell stress responses such as mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and the ubiquitin proteasome system, may differentially contribute to restrain the initiation of RCD depending on the extent of mitochondrial damage...
December 4, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204169/independent-assessment-of-source-position-for-gynecological-applicator-in-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy
#11
Hiroyuki Okamoto, Satoshi Nakamura, Shie Nishioka, Kotaro Iijima, Akihisa Wakita, Yukinao Abe, Naoki Tohyama, Shinji Kawamura, Toshiyuki Minemura, Jun Itami
Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe a phantom designed for independent examination of a source position in brachytherapy that is suitable for inclusion in an external auditing program. Material and methods: We developed a phantom that has a special design and a simple mechanism, capable of firmly fixing a radiochromic film and tandem-ovoid applicators to assess discrepancies in source positions between the measurements and treatment planning system (TPS)...
October 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204164/comparison-of-dose-volume-parameters-evaluated-using-three-forward-planning-optimization-techniques-in-cervical-cancer-brachytherapy-involving-two-applicators
#12
Bikramjit Chakrabarti, Somapriya Basu-Roy, Sanjay Kumar Kar, Sounik Das, Annesha Lahiri
Purpose: This study is intended to compare dose-volume parameters evaluated using different forward planning- optimization techniques, involving two applicator systems in intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. It looks for the best applicator-optimization combination to fulfill recommended dose-volume objectives in different high-dose-rate (HDR) fractionation schedules. Material and methods: We used tandem-ring and Fletcher-style tandem-ovoid applicator in same patients in two fractions of brachytherapy...
October 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204159/what-pelvic-radiation-disease-symptoms-are-experienced-by-patients-receiving-external-beam-radiotherapy-and-a-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-boost-for-prostate-cancer
#13
Georgia K B Halkett, Michala Short, Samar Aoun, David Joseph, Sean Bydder, Xingqiong Meng, Nigel Spry
Purpose: Research describing proctitis or pelvic radiation disease symptoms of prostate cancer patients one year after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is limited. This study aimed to assess prostate cancer patients' pelvic radiation disease symptoms from baseline to 12 months post-radiotherapy. Material and methods: Men with prostate cancer referred for EBRT and HDR brachytherapy were recruited. Patients' age, diagnosis, staging, PSA, past medical history, and treatment were recorded...
October 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203149/improved-rectal-dosimetry-with-the-use-of-spaceoar-during-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy
#14
Susan Y Wu, Lauren Boreta, Ashley Wu, Joey P Cheung, J Adam M Cunha, Katsuto Shinohara, Albert J Chang
PURPOSE: Hydrogel spacers have been suggested to limit rectal radiation dose with improvements in clinical outcomes in patients undergoing external beam radiation treatment for prostate cancer. No studies to date have assessed the utility and dosimetric effect of SpaceOAR (Augmenix, Inc, Waltham, MA), the only Food and Drug Administration-approved hydrogel rectal spacer, for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. METHODS: Eighteen consecutive patients scheduled for HDR brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer underwent transperineal ultrasound-guided placement of 10 cc of SpaceOAR hydrogel following catheter implantation...
December 1, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196743/repair-of-the-tgfbi-gene-in-human-corneal-keratocytes-derived-from-a-granular-corneal-dystrophy-patient-via-crispr-cas9-induced-homology-directed-repair
#15
Yukako Taketani, Kohdai Kitamoto, Toshihiro Sakisaka, Mikiko Kimakura, Tetsuya Toyono, Satoru Yamagami, Shiro Amano, Masahiko Kuroda, Tara Moore, Tomohiko Usui, Yasuo Ouchi
Granular corneal dystrophy (GCD) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease in which multiple discrete and irregularly shaped granular opacities are deposited in the corneal stroma. GCD is caused by a point mutation in the transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) gene, located on chromosome 5q31. Here, we report the first successful application of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing for the correction of a TGFBI mutation in GCD patient-derived primary corneal keratocytes via homology-directed repair (HDR)...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196656/development-of-a-plasmid-free-crispr-cas9-system-for-the-genetic-modification-of-mucor-circinelloides
#16
Gábor Nagy, Csilla Szebenyi, Árpád Csernetics, Amanda Grace Vaz, Eszter Judit Tóth, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp
Mucor circinelloides and other members of Mucorales are filamentous fungi, widely used as model organisms in basic and applied studies. Although genetic manipulation methods have been described for some Mucoral fungi, construction of stable integrative transformants by homologous recombination has remained a great challenge in these organisms. In the present study, a plasmid free CRISPR-Cas9 system was firstly developed for the genetic modification of a Mucoral fungus. The described method offers a rapid but robust tool to obtain mitotically stable mutants of M...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187469/brachytherapy-for-buccal-cancer-from-conventional-low-dose-rate-ldr-or-mold-technique-to-high-dose-rate-interstitial-brachytherapy-hdr-isbt
#17
Tadayuki Kotsuma, Hideya Yamazaki, Koji Masui, Ken Yoshida, Kimishige Shimizutani, Hironori Akiyama, Shumei Murakami, Fumiaki Isohashi, Yasuo Yoshioka, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Eiichi Tanaka
BACKGROUND/AIM: To examine the effectiveness of newly-installed high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for buccal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients (25 men and 11 women) with buccal cancer treated with curative brachytherapy with or without external radiotherapy with a median follow-up of 99 months. A total of 15 HDR-ISBT (median 48 Gy/ 8 fractions, range=24-60 Gy) patients were compared to conventional 15 cases LDR-ISBT (70 Gy, range=42...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183983/precision-genome-editing-using-synthesis-dependent-repair-of-cas9-induced-dna-breaks
#18
Alexandre Paix, Andrew Folkmann, Daniel H Goldman, Heather Kulaga, Michael J Grzelak, Dominique Rasoloson, Supriya Paidemarry, Rachel Green, Randall R Reed, Geraldine Seydoux
The RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 has emerged as a powerful tool for genome engineering. Cas9 creates targeted double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in the genome. Knockin of specific mutations (precision genome editing) requires homology-directed repair (HDR) of the DSB by synthetic donor DNAs containing the desired edits, but HDR has been reported to be variably efficient. Here, we report that linear DNAs (single and double stranded) engage in a high-efficiency HDR mechanism that requires only ∼35 nucleotides of homology with the targeted locus to introduce edits ranging from 1 to 1,000 nucleotides...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177481/cdyl1-fosters-double-strand-break-induced-transcription-silencing-and-promotes-homology-directed-repair
#19
Enas R Abu-Zhayia, Samah W Awwad, Bella Ben-Oz, Hanan Khoury-Haddad, Nabieh Ayoub
Cells have evolved DNA damage response (DDR) to repair DNA lesions and thus preserving genomic stability and impeding carcinogenesis. DNA damage induction is accompanied by transient transcription repression. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role of chromodomain Y-like (CDYL1) protein in fortifying double-strand break (DSB)-induced transcription repression and repair. We showed that CDYL1 is rapidly recruited to damaged euchromatic regions in a poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent, but ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-independent, manner...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176614/inhibition-of-53bp1-favors-homology-dependent-dna-repair-and-increases-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-efficiency
#20
Marella D Canny, Nathalie Moatti, Leo C K Wan, Amélie Fradet-Turcotte, Danielle Krasner, Pedro A Mateos-Gomez, Michal Zimmermann, Alexandre Orthwein, Yu-Chi Juang, Wei Zhang, Sylvie M Noordermeer, Eduardo Seclen, Marcus D Wilson, Andrew Vorobyov, Meagan Munro, Andreas Ernst, Timothy F Ng, Tiffany Cho, Paula M Cannon, Sachdev S Sidhu, Frank Sicheri, Daniel Durocher
Programmable nucleases, such as Cas9, are used for precise genome editing by homology-dependent repair (HDR). However, HDR efficiency is constrained by competition from other double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, including non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). We report the discovery of a genetically encoded inhibitor of 53BP1 that increases the efficiency of HDR-dependent genome editing in human and mouse cells. 53BP1 is a key regulator of DSB repair pathway choice in eukaryotic cells and functions to favor NHEJ over HDR by suppressing end resection, which is the rate-limiting step in the initiation of HDR...
November 27, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
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