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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725253/computed-tomography-based-treatment-planning-for-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-using-the-tandem-and-ring-applicator-influence-of-applicator-choice-on-organ-dose-and-inter-fraction-adaptive-planning
#1
REVIEW
Vishruta A Dumane, Yading Yuan, Ren-Dih Sheu, Vishal Gupta
Three dimensional planning for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in cervical cancer has been highly recommended by consensus guidelines such as the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) and the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie - European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). In this document, we describe our experience with computed tomography (CT)-based planning using the tandem/ring applicator. We discuss the influence of applicator geometry on doses to organs at risk (OARs), namely the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid...
June 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725251/custom-made-micro-applicators-for-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-treatment-of-chronic-psoriasis
#2
Ivan M Buzurovic, Desmond A O'Farrell, Mandar S Bhagwat, Jorgen L Hansen, Thomas C Harris, Scott Friesen, Robert A Cormack, Phillip M Devlin
PURPOSE: In this study, we present the treatment of the psoriatic nail beds of patients refractory to standard therapies using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The custom-made micro applicators (CMMA) were designed and constructed for radiation dose delivery to small curvy targets with complicated topology. The role of the HDR brachytherapy treatment was to stimulate the T cells for an increased immune response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patient diagnosed with psoriatic nail beds refractory to standard therapies received monthly subunguinal injections that caused significant pain and discomfort in both hands...
June 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725248/clinical-outcomes-with-high-dose-rate-surface-mould-brachytherapy-for-intra-oral-and-skin-malignancies-involving-head-and-neck-region
#3
Ashwini Budrukkar, Archya Dasgupta, Prakash Pandit, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Vedang Murthy, Ritu Raj Upreti, Tejpal Gupta, Kanchan Dholam, Jai Prakash Agarwal
PURPOSE: The literature and experience of high-dose-rate (HDR) surface mould brachytherapy (SMB) in head and neck cancer is sparse. We report our institutional experience of SMB for such tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with malignant localized early T1/T2, N0 (21 intra-oral and 14 skin) tumours treated with SMB during 2008-2014 were analyzed. Treatment was delivered using HDR (192)Ir source to a median dose of 49 Gy (range, 38.5-52.5 Gy) as radical brachytherapy and 18 Gy (range, 15...
June 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725245/the-usefulness-of-fleet-rectal-enemas-on-high-dose-rate-intracavitary-cervical-cancer-brachytherapy-a-prospective-trial
#4
Ignacio Andres, Manuel Gutierrez-Perez, Maria Pilar Rodriguez-Vela, Roberto Berenguer, Marimar Sevillano, Manuel Aguayo, Meritxell Arenas, Angeles Rovirosa, Yashmina Murria-Perez, Sebastia Sabater
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during radical high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary cervical brachytherapy (BT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients suffering from cervical cancer and treated with external beam radiotherapy and HDR-BT were included in a prospective trial. The first brachytherapy fraction was considered the basal status, and patients were instructed to self-administer two rectal cleansing enemas before the second fraction...
June 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725243/outcomes-of-salvage-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-with-or-without-external-beam-radiotherapy-for-isolated-vaginal-recurrence-of-endometrial-cancer
#5
Shuhei Sekii, Naoya Murakami, Tomoyasu Kato, Ken Harada, Mayuka Kitaguchi, Kana Takahashi, Koji Inaba, Hiroshi Igaki, Yoshinori Ito, Ryohei Sasaki, Jun Itami
PURPOSE: This study was designed to retrospectively analyze outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), in patients with vaginal recurrence of endometrial carcinoma, and to identify factors prognostic of patient outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of all patients who underwent HDR brachytherapy for initial recurrence in the vagina of endometrial cancer after definitive surgery between 1992 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722338/hdr-del-a-tool-based-on-hamming-distance-for-prioritizing-pathogenic-chromosomal-deletions-in-exome-sequencing
#6
Atsuko Imai, Masakazu Kohda, Kaori Kobayashi, Tomoko Hirata, Yasushi Sakata, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Yasushi Okazaki, Akihiro Nakaya, Jurg Ott
High-density oligonucleotide arrays have been widely used to detect pathogenic chromosomal deletions. In addition to high-density oligonucleotide arrays, programs using whole exome sequencing have become available for estimating copy number variations using depth of coverage. Here we propose a new statistical method, HDR-del, to prioritize pathogenic chromosomal deletions based on Hamming distance in exome sequencing. In vcf (Variant Call Format) files generated from exome sequencing, hemizygous chromosomal deletion regions lack heterozygous variants and lead to apparent long runs of homozygosity (ROH)...
July 19, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722180/a-generic-tg-186-shielded-applicator-for-commissioning-model-based-dose-calculation-algorithms-for-high-dose-rate-192-ir-brachytherapy
#7
Yunzhi Ma, Javier Vijande, Facundo Ballester, Åsa Carlsson Tedgren, Domingo Granero, Annette Haworth, Firas Mourtada, Gabriel Paiva Fonseca, Kyveli Zourari, Panagiotis Papagiannis, Mark J Rivard, Frank André Siebert, Ron S Sloboda, Ryan Smith, Marc J P Chamberland, Rowan M Thomson, Frank Verhaegen, Luc Beaulieu
PURPOSE: A joint working group was created by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the Australasian Brachytherapy Group (ABG) with the charge, among others, to develop a set of well-defined test case plans and perform model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCA) dose calculations and comparisons. Its main goal is to facilitate a smooth transition from the AAPM Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) dose calculation formalism, widely being used in clinical practice for brachytherapy, to the one proposed by Task Group No...
July 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717396/intraoperative-radiotherapy-review-of-techniques-and-results
#8
REVIEW
Avinash Pilar, Meetakshi Gupta, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Siddhartha Laskar
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a technique that involves precise delivery of a large dose of ionising radiation to the tumour or tumour bed during surgery. Direct visualisation of the tumour bed and ability to space out the normal tissues from the tumour bed allows maximisation of the dose to the tumour while minimising the dose to normal tissues. This results in an improved therapeutic ratio with IORT. Although it was introduced in the 1960s, it has seen a resurgence of popularity with the introduction of self-shielding mobile linear accelerators and low-kV IORT devices, which by eliminating the logistical issues of transport of the patient during surgery for radiotherapy or building a shielded operating room, has enabled its wider use in the community...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712502/gene-editing-with-talen-and-crispr-cas-in-rice
#9
Honghao Bi, Bing Yang
Engineered, site-specific nucleases induce genomic double-strand DNA breaks and break repair processes enable genome editing in a plethora of eukaryotic genomes. TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) are potent biotechnological tools used for genome editing. In rice, species-tailored editing tools have proven to be efficient and easy to use. Both tools are capable of generating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in vivo and such breaks can be repaired either by error-prone NHEJ (nonhomologous end joining) that leads to nucleotide insertions or deletions or by HDR (homology-directed repair) if an appropriate exogenous DNA template is provided...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706352/monte-carlo-calculation-of-beam-quality-and-phantom-scatter-corrections-for-lithium-formate-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-dosimeter-for-high-energy-brachytherapy-dosimetry
#10
Subhalaxmi Mishra, T Palani Selvam
PURPOSE: To investigate beam quality correction, KQQ0 (r) and phantom scatter correction, Kphan (r) for lithium formate dosimeter as a function of distance r along the transverse axis of the high-energy brachytherapy sources (60)Co, (137)Cs, (192)Ir and (169)Yb using the Monte Carlo-based EGSnrc code system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The brachytherapy sources investigated in this study are BEBIG High Dose Rate (HDR) (60)Co (model Co0.A86), (137)Cs (model RTR), HDR (192)Ir (model Microselectron) and HDR (169)Yb (model 4140)...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705634/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-of-helicoverpa-armigera-with-mutations-of-an-abc-transporter-gene-haabca2-confers-resistance-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry2a-toxins
#11
Jing Wang, Huidong Wang, Shaoyan Liu, Laipan Liu, Wee Tek Tay, Thomas K Walsh, Yihua Yang, Yidong Wu
High levels of resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab have been identified to be genetically linked with loss of function mutations of an ABC transporter gene (ABCA2) in two lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera. To further confirm the causal relationship between the ABCA2 gene (HaABCA2) and Cry2Ab resistance in H. armigera, two HaABCA2 knockout strains were created from the susceptible SCD strain with the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. One strain (SCD-A2KO1) is homozygous for a 2-bp deletion in exon 2 of HaABCA2 created by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)...
July 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700933/inhibition-of-rif1-by-scai-allows-brca1-mediated-repair
#12
Shin-Ya Isobe, Koji Nagao, Naohito Nozaki, Hiroshi Kimura, Chikashi Obuse
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by either the homology-directed repair (HDR) or the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. RIF1 (RAP1-interacting factor homolog) was recently shown to stimulate NHEJ through an interaction with 53BP1 (p53-binding protein 1) phosphorylated at S/TQ sites, but the molecular mechanism underlying pathway choice remains unclear. Here, we show that SCAI (suppressor of cancer cell invasion) binds to 53BP1 phosphorylated at S/TP sites and facilitates HDR. Upon DNA damage, RIF1 immediately accumulates at damage sites and then gradually dissociates from 53BP1 and is subsequently replaced with SCAI...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694259/high-efficiency-non-mosaic-crispr-mediated-knock-in-and-mutations-in-f0-xenopus
#13
Yetki Aslan, Emmanuel Tadjuidje, Aaron M Zorn, Sang-Wook Cha
The revolution in CRISPR-mediated genome editing has enabled the mutation and insertion of virtually any DNA sequence, particularly in cell culture where selection can be used to recover relatively rare homologous recombination events. The efficient use of this technology in animal models still presents a number of challenges including the time to establish mutant lines, mosaic gene editing in founder animals, and low homologous recombination rates. Here we report a method for CRISPR-mediated genome editing in Xenopus oocytes with homology-dependent repair (HDR) that provides efficient non-mosaic targeted insertion of small DNA fragments of 40-50 nucleotides, in 4...
July 10, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694115/differences-in-urethral-dosimetry-between-ct-and-mr-imaging-in-multichannel-vaginal-cylinder-brachytherapy
#14
Katherine S Chen, Scott M Glaser, Hayeon Kim, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: In image-based brachytherapy (IBBT), the dosimetry of small structures may be particularly sensitive to changes in contouring between imaging modalities. We therefore sought to characterize differences in urethral dosimetry in vaginal brachytherapy based on contouring on MRI vs. CT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively identified our most recent 15 patients treated with intracavitary brachytherapy for distal vaginal malignancies. On T2-weighted MRI, both the lumen and urethral wall were contoured...
July 7, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692815/efficient-generation-of-goats-with-defined-point-mutation-i397v-in-gdf9-through-crispr-cas9
#15
Yiyuan Niu, Xiaoe Zhao, Jiankui Zhou, Yan Li, Yu Huang, Bei Cai, Yutai Liu, Qiang Ding, Shiwei Zhou, Jin Zhao, Guangxian Zhou, Baohua Ma, Xingxu Huang, Xiaolong Wang, Yulin Chen
The recent emergence of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system has attracted significant attention for its potential to improve traits of agricultural importance. However, most applications in livestock species to date have depended on aberrant DNA repair to generate frameshifting indels. Whether this genomic engineering technique involving homology-dependent repair (HDR) can be used to introduce defined point mutations has been less explored. Previously, we reported a G→A point mutation (g...
July 11, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685419/joint-deformable-liver-registration-and-bias-field-correction-for-mr-guided-hdr-brachytherapy
#16
Marko Rak, Tim König, Klaus D Tönnies, Mathias Walke, Jens Ricke, Christian Wybranski
PURPOSE: In interstitial high-dose rate brachytherapy, liver cancer is treated by internal radiation, requiring percutaneous placement of applicators within or close to the tumor. To maximize utility, the optimal applicator configuration is pre-planned on magnetic resonance images. The pre-planned configuration is then implemented via a magnetic resonance-guided intervention. Mapping the pre-planning information onto interventional data would reduce the radiologist's cognitive load during the intervention and could possibly minimize discrepancies between optimally pre-planned and actually placed applicators...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679532/the-non-homologous-end-joining-factor-nej1-inhibits-resection-mediated-by-dna2-sgs1-at-dna-double-strand-breaks
#17
Kyle S Sorenson, Brandi L Mahaney, Susan P Lees-Miller, Jennifer A Cobb
Double strand breaks (DSBs) represent highly deleterious DNA damage and need to be accurately repaired. Homology directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) are the two major DSB repair pathways that are highly conserved from yeast to mammals. The choice between these pathways is largely based on 5' to 3' DNA resection, and NHEJ proceeds only if resection has not initiated. In yeast, yKu70/80 (Ku) rapidly localizes to the break, protecting DNA ends from nuclease accessibility and recruits additional NHEJ factors, including Nej1 and Lif1...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674816/crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-editing-in-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#18
Yinghua Wang, Yifu Ding, Jinsong Li
Precise genome editing is a powerful tool for analysis of gene function. However, in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), this still remains a big challenge mainly due to low efficiency and complexity of currently available gene editing techniques. The CRISPR-Cas9 system from bacteria has been applied to modifying genome in different species at a very high efficiency and specificity. Here we describe CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR) in SSCs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669539/monte-carlo-dosimetric-characterization-of-the-flexisource-co-60-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-source-using-penelope
#19
Julio F Almansa, Rafael Guerrero, Javier Torres, Antonio M Lallena
PURPOSE: (60)Co sources have been commercialized as an alternative to (192)Ir sources for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. One of them is the Flexisource Co-60 HDR source manufactured by Elekta. The only available dosimetric characterization of this source is that of Vijande et al. [J Contemp Brachytherapy 2012; 4:34-44], whose results were not included in the AAPM/ESTRO consensus document. In that work, the dosimetric quantities were calculated as averages of the results obtained with the Geant4 and PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) codes, though for other sources, significant differences have been quoted between the values obtained with these two codes...
June 29, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666552/single-dose-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-compared-to-two-and-three-fractions-for-locally-advanced-prostate-cancer
#20
Peter Hoskin, Ana Rojas, Peter Ostler, Robert Hughes, Roberto Alonzi, Gerry Lowe
BACKGROUND: Single-dose high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT), in a Phase-II study, was compared to two or three fractions in intermediate and high-risk localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 293 patients received 1×19Gy or 1×20Gy (A=49), 2×13Gy (B=138), or 3×10.5Gy (C=106) and assessed with prospective measures of serum PSA, late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity using RTOG scales and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)...
June 27, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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