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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626978/a-fast-multi-target-inverse-treatment-planning-strategy-optimizing-dosimetric-measures-for-high-dose-rate-hdr-brachytherapy
#1
Christian V Guthier, Antonio L Damato, Akila N Viswanathan, Juergen W Hesser, Robert A Cormack
PURPOSE: In this study, we introduce a novel, fast, inverse treatment planning strategy for interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with multiple regions of interest solely based on dose-volume-histogram-related dosimetric measures (DMs). METHODS: We present a new problem formulation of the objective function that approximates the indicator variables of the standard DM optimization problem with a smooth logistic function. This problem is optimized by standard gradient-based methods...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625472/3d-catheter-reconstruction-in-hdr-prostate-brachytherapy-for-pre-treatment-verification-using-a-flat-panel-detector
#2
Ryan L Smith, Annette Haworth, Vanessa Panettieri, Jeremy L Millar, Rick D Franich
PURPOSE: High dose rate prostate brachytherapy is a widely-practiced treatment, delivering large conformal doses in relatively few treatment fractions. Inter- and intra-fraction catheter displacements have been reported. Unrecognized displacement can have a significant impact on dosimetry. Knowledge of the implant geometry at the time of treatment is important for ensuring safe and effective treatment. In this work we demonstrate a method to reconstruct the catheter positions pre-treatment, using a 'shift' imaging technique, and perform registration with the treatment plan for verification relative to the prostate...
June 15, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624224/optimizing-the-dna-donor-template-for-homology-directed-repair-of-double-strand-breaks
#3
Fei Song, Knut Stieger
The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated proteins) technology enables rapid and precise genome editing at any desired genomic position in almost all cells and organisms. In this study, we analyzed the impact of different repair templates on the frequency of homology-directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). We used a stable HEK293 cell line expressing the traffic light reporter (TLR-3) system to quantify HDR and NHEJ events following transfection with Cas9, eight different guide RNAs, and a 1,000 bp donor template generated either as circular plasmid, as linearized plasmid with long 3' or 5' backbone overhang, or as PCR product...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615058/long-term-prognostic-significance-of-rising-psa-levels-following-radiotherapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer-focus-on-overall-survival
#4
Carla Freiberger, Vanessa Berneking, Thomas-Alexander Vögeli, Ruth Kirschner-Hermanns, Michael J Eble, Michael Pinkawa
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic significance of rising PSA levels, particularly focussing on overall survival. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-five patients with localized prostate cancer were either treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy with I-125 seeds as monotherapy (n = 94; 145Gy), high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with Ir-192 as a boost to external beam RT (n = 66; 50.4Gy in 1.8Gy fractions EBRT + 18Gy in 9Gy fractions HDR) or EBRT alone (70...
June 14, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613173/large-scale-crowdsourced-study-for-tone-mapped-hdr-pictures
#5
Debarati Kundu, Deepti Ghadiyaram, Alan Bovik, Brian Evans
Measuring digital picture quality, as perceived by human observers, is increasingly important in many applications in which humans are the ultimate consumers of visual information. Standard dynamic range (SDR) images provide 8 bits/color/pixel. High dynamic range (HDR) images, usually created from multiple exposures of the same scene, can provide 16 or 32 bits/color/pixel, but need to be tonemapped to SDR for display on standard monitors. Multi-exposure fusion (MEF) techniques bypass HDR creation by fusing an exposure stack directly to SDR images to achieve aesthetically pleasing luminance and color distributions...
June 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610703/air-density-dependence-of-the-response-of-the-ptw-sourcecheck-4pi-ionization-chamber-for-125-i-brachytherapy-seeds
#6
J Torres Del Río, A M Tornero-López, D Guirado, J Pérez-Calatayud, A M Lallena
PURPOSE: To analyze the air density dependence of the response of the new SourceCheck 4pi ionization chamber, manufactured by PTW. METHODS: The air density dependence of three different SourceCheck 4pi chambers was studied by measuring (125)I sources. Measurements were taken by varying the pressure from 746.6 to 986.6hPa in a pressure chamber. Three different HDR 1000 Plus ionization chambers were also analyzed under similar conditions. A linear and a potential-like function of the air density were fitted to experimental data and their achievement in describing them was analyzed...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609297/online-pretreatment-verification-of-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-using-an-imaging-panel
#7
Gabriel P Fonseca, Mark Podesta, Murillo Bellezzo, Michiel R Van den Bosch, Ludy Lutgens, Ben G L Vanneste, Robert Voncken, Evert J Van Limbergen, Brigitte Reniers, Frank Verhaegen
Brachytherapy is employed to treat a wide variety of cancers. However, an accurate treatment verification method is currently not available. This study describes a pre-treatment verification system that uses an imaging panel (IP) to verify important aspects of the treatment plan. A detailed modelling of the IP was only possible with an extensive calibration performed using a robotic arm. Irradiations were performed with a high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir source within a water phantom. An empirical fit was applied to measure the distance between the source and the detector so 3D Cartesian coordinates of the dwell positions can be obtained using a single panel...
July 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609167/hdr-brachytherapy-decreases-proliferation-rate-and-cellular-progression-of-a-radioresistant-human-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-vitro
#8
Jony M Geraldo, Sérgio Scalzo, Daniela S Reis, Thiago L Leão, Silvia Guatimosim, Luiz O Ladeira, Lídia M Andrade
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of HDR brachytherapy on cellular progression of a radioresistant human squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, based on clinical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An acrylic platform was designed to attach tissue culture flasks and assure source positioning during irradiation. At exponential phase, A431cells, a human squamous cell carcinoma, were irradiated two times up to 1100cGy. Cellular proliferation was assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay and survival fraction was calculated by clonogenic assay...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606329/the-adaptation-of-a-360%C3%A2-camera-utilising-an-alternate-light-source-als-for-the-detection-of-biological-fluids-at-crime-scenes
#9
Kayleigh Sheppard, John P Cassella, Sarah Fieldhouse, Roberto King
One of the most important and commonly encountered evidence types that can be recovered at crime scenes are biological fluids. Due to the ephemeral nature of biological fluids and the valuable DNA that they can contain, it is fundamental that these are documented extensively and recovered rapidly. Locating and identifying biological fluids can prove a challenging task but can aid in reconstructing a sequence of events. Alternate light sources (ALS) offer powerful non-invasive methods for locating and enhancing biological fluids utilising different wavelengths of light...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604711/the-anaphase-promoting-complex-impacts-repair-choice-by-protecting-ubiquitin-signalling-at-dna-damage-sites
#10
Kyungsoo Ha, Chengxian Ma, Han Lin, Lichun Tang, Zhusheng Lian, Fang Zhao, Ju-Mei Li, Bei Zhen, Huadong Pei, Suxia Han, Marcos Malumbres, Jianping Jin, Huan Chen, Yongxiang Zhao, Qing Zhu, Pumin Zhang
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired through two major pathways, homology-directed recombination (HDR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). While HDR can only occur in S/G2, NHEJ can happen in all cell cycle phases (except mitosis). How then is the repair choice made in S/G2 cells? Here we provide evidence demonstrating that APC(Cdh1) plays a critical role in choosing the repair pathways in S/G2 cells. Our results suggest that the default for all DSBs is to recruit 53BP1 and RIF1. BRCA1 is blocked from being recruited to broken ends because its recruitment signal, K63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains on histones, is actively destroyed by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604229/review-the-re-emergence-of-brachytherapy-as-treatment-for-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#11
Koji Ota, Tony Adar, Laura Dover, Amor Khachemoune
Electronic Brachytherapy (EBT) has seen a significant rise in use over the past few years in treating non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, the current literature in EBT remains scarce. Existing data on high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with surface applicators is often used to justify its efficacy and safety. In this review we study the two treatment modalities on their efficacy in treating NMSC and we explore the reasons behind the recent uprise in EBT. A literature review using PubMed was performed for articles published until January 2017 studying efficacy of HDR-BT and EBT for treating NMSC...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602708/reduced-toxicity-with-equivalent-outcomes-using-three-dimensional-volumetric-3dv-image-based-versus-nonvolumetric-point-based-nv-brachytherapy-in-a-cervical-cancer-population
#12
Kimberly M Thomas, Genevieve Maquilan, Strahinja Stojadinovic, Paul Medin, Michael R Folkert, Kevin Albuquerque
PURPOSE: Brachytherapy (BT) techniques have historically used a two-dimensional nonvolumetric (NV) system involving dose prescribed to a point fixed in space. We compared dosimetric, toxicity, and oncologic outcomes for volumetric planning (3DV) versus CT point-based planning. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients treated with external beam radiation therapy and high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary BT were included (n = 71). Patients planned with NV BT treated from 2009 to 2011 (n = 37) were compared to patients planned with 3DV BT treated from 2012 to 2014 (n = 34)...
June 8, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597873/do-medical-students-generate-sound-arguments-during-small-group-discussions-in-problem-based-learning-an-analysis-of-preclinical-medical-students-argumentation-according-to-a-framework-of-hypothetico-deductive-reasoning
#13
Hyunjung Ju, Ikseon Choi, Bo Young Yoon
PURPOSE: Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) is an essential learning activity and a learning outcome in problem-based learning (PBL). It is important for medical students to engage in the HDR process through argumentation during their small group discussions in PBL. This study aimed to analyze the quality of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to each phase of HDR in PBL. METHODS: Participants were 15 first-year preclinical students divided into two small groups...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589393/a-history-of-genome-editing-in-mammals
#14
Almudena Fernández, Santiago Josa, Lluis Montoliu
Genome editing is now a routine procedure in many mammalian genetics laboratories. The ostensibly short but intense history of genome-editing approaches illustrates how a disruptive technology can universally colonize a field when this new methodology, conceived to alter mammalian genomes at specific locations, is found to efficiently and robustly deliver results. This review summarizes the early development of genome editing using nucleases, from the pioneering experiments using yeast meganucleases, to the latest prokaryotic nucleases used for precise genome manipulation...
June 6, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587192/high-dynamic-range-spectral-imaging-pipeline-for-multispectral-filter-array-cameras
#15
Pierre-Jean Lapray, Jean-Baptiste Thomas, Pierre Gouton
Spectral filter arrays imaging exhibits a strong similarity with color filter arrays. This permits us to embed this technology in practical vision systems with little adaptation of the existing solutions. In this communication, we define an imaging pipeline that permits high dynamic range (HDR)-spectral imaging, which is extended from color filter arrays. We propose an implementation of this pipeline on a prototype sensor and evaluate the quality of our implementation results on real data with objective metrics and visual examples...
June 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586946/increasing-fractional-doses-increases-the-probability-of-benign-psa-bounce-in-patients-undergoing-definitive-hdr-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#16
Carlin R Hauck, Hong Ye, Peter Y Chen, Gary S Gustafson, Amy Limbacher, Daniel J Krauss
PURPOSE: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585669/effectiveness-of-traumatic-brain-injury-management-guideline-introduction-in-hungary
#17
Abayomi Sorinola, Andras Buki, Janos Sandor, Endre Czeiter
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the Traumatic Brain Injury management guideline introduction in Hungary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital discharge records (HDR) including age, gender, codes of interventions applied, ICD codes of diagnosed disorders of patients admitted between 01/01/2004 and 31/12/2010 with diagnosis of intracranial injury (S06 by ICD10) from every inpatient institution in Hungary were collected from the database of National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF)...
April 27, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579697/hydrodynamically-driven-drug-release-during-interstitial-flow-through-hollow-fibers-implanted-near-lymphatics
#18
Stanislav S Dukhin, Mohamed E Labib
Current drug delivery devices (DDD) are mainly based on the use of diffusion as the main transport process. Diffusion-driven processes can only achieve low release rate because diffusion is a slow process. This represents a serious obstacle in the realization of recent successes in the suppression of lymphatic metastasis and in the prevention of limb and organ transplant rejection. Surprisingly, it was overlooked that there is a more favorable drug release mode which can be achieved when a special DDD is implanted near lymphatics...
May 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579419/the-effect-of-catheter-displacement-and-anatomical-variations-on-the-dose-distribution-in-mri-guided-focal-hdr-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#19
Metha Maenhout, Jochem R N van der Voort van Zyp, Maxence Borot de Battisti, Max Peters, Marco van Vulpen, Maurice van den Bosch, Marinus A Moerland
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of catheter displacement and anatomical variations of prostate and organs at risk on dose distribution in MRI-guided 19 Gy single fraction focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of the prostate. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventeen patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a prospective trial investigating focal HDR-BT in a 1.5 T MRI-HDR-BT facility. The diagnostic MRI delineations were registered with intraoperative MR scan, and a single fraction of 19 Gy was applied to the visible tumor...
June 1, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577151/haemoglobin-monitoring-in-endometrial-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy
#20
A Biete, K Holub
PURPOSE: To evaluate the level of anaemia monitoring and to determine the prevalence of anaemia in patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) undergoing postoperative pelvic radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: We evaluated 233 consecutive patients diagnosed with EC receiving RT in our institution between January 2011 and December 2015. One hundred and fifty-two patients (65.2%) received a combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) (mean dose 53...
June 2, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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