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Haojiang Ying, Hong Xu
How do we interpret the rapidly changing visual stimuli we encounter? How does our past visual experience shape our perception? Recent work has suggested that our visual system is able to interpret multiple faces presented temporally via integration or ensemble coding. Visual adaptation is widely used to probe such short term plasticity. Here we use an adaptation paradigm to investigate whether integration or averaging of emotional faces occurs during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). In four experiments, we tested whether the RSVP of distinct emotional faces could induce adaptation aftereffects and whether these aftereffects were of similar magnitudes as their statistically averaged face...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Aurélie Calabrèse, Tingting Liu, Gordon E Legge
Individuals with macular degeneration often develop a Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) used in place of the impaired fovea. It is known that many people adopt a PRL left of the scotoma, which is likely to affect reading by occluding text to the right of fixation. For such individuals, we examined the possibility that reading vertical text, in which words are rotated 90° with respect to the normal horizontal orientation, would be beneficial for reading. Vertically oriented words would be tangential to the scotoma instead of being partially occluded by it...
2017: PloS One
Dariusz Asanowicz, Rolf Verleger, Lena Kruse, Kathrin Beier, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
This study investigates hemispheric asymmetry evoked by non-target alphanumeric stimuli in a bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Our indicators of asymmetry are shorter latencies and larger amplitudes of the right hemisphere (RH) P1 and N1 components of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). This VEP asymmetry might reflect either a RH advantage, possibly in early perceptual processing, or for familiar stimuli, or for directing attention, or might be a paradoxical reflection of left hemisphere specialization in letter processing...
January 20, 2017: Brain and Cognition
Mallory C Stites, Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
An important question in the reading literature regards the nature of the semantic information readers can extract from the parafovea (i.e., the next word in a sentence). Recent eye-tracking findings have found a semantic parafoveal preview benefit under many circumstances, and findings from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) also suggest that readers can at least detect semantic anomalies parafoveally (Barber, Van der Meij, & Kutas, Psychophysiology, 50(1), 48-59, 2013). We use ERPs to ask whether fine-grained aspects of semantic expectancy can affect the N400 elicited by a word appearing in the parafovea...
January 18, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Johanna Fiess, Brigitte Rockstroh, Roger Schmidt, Christian Wienbruch, Astrid Steffen
OBJECTIVE: Dysfunctional emotion processing has been discussed as a contributing factor to functional neurological symptoms (FNS) in the context of conversion disorder, and refers to blunted recognition and the expression of one's own feelings. However, the emotion processing components characteristic for FNS and/or relevant for conversion remain to be specified. With this goal, the present study targeted the initial, automatic discrimination of emotionally salient stimuli. METHODS: The magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was monitored in 21 patients with functional weakness and/or sensory disturbance subtypes of FNS and 21 healthy comparison participants (HC) while they passively watched 600 emotionally arousing, pleasant, unpleasant or neutral stimuli in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) design...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Nicholas R Waytowich, Vernon J Lawhern, Addison W Bohannon, Kenneth R Ball, Brent J Lance
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Florian Niefind, Olaf Dimigen
During reading, the parafoveal processing of an upcoming word n+1 can influence word recognition in two ways: It can affect fixation behavior during the preceding fixation on word n (parafovea-on-fovea effect, POF), and it can facilitate subsequent foveal processing once word n+1 is fixated (preview benefit). While preview benefits are established, evidence for POF effects is mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that POF effects exist, but have a delayed impact on saccade planning and thus coincide with preview benefits measured on word n+1...
December 2016: Psychophysiology
Mary C Potter
Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words or pictured scenes provides evidence for a large-capacity conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) that momentarily provides rich associated material from long-term memory, permitting rapid chunking (Potter 1993; 2009; 2012). In perception of scenes as well as language comprehension, we make use of knowledge that briefly exceeds the supposed limits of working memory.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Cornelia Kranczioch, Anja Lindig, Markus Hausmann
The functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) in processing targets within rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams has been reported to fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, with identification of the second of two closely spaced targets being impaired when both targets occur in the left or the right hemifield stream during the luteal phase, while during the menstrual phase identification of the second target is only impaired for target pairs presented in the right hemifield stream. This fluctuation has been proposed to result from variations in estradiol levels...
August 5, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Martin J Goldzieher, Sally Andrews, Irina M Harris
Previous research suggests that understanding the gist of a scene relies on global structural cues that enable rapid scene categorization. This study used a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm to interrogate the nature of the scene representations used in such rapid categorization. When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence (~10 items/sec), the second occurrence of the repeated item frequently goes unnoticed, a phenomenon that is attributed to a failure to consolidate two conscious episodes (tokens) for a repeatedly activated type...
August 5, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Alessio Fracasso, David Melcher
Briefly presented targets around the time of a saccade are mislocalized towards the saccadic landing point. This has been taken as evidence for a remapping mechanism that accompanies each eye movement, helping maintain visual stability across large retinal shifts. Previous studies have shown that spatial mislocalization is greatly diminished when trains of brief stimuli are presented at a high frequency rate, which might help to explain why mislocalization is rarely perceived in everyday viewing. Studies in the laboratory have shown that mislocalization can reduce metacontrast masking by causing target stimuli in a masking sequence to be perceived as shifted in space towards the saccadic target and thus more easily discriminated...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Brennan R Payne, Mallory C Stites, Kara D Federmeier
In 2 experiments, we examined the impact of foveal semantic expectancy and congruity on parafoveal word processing during reading. Experiment 1 utilized an eye-tracking gaze-contingent display change paradigm, and Experiment 2 measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a modified flanker rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Eye-tracking and ERP data converged to reveal graded effects of foveal load on parafoveal processing. In Experiment 1, when word n was highly expected, and thus foveal load was low, there was a large parafoveal preview benefit to word n + 1...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Thomas A Peterson, Matthew Mort, David N Cooper, Predrag Radivojac, Maricel G Kann, Sean D Mooney
In silico methods for detecting functionally relevant genetic variants are important for identifying genetic markers of human inherited disease. Much research has focused on protein-coding variants since coding-regions have well-defined physicochemical and functional properties. However, many bioinformatics tools are not applicable to variants outside coding-regions. Here, we increase the classification performance of our Regulatory Single Nucleotide Variant Predictor (RSVP) for variants that cause regulatory abnormalities from an AUC of 0...
July 13, 2016: Human Mutation
Robert W Booth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attentional bias to threat is a much-studied feature of anxiety; it is typically assessed using response time (RT) tasks such as the dot probe. Findings regarding the time course of attentional bias have been inconsistent, possibly because RT tasks are sensitive to processes downstream of attention. METHODS: Attentional bias was assessed using an accuracy-based task in which participants detected a single digit in two simultaneous rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams of letters...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Hongwen Cao, Min Gao, Hongmei Yan
The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ana Matran-Fernandez, Riccardo Poli
OBJECTIVE: The N2pc event-related potential (ERP) appears on the opposite side of the scalp with respect to the visual hemisphere where an object of interest is located.We explored the feasibility of using it to extract information on the spatial location of targets in aerial images shown by means of a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) protocol using single-trial classification. METHODS: Images were shown to 11 participants at a presentation rate of 5 Hz while recording electroencephalographic signals...
June 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Osamu Hieda, Yo Nakamura, Koichi Wakimasu, Kiyoshi Yamamura, Yoshimi Suzukamo, Shigeru Kinoshita
PURPOSE: To evaluate patient-reported quality of vision before and after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study involved 140 patients who underwent LASIK surgery at Baptist Eye Clinic, Kyoto, Japan. Each patient was asked to respond to the Refractive Status and Vision Profile (RSVP) questionnaire prior to surgery and at 6-months and 5.5-years postoperative. In each patient, we defined the eye with better uncorrected visual acuity (VA) or with less refractive error as the better eye, and the other eye as the worse eye...
May 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Paul Metzner, Titus von der Malsburg, Shravan Vasishth, Frank Rösler
How important is the ability to freely control eye movements for reading comprehension? And how does the parser make use of this freedom? We investigated these questions using coregistration of eye movements and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while participants read either freely or in a computer-controlled word-by-word format (also known as RSVP). Word-by-word presentation and natural reading both elicited qualitatively similar ERP effects in response to syntactic and semantic violations (N400 and P600 effects)...
June 16, 2016: Cognitive Science
Bhupen Kalita, Malay K Das, Munmun Sarma, Anil Deka
Resveratrol-phospholipid complex (Phytosome®) (RSVP) was found better aqueous soluble and permeable than free resveratrol (RSV). RSVPs were incorporated in polymeric patch prepared by solvent casting method using Eudragit RL 100, PVP K30, and PEG 400 for application on dermal sites for sustained treating of inflammation. Prepared patches were evaluated for various physicochemical properties, surface morphology by SEM, TEM, and compatibility of patch components by FT-IR and DSC studies. Optimized formulation (F9) gave 95...
May 12, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
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