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Alon Zivony, Dominique Lamy
Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Nicholas R Waytowich, Vernon J Lawhern, Addison W Bohannon, Kenneth R Ball, Brent J Lance
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Florian Niefind, Olaf Dimigen
During reading, the parafoveal processing of an upcoming word n+1 can influence word recognition in two ways: It can affect fixation behavior during the preceding fixation on word n (parafovea-on-fovea effect, POF), and it can facilitate subsequent foveal processing once word n+1 is fixated (preview benefit). While preview benefits are established, evidence for POF effects is mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that POF effects exist, but have a delayed impact on saccade planning and thus coincide with preview benefits measured on word n+1...
September 28, 2016: Psychophysiology
Mary C Potter
Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words or pictured scenes provides evidence for a large-capacity conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) that momentarily provides rich associated material from long-term memory, permitting rapid chunking (Potter 1993; 2009; 2012). In perception of scenes as well as language comprehension, we make use of knowledge that briefly exceeds the supposed limits of working memory.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Cornelia Kranczioch, Anja Lindig, Markus Hausmann
The functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) in processing targets within rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams has been reported to fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, with identification of the second of two closely spaced targets being impaired when both targets occur in the left or the right hemifield stream during the luteal phase, while during the menstrual phase identification of the second target is only impaired for target pairs presented in the right hemifield stream. This fluctuation has been proposed to result from variations in estradiol levels...
August 5, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Martin J Goldzieher, Sally Andrews, Irina M Harris
Previous research suggests that understanding the gist of a scene relies on global structural cues that enable rapid scene categorization. This study used a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm to interrogate the nature of the scene representations used in such rapid categorization. When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence (~10 items/sec), the second occurrence of the repeated item frequently goes unnoticed, a phenomenon that is attributed to a failure to consolidate two conscious episodes (tokens) for a repeatedly activated type...
August 5, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Alessio Fracasso, David Melcher
Briefly presented targets around the time of a saccade are mislocalized towards the saccadic landing point. This has been taken as evidence for a remapping mechanism that accompanies each eye movement, helping maintain visual stability across large retinal shifts. Previous studies have shown that spatial mislocalization is greatly diminished when trains of brief stimuli are presented at a high frequency rate, which might help to explain why mislocalization is rarely perceived in everyday viewing. Studies in the laboratory have shown that mislocalization can reduce metacontrast masking by causing target stimuli in a masking sequence to be perceived as shifted in space towards the saccadic target and thus more easily discriminated...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Brennan R Payne, Mallory C Stites, Kara D Federmeier
In 2 experiments, we examined the impact of foveal semantic expectancy and congruity on parafoveal word processing during reading. Experiment 1 utilized an eye-tracking gaze-contingent display change paradigm, and Experiment 2 measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a modified flanker rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Eye-tracking and ERP data converged to reveal graded effects of foveal load on parafoveal processing. In Experiment 1, when word n was highly expected, and thus foveal load was low, there was a large parafoveal preview benefit to word n + 1...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Thomas A Peterson, Matthew Mort, David N Cooper, Predrag Radivojac, Maricel G Kann, Sean D Mooney
In silico methods for detecting functionally relevant genetic variants are important for identifying genetic markers of human inherited disease. Much research has focused on protein-coding variants since coding-regions have well-defined physicochemical and functional properties. However, many bioinformatics tools are not applicable to variants outside coding-regions. Here, we increase the classification performance of our Regulatory Single Nucleotide Variant Predictor (RSVP) for variants that cause regulatory abnormalities from an AUC of 0...
July 13, 2016: Human Mutation
Robert W Booth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attentional bias to threat is a much-studied feature of anxiety; it is typically assessed using response time (RT) tasks such as the dot probe. Findings regarding the time course of attentional bias have been inconsistent, possibly because RT tasks are sensitive to processes downstream of attention. METHODS: Attentional bias was assessed using an accuracy-based task in which participants detected a single digit in two simultaneous rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams of letters...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Hongwen Cao, Min Gao, Hongmei Yan
The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ana Matran-Fernandez, Riccardo Poli
OBJECTIVE: The N2pc event-related potential (ERP) appears on the opposite side of the scalp with respect to the visual hemisphere where an object of interest is located.We explored the feasibility of using it to extract information on the spatial location of targets in aerial images shown by means of a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) protocol using single-trial classification. METHODS: Images were shown to 11 participants at a presentation rate of 5 Hz while recording electroencephalographic signals...
June 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Osamu Hieda, Yo Nakamura, Koichi Wakimasu, Kiyoshi Yamamura, Yoshimi Suzukamo, Shigeru Kinoshita
PURPOSE: To evaluate patient-reported quality of vision before and after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study involved 140 patients who underwent LASIK surgery at Baptist Eye Clinic, Kyoto, Japan. Each patient was asked to respond to the Refractive Status and Vision Profile (RSVP) questionnaire prior to surgery and at 6-months and 5.5-years postoperative. In each patient, we defined the eye with better uncorrected visual acuity (VA) or with less refractive error as the better eye, and the other eye as the worse eye...
May 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Paul Metzner, Titus von der Malsburg, Shravan Vasishth, Frank Rösler
How important is the ability to freely control eye movements for reading comprehension? And how does the parser make use of this freedom? We investigated these questions using coregistration of eye movements and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while participants read either freely or in a computer-controlled word-by-word format (also known as RSVP). Word-by-word presentation and natural reading both elicited qualitatively similar ERP effects in response to syntactic and semantic violations (N400 and P600 effects)...
June 16, 2016: Cognitive Science
Bhupen Kalita, Malay K Das, Munmun Sarma, Anil Deka
Resveratrol-phospholipid complex (Phytosome®) (RSVP) was found better aqueous soluble and permeable than free resveratrol (RSV). RSVPs were incorporated in polymeric patch prepared by solvent casting method using Eudragit RL 100, PVP K30, and PEG 400 for application on dermal sites for sustained treating of inflammation. Prepared patches were evaluated for various physicochemical properties, surface morphology by SEM, TEM, and compatibility of patch components by FT-IR and DSC studies. Optimized formulation (F9) gave 95...
May 12, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Xia Wu, Xiaoyue Liu, Shimin Fu
A distractor can capture attention and impair target processing when it shares a target-defining property and matches specific attentional control settings (ACS). We studied how feature-specific ACS (fACS) and category-specific ACS (cACS) operate in a conjunction search task and how they are influenced by attentional engagement. The feature- and category-matching level and temporal lags between the distractor and target were manipulated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The N2pc component and impairment of target identification, which are associated with attentional allocation at an earlier stage and response selection at a later stage, respectively, were measured as markers of attentional capture...
July 2016: Biological Psychology
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
The probability of missing a target increases in low target prevalence search tasks. Wolfe and Van Wert (2010) propose 2 causes of this effect: reducing the quitting threshold, and conservatively shifting the decision making criterion used to evaluate each item. Reducing the quitting threshold predicts that target absent responses will be made without fully inspecting the display, increasing misses due to never inspecting the target (selection errors). The shift in decision criterion increases the likelihood of failing to recognize an inspected target (identification errors)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Silvia Primativo, Donatella Spinelli, Pierluigi Zoccolotti, Maria De Luca, Marialuisa Martelli
Adults read at high speed, but estimates of their reading rate vary greatly, i.e., from 100 to 1500 words per minute (wpm). This discrepancy is likely due to different recording methods and to the different perceptual and cognitive processes involved in specific test conditions. The present study investigated the origins of these notable differences in RSVP reading rate (RR). In six experiments we investigated the role of many different perceptual and cognitive variables. The presence of a mask caused a steep decline in reading rate, with an estimated masking cost of about 200 wpm...
2016: PloS One
John F Maguire, Piers D L Howe
The human visual system has the remarkable ability to rapidly detect meaning from visual stimuli. Potter, Wyble, Hagmann, and McCourt (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 270-279, 2014) tested the minimum viewing time required to obtain meaning from a stream of pictures shown in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence containing either six or 12 pictures. They reported that observers could detect the presence of a target picture specified by name (e.g., smiling couple) even when the pictures in the sequence were presented for just 13 ms each...
July 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Amy M Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Jonathan K Wynn, Mark S Cohen, Stephen A Engel, David C Glahn, Keith H Nuechterlein, Eric A Reavis, Michael F Green
Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB) in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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