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stroke and HIV / AIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875362/relationship-between-hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-inflammatory-markers-and-cerebrovascular-endothelial-function-among-adults-in-urban-china
#1
Felicia C Chow, Yanling Li, Yinghuan Hu, Joy Chan, Huanling Wang, Weihai Xu, Richard W Price, Farzaneh A Sorond, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular risk is increased in people living with HIV infection compared with age-matched uninfected individuals. Cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction related to antiretroviral therapy and inflammation may contribute to higher stroke risk in HIV infection. METHODS: We compared cerebral vasoreactivity-a measure of cerebrovascular endothelial function assessed by the breath holding index (BHI) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound-between virologically suppressed Chinese HIV-infected individuals followed in an HIV clinic in Beijing, China and uninfected controls...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733330/disease-monitoring-and-health-campaign-evaluation-using-google-search-activities-for-hiv-and-aids-stroke-colorectal-cancer-and-marijuana-use-in-canada-a-retrospective-observational-study
#2
Rebecca Ling, Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: Infodemiology can offer practical and feasible health research applications through the practice of studying information available on the Web. Google Trends provides publicly accessible information regarding search behaviors in a population, which may be studied and used for health campaign evaluation and disease monitoring. Additional studies examining the use and effectiveness of Google Trends for these purposes remain warranted. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to explore the use of infodemiology in the context of health campaign evaluation and chronic disease monitoring...
October 12, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733281/global-regional-and-national-life-expectancy-all-cause-mortality-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-249-causes-of-death-1980-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#3
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730474/cardiovascular-complications-of-hiv-in-endemic-countries
#4
Matthew J Feinstein, Milana Bogorodskaya, Gerald S Bloomfield, Rajesh Vedanthan, Mark J Siedner, Gene F Kwan, Christopher T Longenecker
Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to evolve from a generally fatal condition to a manageable chronic disease. This transition began two decades ago in high-income countries and has more recently begun in lower income, HIV endemic countries (HIV-ECs). With this transition, there has been a concurrent shift in clinical and public health burden from AIDS-related complications and opportunistic infections to those associated with well-controlled HIV disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609056/the-double-burden-of-disease-among-mining-workers-in-papua-indonesia-at-the-crossroads-between-old-and-new-health-paradigms
#5
Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nawi Ng, Dwidjo Susilo, John Prawira, Michael J Bangs, Rachel M Amiya
BACKGROUND: As the global shift toward non-communicable diseases overlaps with the unfinished agenda of confronting infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, epidemiological links across both burdens must be recognized. This study examined the non-communicable disease-infectious disease overlap in the specific comorbidity rates for key diseases in an occupational cohort in Papua, Indonesia. METHODS: Diagnosed cases of ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (types 1 and 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria were extracted from 22,550 patient records (21,513 men, 1037 women) stored in identical electronic health information systems from two clinic sites in Papua, Indonesia...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380854/self-reported-impact-of-caregiving-on-voluntary-home-based-caregivers-in-mutale-municipality-south-africa
#6
Ntsieni S Mashau, Vhonani O Netshandama, Makondelela J Mudau
BACKGROUND: The establishment of home-based care (HBC) programmes in developing countries has resulted in a shift of burden from hospitals to communities where palliative care is provided by voluntary home-based caregivers. AIM: The study investigated the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers. SETTING: The study was conducted at HBC organisations located in Mutale Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey design was applied to investigate the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084509/delivery-of-health-care-for-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-african-countries-a-systematic-review-protocol
#7
David A Watkins, Nathaniel L Tulloch, Molly E Anderson, Scott Barnhart, Krisela Steyn, Naomi S Levitt
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in African countries are living longer due to the rollout of antiretroviral drug therapy programs, but they are at increasing risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, there remain many gaps in detecting and treating NCDs in African health systems, and little is known about how NCDs are being managed among PLHIV. Developing integrated chronic care models that effectively prevent and treat NCDs among PLHIV requires an understanding of the current patterns of care delivery and the major barriers and facilitators to health care...
2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044037/risk-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-hiv-aids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Réza Behrouz, Christopher Hans Topel, Ali Seifi, Lee A Birnbaum, Robin L Brey, Vivek Misra, Mario Di Napoli
Evidence for the association and the increased risk of stroke with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is growing. Recent studies have reported on HIV infection as a potent risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used the pooled results from case-control studies to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the risk of ICH with HIV/AIDS. Our systematic review and meta-analysis was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses algorithm of all available case-control studies that reported on the risk of ICH in patients with HIV/AIDS...
April 4, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990627/association-of-injection-drug-use-with-incidence-of-hiv-associated-non-aids-related-morbidity-by-age-1995-2014
#9
Catherine R Lesko, Richard D Moore, Weiqun Tong, Bryan Lau
OBJECTIVE: Incidence of HIV-associated non-AIDS (HANA) related comorbidities is increasing in HIV-infected individuals. Our objective was to estimate the risk of HANA comorbidity associated with history of injection drug use (IDU) correctly accounting for higher death rates among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: We followed HIV-infected persons aged 25-59 years who enrolled in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between 1995 and May 2014, from enrollment until HANA comorbidity diagnosis, death, age 60, or administrative censoring...
June 1, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986005/association-of-cytomegalovirus-end-organ-disease-with-stroke-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Yung-Feng Yen, Ian Jen, Marcelo Chen, Pei-Hung Chuang, Yen-Ling Liu, Gerald B Sharp, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
OBJECTIVES: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection might increase the risk of cardiovascular event. However, data on the link between incident stroke and co-infections of CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are limited and inconsistent. This nationwide population-based cohort study analyzed the association of CMV end-organ disease and stroke among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). METHODS: From January 1, 1998, this study identified adult HIV individuals with and without CMV end-organ disease in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941281/history-of-aids-in-hiv-infected-patients-is-associated-with-higher-in-hospital-mortality-following-admission-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke
#11
Nwora Lance Okeke, Charles B Hicks, Mehri S McKellar, Vance G Fowler, Jerome J Federspiel
BACKGROUND: Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are at increased risk for major cardiovascular events, short-term prognosis after these events is unclear. METHODS: To determine the association between HIV infection and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke outcomes, we analyzed hospital discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) between 2002 and 2012. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between HIV infection and in-hospital death after AMI or stroke...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26805910/presentation-and-rehabilitation-in-a-patient-with-toxoplasmosis-encephalitis-a-case-study-and-review
#12
Ryan Mattie, Zack McCormick, Henry Huie
Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic infection that often presents in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The infection can cause severe and potentially fatal encephalitis because of the reactivation of latent infections in the setting of immune suppression. Diagnosing toxoplasmosis encephalitis (TE) in immunocompromised patients often is difficult because the signs and symptoms can be nonspecific, but making a diagnosis of TE is even more challenging in a patient who is not known to have human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and shows no other signs of being immunocompromised...
June 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26445807/hiv-aids-presenting-with-stroke-like-features-caused-by-cerebral-nocardia-abscesses-a-case-report
#13
James Stefaniak
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus can predispose to opportunistic infections of the central nervous system and can be life threatening without early recognition and management. This can be delayed in undiagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The present article is the only case report in the literature to describe a first presentation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome as cerebral Nocardia abscesses that were initially treated as a stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously well 59 year old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset of left sided hemiparesis and sensory change, right sided headache, diplopia and confusion...
2015: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26155903/stroke-in-hiv-infected-african-americans-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Kiran T Thakur, Jennifer L Lyons, Bryan R Smith, Russell T Shinohara, Farrah J Mateen
The risk of having a first stroke is nearly twice as high among African Americans compared to Caucasians. HIV/AIDS is an independent risk factor for stroke. Our study aimed to report the risk factors and short-term clinical outcomes of African Americans with HIV infection and new-onset stroke admitted at the Johns Hopkins Hospitals (2000-2012). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between potential predictors and odds of an unfavorable outcome, defined as a higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score on hospital discharge...
February 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26070969/future-challenges-for-clinical-care-of-an-ageing-population-infected-with-hiv-a-modelling-study
#15
Mikaela Smit, Kees Brinkman, Suzanne Geerlings, Colette Smit, Kalyani Thyagarajan, Ard van Sighem, Frank de Wolf, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: The population infected with HIV is getting older and these people will increasingly develop age-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We aimed to quantify the scale of the change and the implications for HIV care in the Netherlands in the future. METHODS: We constructed an individual-based model of the ageing HIV-infected population, which followed patients on HIV treatment as they age, develop NCDs-including cardiovascular disease (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, myocardial infarctions, and strokes), diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, and non-AIDS malignancies-and start co-medication for these diseases...
July 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25960735/stroke-like-presentation-of-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-two-hiv-infected-cases
#16
Ekanem E Philip-Ephraim, Andreas Charidimou, Effiong Williams, Gbenga Kajogbola
Toxoplasmosis is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clinical presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in these patients includes headache, focal neurological deficits and seizures. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy results in rapid clinical and radiological improvement as well as good outcome for patients. In this article, we report two cases with stroke-like presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the setting of HIV infection...
January 2015: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25394024/cardiovascular-risk-evaluation-of-hiv-positive-patients-in-a-case-control-study-comparison-of-the-d-a-d-and-framingham-equations
#17
Samuel Markowicz, Marc Delforge, Coca Necsoi, Stéphane De Wit
INTRODUCTION: Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to complex interactions between traditional CVD risk factors, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV infection itself (1). Prevention of CVD is essential as it remains the most common serious non-AIDS event and contributes significantly to all-cause mortality. A cardiovascular risk-assessment model tailored to HIV population is thus essential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study within the HIV cohort of the Saint-Pierre Hospital, Brussels...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25377344/disease-specific-mortality-burdens-in-a-rural-gambian-population-using-verbal-autopsy-1998-2007
#18
Momodou Jasseh, Stephen R C Howie, Pierre Gomez, Susana Scott, Anna Roca, Mamady Cham, Brian Greenwood, Tumani Corrah, Umberto D'Alessandro
OBJECTIVE: To estimate and evaluate the cause-of-death structure and disease-specific mortality rates in a rural area of The Gambia as determined using the InterVA-4 model. DESIGN: Deaths and person-years of observation were determined by age group for the population of the Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance area from January 1998 to December 2007. Causes of death were determined by verbal autopsy (VA) using the InterVA-4 model and ICD-10 disease classification...
2014: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25377342/causes-of-death-among-persons-of-all-ages-within-the-kilifi-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-kenya-determined-from-verbal-autopsies-interpreted-using-the-interva-4-model
#19
Carolyne Ndila, Evasius Bauni, George Mochamah, Vysaul Nyirongo, Alex Makazi, Patrick Kosgei, Benjamin Tsofa, Gideon Nyutu, Anthony Etyang, Peter Byass, Thomas N Williams
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of deaths in the Kilifi study area are not recorded through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of death (CODs) among residents of all ages within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) on the coast of Kenya. DESIGN: Verbal autopsies (VAs) were conducted using the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) standard VA questionnaires, and VA data further transformed to align with the 2012 WHO VA instrument...
2014: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25377337/estimating-cause-of-adult-15-years-death-using-interva-4-in-a-rural-district-of-southern-ghana
#20
Elizabeth Awini, Doris Sarpong, Alexander Adjei, Alfred Kwesi Manyeh, Alberta Amu, Patricia Akweongo, Philip Adongo, Vida Kukula, Gabriel Odonkor, Solomon Narh, Margaret Gyapong
BACKGROUND: Data needed to estimate causes of death and the pattern of these deaths are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Such data are very important for targeting, monitoring, and evaluating health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality rate and determine causes of death among adults (aged 15 years and older) in a rural district of southern Ghana, using the InterVA-4 model. DESIGN: Data used were generated from verbal autopsies conducted for registered adult members of the Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance System who died between 2006 and 2010...
2014: Global Health Action
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