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Effectiveness of applied behavior analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087173/at-the-heart-of-the-problem-a-person-centred-developmental-perspective-on-the-link-between-alcohol-consumption-and-cardio-vascular-events
#1
Valéria Lima Passos, Sven Klijn, Kevin van Zandvoort, Latifa Abidi, Paul Lemmens
INTRODUCTION: The cardio-protective effect of alcohol has been the subject of a long-standing scientific controversy. Emerging evidence remains equivocal, as the validity of the dose-dependent J-shape association is tainted by conceptual, theoretical and methodological problems. A major impediment for a resolution on the matter is the lack of a life-long developmental approach to pinpoint alcohol's specific impact on the risk for cardio-vascular events (CVE). OBJECTIVE: Using retrospective and prospective individual-level data of alcohol consumption (AC) we applied a model-based clustering technique to uncover life-course trajectories of AC and explored their links to CVE...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077345/tips-and-traps-lessons-from-codesigning-a-clinician-e-monitoring-tool-for-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#2
Frederick Sundram, Susan J Hawken, Karolina Stasiak, Mathijs Fg Lucassen, Theresa Fleming, Matthew Shepherd, Andrea Greenwood, Raechel Osborne, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) is an acceptable and promising treatment modality for adolescents with mild-to-moderate depression. Many cCBT programs are standalone packages with no way for clinicians to monitor progress or outcomes. We sought to develop an electronic monitoring (e-monitoring) tool in consultation with clinicians and adolescents to allow clinicians to monitor mood, risk, and treatment adherence of adolescents completing a cCBT program called SPARX (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts)...
January 11, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075433/effects-of-morphine-butorphanol-and-levomethadone-in-different-doses-on-thermal-nociceptive-thresholds-in-horses
#3
Paula Dönselmann Im Sande, Klaus Hopster, Sabine Kästner
OBJECTIVE: Various opioids are available for use in equine medicine. Studies directly comparing their analgesic effects and side effects are rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the antinociceptive effect and the duration of analgesia of two different doses of morphine, butorphanol and levomethadone in horses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight adult, healthy horses were used for this randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded cross-over trail. Each horse received placebo (P = 0...
January 11, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#4
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072852/efficacy-of-peer-education-for-adopting-preventive-behaviors-against-head-lice-infestation-in-female-elementary-school-students-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Mahdi Moshki, Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Mehdi Mojadam
BACKGROUND: Pediculosis is a common parasitic infestation in students worldwide, including Iran. This condition is more prevalent in populous and deprived communities with poor personal hygiene. This study sought to assess the efficacy of peer education for adopting preventive behaviors against pediculosis in female elementary school students based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHODS: A total of 179 female fifth grade students were selected using multistage random sampling and were randomly allocated to control and intervention groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063856/effectiveness-of-deferoxamine-on-ferric-chloride-induced-epilepsy-in-rats
#6
Xiang Zou, Shize Jiang, Zehan Wu, Yimin Shi, Shengyong Cai, Renqing Zhu, Liang Chen
Iron overload has been regarded as a common cause for refractory epilepsies in patients after hemorrhagic strokes. This study is to examine the potential epilepsy control effect of deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, on a ferric chloride-induced epilepsy rat model. Twenty four rats were divided into 4 groups: group I is blank control group, group II is sham group with intracortical injection of saline, group III is epilepsy group with intracortical injection of iron and saline treatment, group IV is treatment group with intracortical injection of iron and DFO treatment...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061819/association-between-a-syndemic-of-psychosocial-problems-and-unprotected-anal-intercourse-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-shanghai-china
#7
Ying Wang, Zezhou Wang, Mengmeng Jia, Ajuan Liang, Dong Yuan, Zhe Sun, Feng Gan, Yichen Wang, Yong Cai, Zhiruo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have discussed the overlapping and reinforcing effects (defined as a syndemic) of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The present study aimed to apply the syndemic theory to verify the reinforcing effects of psychosocial problems on unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among MSM in Shanghai, and determine if other important psychosocial factors fit into the syndemic theory. METHODS: Data were collected from 547 MSM in Shanghai, China, through face-to-face interviews...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060582/encoded-exposure-and-social-norms-in-entertainment-education
#8
Amy Henderson Riley, Suruchi Sood, Paramita Dasgupta Mazumdar, Narendra Nath Choudary, Alka Malhotra, Naysan Sahba
Entertainment-education is an effective health communication strategy that combines or embeds educational messages into entertainment programs to bring about social and behavior change. For years, scholars have considered how entertainment-education works. Some contemporary theories posit that entertainment-education does not engender behavior change directly but does so through mediating variables. This study adds to the literature on this topic by exploring the direct relationship between exposure and social norms instead of their relationship through behavior as a mediator...
January 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058866/the-influence-of-thermal-treatment-and-type-of-insoluble-poly-meth-acrylates-on-dissolution-behavior-of-very-soluble-drug-from-hypromellose-matrix-tablets-evaluated-by-multivariate-data-analysis
#9
Katerina Kubova, Daniel Peček, Kristýna Hasserová, Petr Doležel, Miroslava Pavelková, Jakub Vyslouzil, Jan Muselík, David Vetchy
Hypromellose matrices exhibit extended burst effect immediately after contact with aqueous medium, especially when a water-soluble drug is incorporated. The objective of this study was to reduce burst effect and maintain complete dissolution of a very soluble levetiracetam over 12 h period from hypromellose K4M matrices to obtain zero-order kinetics. Desired changes were achieved by applying water dispersions of insoluble Eudragits(®) (NE, NM, RL, RS) as a granulation liquid to the drug/microcrystalline cellulose mixture during high-shear granulation (non-thermal treated set) and consequently by thermally treating granules or final tablets (TT), respectively...
January 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058516/applying-and-advancing-behavior-change-theories-and-techniques-in-the-context-of-a-digital-health-revolution-proposals-for-more-effectively-realizing-untapped-potential
#10
Arlen C Moller, Gina Merchant, David E Conroy, Robert West, Eric Hekler, Kari C Kugler, Susan Michie
As more behavioral health interventions move from traditional to digital platforms, the application of evidence-based theories and techniques may be doubly advantageous. First, it can expedite digital health intervention development, improving efficacy, and increasing reach. Second, moving behavioral health interventions to digital platforms presents researchers with novel (potentially paradigm shifting) opportunities for advancing theories and techniques. In particular, the potential for technology to revolutionize theory refinement is made possible by leveraging the proliferation of "real-time" objective measurement and "big data" commonly generated and stored by digital platforms...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056097/functionality-and-robustness-of-injured-connectomic-dynamics-in-c-elegans-linking-behavioral-deficits-to-neural-circuit-damage
#11
James M Kunert, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
Using a model for the dynamics of the full somatic nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, we address how biological network architectures and their functionality are degraded in the presence of focal axonal swellings (FAS) arising from neurodegenerative disease and/or traumatic brain injury. Using biophysically measured FAS distributions and swelling sizes, we are able to simulate the effects of injuries on the neural dynamics of C. elegans, showing how damaging the network degrades its low-dimensional dynamical responses...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053946/ancient-chinese-fangzhongshu-sexual-skills-and-methods-therapy-for-premature-ejaculation
#12
REVIEW
Yong Zhu, Qiang Chen, Yuexing Gu, Jin Yue, Qingqi Zeng
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple's relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods), which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided...
December 2016: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048972/astaxanthin-improves-cognitive-performance-in-mice-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Xinran Ji, Dayong Peng, Yiling Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yuning Wang, Yuan Gao, Ning Lu, Peifu Tang
[BACKGROUND]: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces lasting neurological deficits that plague patients and physicians. To date, there is no effective method to combat the source of this problem. Here, we utilized a mild, closed head TBI model to determine the modulatory effects of a natural dietary compound, astaxanthin (AST). AST is centrally active following oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. We examined the effects of oral AST on the long-term neurological functional recovery and histological outcomes following moderate TBI in a mice model...
December 31, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046517/we-h-207a-03-the-universality-of-the-lognormal-behavior-of-f-18-flt-pet-suv-measurements
#14
M Scarpelli, J Eickhoff, S Perlman, R Jeraj
PURPOSE: Log transforming [F-18]FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) has been shown to lead to normal SUV distributions, which allows utilization of powerful parametric statistical models. This study identified the optimal transformation leading to normally distributed [F-18]FLT PET SUVs from solid tumors and offers an example of how normal distributions permits analysis of non-independent/correlated measurements. METHODS: Forty patients with various metastatic diseases underwent up to six FLT PET/CT scans during treatment...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039879/prevalence-of-binge-and-loss-of-control-eating-among-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity-an-exploratory-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Jinbo He, Zhihui Cai, Xitao Fan
OBJECTIVE: Due to the inconsistency of the research findings in the current literature, the prevalence of binge and loss of control (LOC) eating among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity remains unclear. By using the meta-analytic approach, this article aimed at exploring the prevalence of binge/LOC eating among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity, and at identifying potential moderators, which may have contributed to the heterogeneity of the existing research findings...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025069/does-reactivation-trigger-episodic-memory-change-a-meta-analysis
#16
Iiona D Scully, Lucy E Napper, Almut Hupbach
According to the reconsolidation hypothesis, long-term memories return to a plastic state upon their reactivation, leaving them vulnerable to interference effects and requiring re-storage processes or else these memories might be permanently lost. The present study used a meta-analytic approach to critically evaluate the evidence for reactivation-induced changes in human episodic memory. Results indicated that reactivation makes episodic memories susceptible to physiological and behavioral interference. When applied shortly after reactivation, interference manipulations altered the amount of information that could be retrieved from the original learning event...
December 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024181/maternal-and-paternal-personality-profiles-of-adolescent-suicide-attempters
#17
Nurullah Bolat, Tayyib Kadak, Kayi Eliacik, Enis Sargin, Secil Incekas, Hatice Gunes
Personality features have been correlated with suicidal behaviors in recent decades. Given its neurobiological background, Cloninger's model of personality, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), may help to identify the maternal and paternal personality dimensions associated with adolescent suicide attempts. The present study is the first that specifically compares the temperament and character profiles of both mothers and fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters with a control group, by considering the influence of demographic and clinical factors...
December 18, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018353/embracing-complexity-beyond-systems-medicine-a-new-approach-to-chronic-immune-disorders
#18
Anje A Te Velde, Tjitske Bezema, Antoine H C van Kampen, Aletta D Kraneveld, Bert A 't Hart, Henriët van Middendorp, Erik C Hack, Joris M van Montfrans, Clara Belzer, Lilian Jans-Beken, Raymond H Pieters, Karen Knipping, Machteld Huber, Annemieke M H Boots, Johan Garssen, Tim R Radstake, Andrea W M Evers, Berent J Prakken, Irma Joosten
In order to combat chronic immune disorders (CIDs), it is an absolute necessity to understand the bigger picture, one that goes beyond insights at a one-disease, molecular, cellular, and static level. To unravel this bigger picture we advocate an integral, cross-disciplinary approach capable of embracing the complexity of the field. This paper discusses the current knowledge on common pathways in CIDs including general psychosocial and lifestyle factors associated with immune functioning. We demonstrate the lack of more in-depth psychosocial and lifestyle factors in current research cohorts and most importantly the need for an all-encompassing analysis of these factors...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009452/metabolic-profiles-revealed-synergistically-antidepressant-effects-of-lilies-and-rhizoma-anemarrhenae-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#19
Hongli Du, Hongxia Zhao, Xueli Lai, Qishan Lin, Zhenyu Zhu, Yifeng Chai, Ziyang Lou
Depression is the predominant cause of illness and disability. We applied untargeted metabolomics using mass spectrometry to identify metabolic signatures associated with depression in serum and explored the antidepressant effects of Lilies and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae on an experimental model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Meanwhile metabolomics based on UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, was used to study the change in metabolites in CUMS rat serum and to evaluate the effects of Anemarrhena Rhizoma, Lilies (alone and in combination)...
December 23, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009178/translocation-time-through-a-nanopore-with-an-internal-cavity-is-minimal-for-polymers-of-intermediate-length
#20
Martin Magill, Cory Falconer, Ed Waller, Hendrick W de Haan
The translocation of polymers through nanopores with large internal cavities bounded by two narrow pores is studied via Langevin dynamics simulations. The total translocation time is found to be a nonmonotonic function of polymer length, reaching a minimum at intermediate length, with both shorter and longer polymers taking longer to translocate. The location of the minimum is shown to shift with the magnitude of the applied force, indicating that the pore can be dynamically tuned to favor different polymer lengths...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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