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Effectiveness of applied behavior analysis

Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Stefanie Koormann, Jana Brauchmann, Susanna Wiegand
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions...
October 18, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Chun Chang, Qingqi Zeng, Ying Ji, Xinying Sun, Yuhui Shi, Yanlin Wang, Chengcheng Han, Xiuqin Wen
OBJECTIVE: To exam whether health literacy mediated the association between intervention and blood pressure control and to better understand the relationship between health literacy and health outcome for hypertensive. DESIGN AND METHOD: A before-after designed one-year community-based intervention program including patient education and patient-centered goal support were conducted in a primary care setting. A face-to-face interview were completed among 468 hypertensives before intervention and 406 after intervention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Miyuki Omori, Yuji Sato, Noboru Kitagawa, Yuta Shimura, Manabu Ito
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) is effective in analyzing stress distributions around dental implants. However, FEA of living tissue involves many conditions, and the structures and behaviors are complex; thus, it is difficult to ensure the validity of the results. To verify reproducibility and validity, we embedded implants in experimental models and constructed FEA models; implant displacements were compared under various loading conditions. METHODS: Implants were embedded in the molar regions of artificial mandibles to fabricate three experimental models...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Suni Petersen, Trina Do, Christy Shaw, Kaile Brake
Worldwide more deaths occur due to conditions that can be ameliorated by behavior change. Changing health behaviors using models popularized in non-western countries has not proven particularly successful. The purpose of this study was to test variables elicited during qualitative interviews and cultural conversations to develop a model of health behavior change from the ground up in Vietnam. Village leaders and women representatives from the Women's Committee were trained as health advocates to facilitate changes in health practices that led to parasitic and infectious diseases...
October 15, 2016: Health Education Research
Melissa DeFilippis, Karen Dineen Wagner
Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavior analysis. Medications have been most effective in treating the associated behavioral symptoms of autism, though studies have examined potential benefits in some of the core symptoms of autism with certain medications, especially the repetitive behaviors often seen with this diagnosis...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Fengqing Zhang, Jiangtao Gou
BACKGROUND: Power analysis is a critical aspect of the design of experiments to detect an effect of a given size. When multiple hypotheses are tested simultaneously, multiplicity adjustments to p-values should be taken into account in power analysis. There are a limited number of studies on power analysis in multiple testing procedures. For some methods, the theoretical analysis is difficult and extensive numerical simulations are often needed, while other methods oversimplify the information under the alternative hypothesis...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Xiao Li, Julio C Armas-Perez, Jose A Martinez-Gonzalez, Xiaoying Liu, Helou Xie, Camille Bishop, Juan P Hernandez-Ortiz, Rui Zhang, Juan J de Pablo, Paul F Nealey
The morphology and through-film optical properties of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) confined between two surfaces may be engineered to create switches that respond to external electric fields, thereby enabling applications in optoelectronics that require fast responses and low power. Interfacial properties between the confining surfaces and the LC play a central role in device design and performance. Here we investigate the morphology of LCs confined in hybrid cells with a top surface that exhibits uniform homeotropic anchoring and a bottom surface that is chemically patterned with sub-micron and micron- wide planar anchoring stripes in a background of homeotropic anchoring...
September 27, 2016: Soft Matter
Laura Vandeweghe, Ellen Moens, Caroline Braet, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Leentje Vervoort, Sandra Verbeken
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10)...
October 4, 2016: BMC Public Health
S Fleischmann, M Mancini, P Axmann, U Golla-Schindler, U Kaiser, M Wohlfahrt-Mehrens
A series of Li2 MnSiO4 samples with various Li, Mn, and/or Si concentrations are reported to study for the first time the effect of impurities and deviation from ideal stoichiometry on electrochemical behavior. Carbon-coated and nanosized powders are obtained at 600 °C and compared with those synthetized at 900 °C. Samples are investigated using XRD, SEM, high-resolution TEM, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area to characterize crystal structure, particle size, impurity amount, morphology, and surface area...
October 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
Anna Schöndube, Martina Kanning, Reinhard Fuchs
Despite the well-documented positive effect of exercise on health outcomes, most people do not succeed in exercising regularly. In addition to several other influences, affective states seem to support exercise participation. Associations between exercise and affect have been shown in the laboratory. However, the dynamic relation between affect and exercise in daily life is not yet well-understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the bi-directional effect of momentary affective states on naturally occurring exercise and vice versa in healthy participants in real-life environments by applying an ecological momentary assessment design...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Daseul Park, Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz, Sun-Hyoung Kim, Mijin Lee, Wooseong Lee, Jong-Won Oh, Dong-Un Lee, Jiyong Park
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Fresh blueberries are among high risk foods associated with norovirus related outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to assess intervention strategies to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The disinfection efficiency of decontamination methods is difficult to evaluate for fruits and vegetables due to an inconsistent degree of contamination and irregular surface characteristics. The inactivation efficiency and mechanism of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1, a surrogate for HuNoV) was studied on an experimentally prepared solidified agar matrix (SAM) to simulate blueberries using different wavelengths (A, B, C) of UV light both with and without TiO2 photocatalysis (TP)...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Matthew Torres, Henry Dewhurst, Niveda Sundararaman
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotype to phenotype in eukaryotes. Currently, less than 4% of all eukaryotic PTMs are reported to have biological function &- a statistic that continues to decrease with an increasing rate of PTM detection. Previously, we developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) &- a method for the prioritization of PTM function potential that has been used effectively to reveal novel PTM regulatory elements in discrete protein families (Dewhurst et al...
October 3, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Eunjoo Kim, Joon Mee Kim, Lucia Kim, Suk Jin Choi, In Suh Park, Jee Young Han, Young Chae Chu, Eun Sook Choi, Kun Na, Soon-Sun Hong
In recent years, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been applied widely to biomedical fields. However, the relationship between the physicochemical properties of IONPs and their biological behavior is not fully understood yet. We prepared 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS)-coated IONPs, which have a neutral hydrophobic surface, and compared their biological behavior to that of Resovist (ferucarbotran), a commercialized IONP formulation modified with carboxymethyl dextran. The rate of MPS-IONP uptake by human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) was higher than ferucarbotran uptake, indicating that the neutral hydrophobic nature of MPS-IONPs allowed them to be absorbed more readily through the plasma membrane...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ángel Lázaro Gonzálvez, Javier Martínez Reina, Pedro Cano Luis, Juan Jiménez Baquero, José Sueiro Fernández, Miguel Ángel Giráldez Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: The current biomechanical work compares the symphyseal and sacroiliac stability obtained with two systems of bone osteosynthesis. The two methods of fixation compared were the 6-hole suprapubic non-locked plate and pubic fixation with two cannulated screws, a novel technique that can be applied percutaneously in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the use of two-cannulated-screws osteosynthesis in order to minimize the secondary effects of open fixation, especially in patients in whom an open reduction is contraindicated...
September 2016: Injury
Kisha Coa, Heather Patrick
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that text messaging programs are effective in facilitating health behavior change. However, high dropout rates limit the potential effectiveness of these programs. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes patterns of early dropout in the HealthyYou text (HYTxt) program, with a focus on the impact of baseline motivation quality on dropout, as characterized by Self-Determination Theory (SDT). METHODS: This analysis included 193 users of HYTxt, a diet and physical activity text messaging intervention developed by the US National Cancer Institute...
September 29, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Hemmings Wu, Tim Tambuyzer, Ioana Nica, Marjolijn Deprez, Kris van Kuyck, Jean-Marie Aerts, Sabine Van Huffel, Bart Nuttin
UNLABELLED: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in anxiety and reward processing, both of which are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specific neuronal groups in the BNST related to anxiety and reward have been identified, but quantitative data about the information carried by local field potential (LFP) signals in this area during obsession/compulsion are lacking. Here we investigate the BNST LFP in the schedule-induced polydipsia, an animal model of OCD...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Brandon J Dixon, Di Chen, Yang Zhang, Jerry Flores, Jay Malaguit, Derek Nowrangi, John H Zhang, Jiping Tang
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an injury that often leads to detrimental neurological deficits. Currently, there are no established therapies for HIE and it is critical to develop treatments that provide protection after HIE. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of interferon beta (IFNβ) to provide neuroprotection and reduce apoptosis after HIE. Postnatal Day 10 rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 hr of exposure to hypoxia (8% O2)...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
Eric Shyman
The field of educating individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder has ever been rife with controversy regarding issues ranging from etiology and causation to effective intervention and education options. One such basis for controversy has been between humanism, and humanistic philosophical concepts, and its fundamental differences with behaviorism, and behavioristic philosophical concepts. These differences have long been debated, and the belief that the two orientations are generally mutually exclusive has been largely maintained...
October 2016: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
R Rakkiyappan, S Premalatha, A Chandrasekar, Jinde Cao
This paper is concerned with the problem of stability and pinning synchronization of a class of inertial memristive neural networks with time delay. In contrast to general inertial neural networks, inertial memristive neural networks is applied to exhibit the synchronization and stability behaviors due to the physical properties of memristors and the differential inclusion theory. By choosing an appropriate variable transmission, the original system can be transformed into first order differential equations...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Lisa K B Holper, Alekandra Aleksandrowicz, Mario Müller, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Helene Haker, Andreas J Fallgatter, Florence Hagenmuller, Wolfram Kawohl, Wulf Rössler
A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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