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Effectiveness of applied behavior analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342981/mechanisms-of-in-vivo-release-of-triamcinolone-acetonide-from-plga-microspheres
#1
Amy C Doty, David G Weinstein, Keiji Hirota, Karl F Olsen, Rose Ackermann, Yan Wang, Stephanie Choi, Steven P Schwendeman
Little is known about the underlying effects controlling in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVCs) for biodegradable controlled release microspheres. Most reports of IVIVCs that exist are empirical in nature, typically based on a mathematical relationship between in vitro and in vivo drug release, with the latter often estimated by deconvolution of pharmacokinetic data. In order to improve the ability of in vitro release tests to predict microsphere behavior in vivo and develop more meaningful IVIVCs, the in vivo release mechanisms need to be characterized...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340415/uncertainty-analysis-for-effluent-trading-planning-using-a-bayesian-estimation-based-simulation-optimization-modeling-approach
#2
J L Zhang, Y P Li, G H Huang, B W Baetz, J Liu
In this study, a Bayesian estimation-based simulation-optimization modeling approach (BESMA) is developed for identifying effluent trading strategies. BESMA incorporates nutrient fate modeling with soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), Bayesian estimation, and probabilistic-possibilistic interval programming with fuzzy random coefficients (PPI-FRC) within a general framework. Based on the water quality protocols provided by SWAT, posterior distributions of parameters can be analyzed through Bayesian estimation; stochastic characteristic of nutrient loading can be investigated which provides the inputs for the decision making...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338437/contralateral-peripheral-neurotization-for-a-hemiplegic-hindlimb-after-central-neurological-injury
#3
Mou-Xiong Zheng, Xu-Yun Hua, Su Jiang, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Contralateral peripheral neurotization surgery has been successfully applied to rescue motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury (CNI). It may contribute to strengthened neural pathways between the contralesional cortex and paretic limbs. However, the effect of this surgery in the lower extremities remains unknown. In the present study the authors explored the effectiveness and safety of contralateral peripheral neurotization in treating a hemiplegic lower extremity following CNI in adult rats...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329117/muscle-activity-during-sleep-in-human-subjects-rats-and-mice-towards-translational-models-of-rem-sleep-without-atonia
#4
Alessandro Silvani, Raffaele Ferri, Viviana Lo Martire, Stefano Bastianini, Chiara Berteotti, Agnese Salvadè, Giuseppe Plazzi, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Claudio L Bassetti, Mauro Manconi, Giovanna Zoccoli
Study Objectives: rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) is a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and is common in narcolepsy. Available techniques for electromyogram (EMG) analysis are species-specific, limiting translational research on RSWA. We developed an automated technique based on distributions of normalized EMG values (DNE) to overcome this limitation. With DNE, we tested whether the control of neck and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during sleep in wild-type rats and mice validly models the control of submentalis (chin) and TA muscles in healthy humans...
February 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319367/structural-stability-from-crystallographic-shear-in-tio2-nb2o5-phases-cation-ordering-and-lithiation-behavior-of-tinb24o62
#5
Kent J Griffith, Anatoliy Senyshyn, Clare P Grey
The host structure and reversible lithium insertion and extraction of an intercalation compound, TiNb24O62, are described. Neutron diffraction, applied for the first time to TiNb24O62, allowed an accurate refinement of the complex block superstructure, particularly with respect to the oxygen sublattice. Analysis of the transition-metal sites revealed significant cation ordering in the mixed-metal oxide. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated highly reversible lithium intercalation with ca. 190 mA·h·g(-1) after 100 cycles (C/10 rate, 3 months)...
March 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319239/mobile-health-interventions-for-improving-health-outcomes-in-youth-a-meta-analysis
#6
David A Fedele, Christopher C Cushing, Alyssa Fritz, Christina M Amaro, Adrian Ortega
Importance: Mobile health interventions are increasingly popular in pediatrics; however, it is unclear how effective these interventions are in changing health outcomes. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of mobile health interventions for improving health outcomes in youth 18 years or younger. Data Sources: Studies published through November 30, 2016, were collected through PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and PsychINFO...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316047/exogenous-application-of-plant-growth-regulators-pgrs-induces-chilling-tolerance-in-short-duration-hybrid-maize
#7
Muhammad Ahmed Waqas, Imran Khan, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Mehmood Ali Noor, Umair Ashraf
Chilling stress hampers the optimal performance of maize under field conditions precipitously by inducing oxidative stress. To confer the damaging effects of chilling stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of some natural and synthetic plant growth regulators, i.e., salicylic acid (SA), thiourea (TU), sorghum water extract (SWE), and moringa leaf extract (MLE) on chilling stress tolerance in autumn maize hybrid. Foliar application of growth regulators at low concentrations was carried out at six leaf (V6) and tasseling stages...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315760/medication-adherence-outcomes-of-771-intervention-trials-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Vicki S Conn, Todd M Ruppar
Excellent medication adherence contributes to decreases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Although researchers have tested many interventions to increase adherence, results are sometimes conflicting and often unclear. This systematic review applied meta-analytic procedures to integrate primary research that tested medication adherence interventions. Comprehensive searching completed in 2015 located 771 published and unpublished intervention studies with adherence behavior outcomes. Random-effects model analysis calculated standardized mean difference effect sizes...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297646/inferring-mechanistic-parameters-from-amyloid-formation-kinetics-by-approximate-bayesian-computation
#9
Eri Nakatani-Webster, Abhinav Nath
Amyloid formation is implicated in a number of human diseases, and is thought to proceed via a nucleation-dependent polymerization mechanism. Experimenters often wish to relate changes in amyloid formation kinetics, for example, in response to small molecules to specific mechanistic steps along this pathway. However, fitting kinetic fibril formation data to a complex model including explicit rate constants results in an ill-posed problem with a vast number of potential solutions. The levels of uncertainty remaining in parameters calculated from these models, arising both from experimental noise and high levels of degeneracy or codependency in parameters, is often unclear...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293208/motivational-interviewing-as-an-adjunct-to-periodontal-therapy-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Svenja L Kopp, Christoph A Ramseier, Petra Ratka-Krüger, Johan P Woelber
Aim: Periodontal therapy is highly dependent on a patient's long-term adherence with regard to oral hygiene, diet, and regular check-ups at the dentist. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, directive method for encouraging a patients' behavioral health change. The aim of this systematic review was to reveal the effects of MI as an adjunct to periodontal therapy. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) were reviewed for randomized controlled clinical trials. Articles were included when using MI as an adjunct to periodontal therapy and presenting clinical periodontal and oral hygiene related parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291847/biomechanical-behavior-of-the-dental-implant-macrodesign
#11
Camila Lima de Andrade, Marco Aurélio Carvalho, Dimorvan Bordin, Wander José da Silva, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Bruno Salles Sotto-Maior
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of implant macrodesign when using different types of collar and thread designs on stress/strain distributions in a maxillary bone site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six groups were obtained from the combination of two collar designs (smooth and microthread) and three thread shapes (square, trapezoidal, and triangular) in external hexagon implants (4 × 10 mm) supporting a single zirconia crown in the maxillary first molar region...
March 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288361/multiscale-multifractal-properties-between-ground-level-ozone-and-its-precursors-in-rural-area-in-hong-kong
#12
Hong-di He, Zhong-Xia Qiao, Wei Pan, Wei-Zhen Lu
In rural area, due to the reduction of NOx and CO emitted from vehicle exhausts, the ozone photochemical reaction exhibits relatively weak effect and ozone formation presents different pattern with its precursors in contrast to urban situation. Hence, in this study, we apply detrended cross-correlation analysis to investigate the multifractal properties between ozone and its precursors in a rural area in Hong Kong. The observed databases of ozone, NO2, NOx and CO levels during 2005-2014 are obtained from a rural monitoring station in Hong Kong...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284689/variability-in-behavior-and-production-among-dairy-cows-fed-under-differing-levels-of-competition
#13
R E Crossley, A Harlander-Matauschek, T J DeVries
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of differing levels of competition for feed access on group-housed dairy cows, and on variations in behavior and productivity between individuals within each group. Eighteen lactating Holstein cows, averaging 77 ± 20 d in milk with a production of 46 ± 7 kg/d at the start of the trial, were divided into subgroups of 3 and fed a total mixed ration 3×/d. Groups were exposed to each of 3 competition levels: high (3 cows:1 feed bin), moderate (3 cows:2 feed bins), and low (3 cows:3 feed bins)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282427/d-cycloserine-augmentation-of-behavior-therapy-for-anxiety-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#14
Paul-Christian Bürkner, Nadine Bittner, Heinz Holling, Ulrike Buhlmann
OBJECTIVE: The present meta-analysis investigates whether the antibiotic D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, can augment the effect of behavior therapy in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. METHOD: A keyword-based computer search was conducted using common electronic databases. Only studies investigating the effect of DCS in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders were included, resulting in 23 studies with a combined sample size of 1314 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278267/potentiation-of-motor-sub-networks-for-motor-control-but-not-working-memory-interaction-of-dacc-and-sma-revealed-by-resting-state-directed-functional-connectivity
#15
Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Avisa Asemi, Ashley Burgess, Asadur Chowdury, Steven L Bressler
The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274904/gender-specific-combination-hiv-prevention-for-youth-in-high-burden-settings-the-mp3-youth-observational-pilot-study-protocol
#16
Jasmine Buttolph, Irene Inwani, Kawango Agot, Charles M Cleland, Peter Cherutich, James N Kiarie, Alfred Osoti, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Ruth Nduati, John Kinuthia, Timothy B Hallett, Ramzi Alsallaq, Ann E Kurth
BACKGROUND: Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya...
March 8, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264422/application-of-linear-mixed-effects-models-in-human-neuroscience-research-a-comparison-with-pearson-correlation-in-two-auditory-electrophysiology-studies
#17
Tess K Koerner, Yang Zhang
Neurophysiological studies are often designed to examine relationships between measures from different testing conditions, time points, or analysis techniques within the same group of participants. Appropriate statistical techniques that can take into account repeated measures and multivariate predictor variables are integral and essential to successful data analysis and interpretation. This work implements and compares conventional Pearson correlations and linear mixed-effects (LME) regression models using data from two recently published auditory electrophysiology studies...
February 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262082/influence-of-noise-generating-factors-on-cross-correlation-electron-backscatter-diffraction-ebsd-measurement-of-geometrically-necessary-dislocations-gnds
#18
Landon T Hansen, Brian E Jackson, David T Fullwood, Stuart I Wright, Marc De Graef, Eric R Homer, Robert H Wagoner
Studies of dislocation density evolution are fundamental to improved understanding in various areas of deformation mechanics. Recent advances in cross-correlation techniques, applied to electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data have particularly shed light on geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) behavior. However, the framework is relatively computationally expensive-patterns are typically saved from the EBSD scan and analyzed offline. A better understanding of the impact of EBSD pattern degradation, such as binning, compression, and various forms of noise, is vital to enable optimization of rapid and low-cost GND analysis...
March 6, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254326/direct-electrochemistry-and-electrocatalysis-of-lobetyolin-via-magnetic-functionalized-reduced-graphene-oxide-film-fabricated-electrochemical-sensor
#19
Bolu Sun, Xiaodan Gou, Ruibin Bai, Ahmed Attia Ahmed Abdelmoaty, Yuling Ma, Xiaoping Zheng, Fangdi Hu
A novel lobetyolin electrochemical sensor based on a magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide/Nafion nanohybrid film has been introduced in this work. The magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The scanning electron microscopy characterized the morphology and microstructure of the prepared sensors, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the prepared sensors were also calculated by chronocoulometry method...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248623/are-social-networking-sites-making-health-behavior-change-interventions-more-effective-a-meta-analytic-review
#20
Qinghua Yang
The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted...
March 2017: Journal of Health Communication
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