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Effectiveness of applied behavior analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729738/human-hippocampal-pre-activation-predicts-behavior
#1
Anna Jafarpour, Vitoria Piai, Jack J Lin, Robert T Knight
The response to an upcoming salient event is accelerated when the event is expected given the preceding events - i.e. a temporal context effect. For example, naming a picture following a strongly constraining temporal context is faster than naming a picture after a weakly constraining temporal context. We used sentences as naturalistic stimuli to manipulate expectations on upcoming pictures without prior training. Here, using intracranial recordings from the human hippocampus we found more power in the high-frequency band prior to high-expected pictures than weakly expected ones...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728969/a-nanoporous-titanium-surface-promotes-the-maturation-of-focal-adhesions-and-the-formation-of-filopodia-with-distinctive-nanoscale-protrusions-by-osteogenic-cells
#2
Dainelys Guadarrama Bello, Aurélien Fouillen, Antonella Badia, Antonio Nanci
While topography is a key determinant of the cellular response to biomaterials the mechanisms implicated in the cell-surface interactions are complex and still not fully elucidated. In this context, we have examined the effect of nanoscale topography on the formation of filopodia, focal adhesions, and on gene expression of proteins associated with cell adhesion and sensing. Commercially pure titanium discs were treated for oxidative nanopatterning with a solution of H2SO4/H2O2 50:50 (v/v). Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations showed that this facile chemical treatment efficiently creates a unique nanoporous surface with a root-mean-square roughness of 11...
July 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726158/free-boundary-models-for-mosquito-range-movement-driven-by-climate-warming
#3
Wendi Bao, Yihong Du, Zhigui Lin, Huaiping Zhu
As vectors, mosquitoes transmit numerous mosquito-borne diseases. Among the many factors affecting the distribution and density of mosquitoes, climate change and warming have been increasingly recognized as major ones. In this paper, we make use of three diffusive logistic models with free boundary in one space dimension to explore the impact of climate warming on the movement of mosquito range. First, a general model incorporating temperature change with location and time is introduced. In order to gain insights of the model, a simplified version of the model with the change of temperature depending only on location is analyzed theoretically, for which the dynamical behavior is completely determined and presented...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719572/neuroimaging-correlates-of-post-stroke-aphasia-rehabilitation-in-a-pilot-randomized-trial-of-constraint-induced-aphasia-therapy
#4
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Angel Ball, Jennifer Vannest, Aimee R Dietz, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND Recovery from post-stroke aphasia is a long and complex process with an uncertain outcome. Various interventions have been proposed to augment the recovery, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). CIAT has been applied to patients suffering from post-stroke aphasia in several unblinded studies to show mild-to-moderate linguistic gains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroimaging correlates of CIAT in patients with chronic aphasia related to left middle cerebral artery stroke...
July 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714808/-it-was-hard-work-every-session-therapists-view-of-successful-psychoanalytic-treatments
#5
Andrzej Werbart, Peter Missios, Fredrik Waldenström, Peter Lilliengren
OBJECTIVE: To explore therapists' experiences of the therapeutic process in successful cases of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. METHOD: A two-stage, mixed-method design was used. Sixteen successful cases were drawn from a sample of 92 young adults in psychoanalytic psychotherapy according to Jacobson's criteria for reliable and clinically significant improvement. Therapist interviews at baseline and termination were analyzed applying Inductive Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: Three core themes emerged: Being Particularly Motivated to be This Patient's Therapist, Maintaining a Safe and Attentive Therapeutic Position, and Assiduous Work Every Session...
July 17, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714738/dealing-with-daily-challenges-in-dementia-deal-id-study-process-evaluation-of-the-experience-sampling-method-intervention-partner-in-sight-for-spousal-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia
#6
Rosalia J M van Knippenberg, Marjolein E de Vugt, Claudia M J Smeets, Inez Myin-Germeys, Frans R J Verhey, Rudolf W Ponds
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the process evaluation of the experience sampling method (ESM) intervention 'Partner in Sight' for spousal caregivers of people with dementia. The aim was to determine internal and external validity of the intervention and provide information for future implementation in clinical practice. METHOD: Qualitative and quantitative data on sampling quality (recruitment and randomization, reach) and intervention quality (relevance and feasibility, adherence to protocol) were evaluated using descriptive statistics and conventional content analysis...
July 17, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711317/invasion-fitness-for-gene-culture-co-evolution-in-family-structured-populations-and-an-application-to-cumulative-culture-under-vertical-transmission
#7
Charles Mullon, Laurent Lehmann
Human evolution depends on the co-evolution between genetically determined behaviors and socially transmitted information. Although vertical transmission of cultural information from parent to offspring is common in hominins, its effects on cumulative cultural evolution are not fully understood. Here, we investigate gene-culture co-evolution in a family-structured population by studying the invasion fitness of a mutant allele that influences a deterministic level of cultural information (e.g., amount of knowledge or skill) to which diploid carriers of the mutant are exposed in subsequent generations...
July 12, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711042/unveiling-the-nature-of-post-linear-response-z-vector-method-for-time-dependent-density-functional-theory
#8
Mariachiara Pastore, Xavier Assfeld, Edoardo Mosconi, Antonio Monari, Thibaud Etienne
We report a theoretical study on the analysis of the relaxed one-particle difference density matrix characterizing the passage from the ground to the excited state of a molecular system, as obtained from time-dependent density functional theory. In particular, this work aims at using the physics contained in the so-called Z-vector, which differentiates between unrelaxed and relaxed difference density matrices to analyze excited states' nature. For this purpose, we introduce novel quantum-mechanical quantities, based on the detachment/attachment methodology, for analysing the Z-vector transformation for different molecules and density functional theory functionals...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707616/application-of-mobile-phases-containing-ionic-liquid-for-hplc-analysis-of-selected-isoquinoline-alkaloids
#9
Anna Petruczynik, Justyna Misiurek, Tomasz Tuzimski, Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos
An HPLC procedure on a polar reversed-phase column with mobile phases containing ionic liquid (IL) was developed for the analysis of selected alkaloids from different chemical groups. We aimed to obtain optimal conditions for the separation of alkaloids because widely used silica-based stationary phases exhibit a silanol effect, rendering analysis of basic analytes extremely difficult. Retention, separation selectivity, peak symmetry, and system efficiency were examined in various eluent systems containing different concentrations of IL and acetonitrile...
July 13, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695631/extending-decomposition-analysis-to-account-for-unobserved-heterogeneity-and-persistence-in-health-behavior-income-related-smoking-inequality-among-swedish-women
#10
Gustav Kjellsson
This article suggests an enrichment of the standard method for decomposition of the concentration index to account for unobserved heterogeneity and persistence in health behavior. As the underlying regression model in the decomposition, this approach uses a dynamic random-effect probit that both consider individual heterogeneity, using a Mundlak type of specification, and applies a simple solution to account for smoking persistence. I illustrate the suggested approach using a panel of Swedish women in Statistics Sweden's Survey of Living Conditions for one vital health-related behavior, smoking...
July 10, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692843/the-mechanical-behavior-of-tinbsn-alloys-according-to-alloying-contents-cold-rolling-and-aging
#11
Thiago Figueiredo Azevedo, Tiago Nunes Lima, Juan Garcia de Blas, Luiz Carlos Pereira, Sandro Griza
The present study is focused on mechanical properties that result from cold rolling and aging treatments applied to TiNbSn alloys comprising different Nb (35% and 42%) and Sn (0% and 2.5%) contents. The alloys were arc melted, homogenized, solubilized, cold rolled and aged at 400°C for different aging times. A set of characterization tests performed, included microstructural analysis, X-ray diffraction, microhardness, tensile tests and fracture analysis. The alloys contained all three β, α" and ω phases after cold rolling, regardless of the alloying content...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692728/effect-of-a-baby-led-approach-to-complementary-feeding-on-infant-growth-and-overweight-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Rachael W Taylor, Sheila M Williams, Louise J Fangupo, Benjamin J Wheeler, Barry J Taylor, Lisa Daniels, Elizabeth A Fleming, Jenny McArthur, Brittany Morison, Liz Williams Erickson, Rhondda S Davies, Sabina Bacchus, Sonya L Cameron, Anne-Louise M Heath
Importance: Baby-led approaches to complementary feeding, which promote self-feeding of all nonliquid foods are proposed to improve energy self-regulation and lower obesity risk. However, to date, no randomized clinical trials have studied this proposition. Objective: To determine whether a baby-led approach to complementary feeding results in a lower body mass index (BMI) than traditional spoon-feeding. Design, Setting, and Participants: The 2-year Baby-Led Introduction to Solids (BLISS) randomized clinical trial recruited 206 women (168 [81...
July 10, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691721/nonlinear-dynamics-analysis-of-the-human-balance-control-subjected-to-physical-and-sensory-perturbations
#13
Mohammed N Ashtiani, Azghani Mahmood-Reza
Postural control after applying perturbation involves neural and muscular efforts to limit the center of mass (CoM) motion. Linear dynamical approaches may not unveil all complexities of body efforts. This study was aimed at determining two nonlinear dynamics parameters (fractal dimension (FD) and largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE)) in addition to the linear standing metrics of balance in perturbed stance. Sixteen healthy young males were subjected to sudden rotations of the standing platform. The vision and cognition during the standing were also interfered...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688270/simultaneous-quantitative-analysis-of-polyethylene-glycol-peg-pegylated-paclitaxel-and-paclitaxel-in-rats-by-ms-ms-all-technique-with-hybrid-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#14
Heping Sun, Qi Zhang, Zhi Zhang, Jin Tong, Dafeng Chu, Jingkai Gu
PEGylation is practically one of most important modifications of drugs including small molecules, peptides and proteins, which has been proven to dramatically improve physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic behavior of the PEGylated drugs. However, it is a challenge currently to quantitatively analyze PEG and PEGylated drugs by various analytical methods, even mass spectrometry because of multiple parent ion distribution of PEG caused by its polydispersity of molecular weight. Here we developed a robust method with MS/MS(ALL) technique using electrospray ionization (ESI) source coupled high resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry for the quantification of PEG2K-Paclitaxel (PEG-PTX) and its two metabolites, PEG and Paclitaxel (PTX)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682363/modeling-of-movement-of-liquid-metal-droplets-driven-by-an-electric-field
#15
M F Wang, M J Jin, X J Jin, S G Zuo
The motion of liquid metal has potential applications ranging from micro-pumps and self-fueled motors to rapid cooling and drug delivery. In this study, we systematically investigate the effects of the radius of LMDs (liquid metal droplets), the concentration of electrolyte solution and the applied electric field on the movement behavior of LMDs experimentally. The research also explains the experimental phenomenon with an innovative modeling analysis, which combines pertinent forces (i.e., the driving force induced by the gradient of surface tension, the viscous friction between the droplet and its surrounding electrolyte, and the friction between the droplet and the substrate)...
July 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682263/modeling-methylation-patterns-with-long-read-sequencing-data
#16
Karlene Nicole Meyer, Michelle Lacey
Variation in cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides is often observed in genomic regions, and analysis typically focuses on estimating the proportion of methylated sites observed in a given region and comparing these levels across samples to determine association with conditions of interest. While sites are tacitly treated as independent, when observed at the level of individual molecules methylation patterns exhibit strong evidence of local spatial dependence. We previously developed a neighboring sites model to account for correlation and clustering behavior observed in two tandem repeat regions in a collection of ovarian carcinomas...
June 30, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682179/the-effect-of-electronic-health-record-use-and-patient-centered-communication-on-cancer-screening-behavior-an-analysis-of-the-health-information-national-trends-survey
#17
Daniel Totzkay, Kami J Silk, Sarah E Sheff
The present study used the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3185) to examine the effects of patient-centered communication (PCC) and the use of electronic health records (EHRs) on the likelihood of patients receiving a recommended screening for cancer (i.e., mammogram, PSA test). Self-determination theory, a framework of self-initiated extrinsic behaviors, was applied to test mediation models of PCC and EHR use, respectively, through patient activation. The results demonstrated that PCC and EHR use predicted cancer screening (mediated through patient activation), but only for women recommended for biannual mammograms...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679491/effectiveness-of-adaptive-e-learning-environments-on-knowledge-competence-and-behavior-in-health-professionals-and-students-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Guillaume Fontaine, Sylvie Cossette, Marc-André Maheu-Cadotte, Tanya Mailhot, Marie-France Deschênes, Gabrielle Mathieu-Dupuis
BACKGROUND: Adaptive e-learning environments (AEEs) can provide tailored instruction by adapting content, navigation, presentation, multimedia, and tools to each user's navigation behavior, individual objectives, knowledge, and preferences. AEEs can have various levels of complexity, ranging from systems using a simple adaptive functionality to systems using artificial intelligence. While AEEs are promising, their effectiveness for the education of health professionals and health professions students remains unclear...
July 5, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675869/flame-retardant-and-hydrophobic-coatings-on-cotton-fabrics-via-sol-gel-and-self-assembly-techniques
#19
Dongqiao Zhang, Brandon L Williams, Saral B Shrestha, Zain Nasir, Elaina M Becher, Benjamin J Lofink, Victor H Santos, Harsh Patel, Xiaohong Peng, Luyi Sun
Nanocoatings consisting of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), sodium montmorillonite (MMT), and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) were prepared via self-assembly and in situ sol-gel techniques and applied onto cotton fabrics to achieve both flame retardancy and hydrophobicity. The impacts of APP concentration on the hydrophobicity and fire resistance of the coated fabrics were investigated. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) characterization results verified the hydrolysis-condensation reaction of VTMS and the formation of Si-O-Si network structure...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669916/imaging-neuronal-pathways-with-52-mn-pet-toxicity-evaluation-in-rats
#20
Hanna Napieczynska, Gregory W Severin, Jesper Fonslet, Stefan Wiehr, Apostolos Menegakis, Bernd J Pichler, Carsten Calaminus
Manganese in its divalent state (Mn(2+)) has features that make it a unique tool for tracing neuronal pathways. It is taken up and transported by neurons in an activity-dependent manner and it can cross synapses. It also acts as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enabling visualization of neuronal tracts. However, due to the limited sensitivity of MRI systems relatively high Mn(2+) doses are required. This is undesirable, especially in long-term studies, because of the known toxicity of the metal...
June 30, 2017: NeuroImage
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