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Effectiveness of applied behavior analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544049/tone-identification-behavior-in-rattus-norvergicus-muscarinic-receptor-blockage-lowers-responsiveness-in-non-target-selective-neurons-while-nicotinic-receptor-blockage-selectively-lowers-target-responses
#1
Ezekiel P Carpenter-Hyland, Jackson Griffeth, Kristopher Bunting, Alvin Terry, Almira Vazdarjanova, David T Blake
Learning to associate a stimulus with reinforcement causes plasticity in primary sensory cortex. Neural activity caused by the associated stimulus is paired with reinforcement, but population analyses have not found a selective increase in response to that stimulus. Responses to other stimuli increase as much as, or more than, responses to the associated stimulus. Here, we applied population analysis at a new time point, and additionally evaluated whether cholinergic receptor blockers interacted with the plastic changes in cortex...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542409/voting-contagion-modeling-and-analysis-of-a-century-of-u-s-presidential-elections
#2
Dan Braha, Marcus A M de Aguiar
Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. Sources of influence can be divided as external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541091/psychodynamic-therapy-as-efficacious-as-other-empirically-supported-treatments-a-meta-analysis-testing-equivalence-of-outcomes
#3
Christiane Steinert, Thomas Munder, Sven Rabung, Jürgen Hoyer, Falk Leichsenring
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychodynamic therapy are most frequently applied to treat mental disorders. However, whether psychodynamic therapy is as efficacious as other empirically supported treatments is not yet clear. Thus, for the first time the equivalence of psychodynamic therapy to treatments established in efficacy was formally tested. The authors controlled for researcher allegiance effects by including representatives of psychodynamic therapy and CBT, the main rival psychotherapeutic treatments (adversarial collaboration)...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532025/new-tetrahedral-zinc-halide-schiff-base-complexes-synthesis-crystal-structure-theoretical-3d-hirshfeld-surface-analyses-antimicrobial-and-thermal-studies
#4
L Taghizadeh, M Montazerozohori, A Masoudiasl, S Joohari, J M White
A new bidentate Schiff base ligand named as N,N'-bis((E)-3-phenylallylidene)butane-1,4-diamine (L) and three its zinc halide complexes were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of zinc bromide and iodide complexes were characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The two structures are isomorphous, crystallizing in the monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c with closely similar unit cell dimensions. In these complexes, the Zn(II) ion is in the center of a distorted tetrahedral environment completed by two iminic nitrogen atoms of Schiff base ligand and two halide anions...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530402/spin-crossover-in-double-salts-containing-six-and-four-coordinate-cobalt-ii-ions
#5
Joanna Palion-Gazda, Barbara Machura, Rafal Kruszynski, Thais Grancha, Nicolás Moliner, Francesc Lloret, Miguel Julve
The preparation and spectroscopic and structural characterization of three cobalt(II) complexes of formulas [Co(tppz)2](dca)2 (1), [Co(tppz)2][Co(NCS)4]·MeOH (2), and [Co(tppz)2][Co(NCO)4]·2H2O (3) [tppz = 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine and dca = dicyanamide] are reported here. Compounds 1-3 have in common the presence of the cationic [Co(tppz)2](2+) entity where each mer-tridentate tppz ligand coordinates to the cobalt(II) ion equatorially through two pyridyl donors and axially via the pyrazine, completing the six-coordination...
May 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526663/effects-of-using-child-personas-in-the-development-of-a-digital-peer-support-service-for-childhood-cancer-survivors
#6
Pontus Wärnestål, Petra Svedberg, Susanne Lindberg, Jens M Nygren
BACKGROUND: Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525802/fast-and-reliable-pre-approach-for-scanning-probe-microscopes-based-on-tip-sample-capacitance
#7
J M de Voogd, M A van Spronsen, F E Kalff, B Bryant, O Ostojić, A M J den Haan, I M N Groot, T H Oosterkamp, A F Otte, M J Rost
Within the last three decades Scanning Probe Microscopy has been developed to a powerful tool for measuring surfaces and their properties on an atomic scale such that users can be found nowadays not only in academia but also in industry. This development is still pushed further by researchers, who continuously exploit new possibilities of this technique, as well as companies that focus mainly on the usability. However, although imaging has become significantly easier, the time required for a safe approach (without unwanted tip-sample contact) can be very time consuming, especially if the microscope is not equipped or suited for the observation of the tip-sample distance with an additional optical microscope...
May 10, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522283/-standardised-pain-assessment-in-cognitively-impaired-nursing-home-residents-comparing-the-use-of-assessment-tools-in-dementia-care-units-and-in-integrated-care-units
#8
Rebecca Palm, Erika Sirsch, Bernhard Holle, Sabine Bartholomeyczik
BACKGROUND: A large number of nursing home residents with cognitive impairments (CI) suffer from chronic pain, which is also discussed as a reason for challenging behavior. To assess pain in people with severe CI, the use of an observational pain instrument is recommended; for people without or with mild CI the gold standard is a self-rating instrument. It is unknown whether in German nursing homes pain assessment in residents with severe CI is actually conducted using observational instruments and which instruments are used...
May 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518187/in-vitro-shock-absorption-tests-on-implant-supported-crowns-influence-of-crown-materials-and-luting-agents
#9
Martin Rosentritt, Sibylle Schneider-Feyrer, Michael Behr, Verena Preis
PURPOSE: To investigate the force absorption capacity of implant-supported crowns made of different restorative materials and connected to abutments with different luting agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molar crowns were milled of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture materials (n = 8 crowns per material): polymethyl methacrylate, polyether ether ketone, composite, lithium disilicate, titanium, and zirconia. Crowns were mounted on titanium implant replicas using different luting agents: uncemented, temporarily cemented (zinc oxide-eugenol cement), conventionally cemented (zinc oxide phosphate cement), and adhesively bonded...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507292/growth-properties-and-theoretical-analysis-of-m2livo4-m%C3%A2-%C3%A2-rb-cs-crystals-two-potential-mid-infrared-nonlinear-optical-materials
#10
Guopeng Han, Ying Wang, Xin Su, Zhihua Yang, Shilie Pan
Mid-Infrared nonlinear optical (Mid-IR NLO) crystals with excellent performances play a particularly important role for applications in areas such as telecommunications, laser guidance, and explosives detection. However, the design and growth of high performance Mid-IR NLO crystals with large NLO efficiency and high laser-damage threshold (LDT) still face numerous fundamental challenge. In this study, two potential Mid-IR NLO materials, Rb2LiVO4 (RLVO) and Cs2LiVO4 (CLVO) with noncentrosymmetric structures (Orthorhombic, Cmc21) were synthesized by high-temperature solution method...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503675/costs-of-a-staff-communication-intervention-to-reduce-dementia-behaviors-in-nursing-home-care
#11
Kristine N Williams, Padmaja Ayyagari, Yelena Perkhounkova, Marjorie J Bott, Ruth Herman, Ann Bossen
CONTEXT: Persons with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias experience behavioral symptoms that frequently result in nursing home (NH) placement. Managing behavioral symptoms in the NH increases staff time required to complete care, and adds to staff stress and turnover, with estimated cost increases of 30%. The Changing Talk to Reduce Resistivenes to Dementia Care (CHAT) study found that an intervention that improved staff communication by reducing elderspeak led to reduced behavioral symptoms of dementia or resistiveness to care (RTC)...
2017: Journal of Nursing Home Research Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502184/promoting-community-malaria-control-in-rural-myanmar-through-an-active-community-participation-program-using-the-participatory-learning-approach
#12
Chan Nyein Maung, Than Tun Sein, Thaung Hlaing, Kamolnetr Okanurak, Tassanee Silawan, Jaranit Kaewkungwal
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is prevalent in more than 80% of townships in Myanmar. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) has been implementing community-based malaria control programs nationwide. However, these programs are mostly developed and directed by health authorities, while communities are passively involved. This study aimed to increase community participation in malaria control and promote community malaria control knowledge and practice in rural Myanmar. METHODS: A community-based study, which employed a mixed method approach, collecting data quantitatively and qualitatively, was conducted in two rural villages...
April 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492967/a-test-for-gene-flow-among-sympatric-and-allopatric-hawaiian-picture-winged-drosophila
#13
Lin Kang, Harold R Garner, Donald K Price, Pawel Michalak
The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most species-rich endemic groups in Hawaii and a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. Drosophila silvestris and D. heteroneura are two closely related picture-winged Drosophila species that occur sympatrically on Hawaii Island and are known to hybridize in nature, yet exhibit highly divergent behavioral and morphological traits driven largely through sexual selection. Their closest-related allopatric species, D. planitibia from Maui, exhibits hybrid male sterility and reduced behavioral reproductive isolation when crossed experimentally with D...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488901/association-of-shiftwork-and-immune-cells-among-police-officers-from-the-buffalo-cardio-metabolic-occupational-police-stress-study
#14
Michael D Wirth, Michael E Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, James B Burch, Desta Fekedulegn, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, John M Violanti
Shift workers suffer from a constellation of symptoms associated with disruption of circadian rhythms including sleep abnormalities, and abnormal hormone secretion (e.g. melatonin, cortisol). Recent, but limited, evidence suggests that shift workers have elevated levels of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) compared to their day working counterparts. Interestingly, recent reviews highlight the strong linkage between the immune system and circadian rhythms which includes, but is not limited to, circulating cell populations and functions...
May 10, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488217/electrical-stimulation-increases-random-migration-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#15
Sarah Snyder, Carlisle DeJulius, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) has been investigated as a therapy for chronic wounds, as the skin produces currents and electrical fields (EFs) during wound healing. ES therapies operate by applying small EFs to the skin to mimic the transepithelial potentials that occur during the granulation phase of wound healing. Here, we investigated the effect of short duration (10 min) ES on the migration of HDFs using various magnitudes of physiologically relevant EFs. We modeled cutaneous injury by culturing HDFs in custom chambers that allowed the application of ES and then performed timelapse microscopy on a standard wound model...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482846/a-preliminary-needs-assessment-of-american-indians-who-inject-drugs-in-northeastern-montana
#16
Mike Anastario, Kris FourStar, Adriann Ricker, Rebecca Dick, Monica C Skewes, Elizabeth Rink
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use has not been well documented in American Indians living in the USA. American Indian and Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) show higher rates of substance use compared to the general population, and have historically been subject to a number of risk factors that are known to increase the likelihood of substance use. AI/ANs also experience increased risk for infectious diseases that are transmitted via injection drug use and/or sexual activity. Harm reduction approaches have been shown to be effective for decreasing risk of disease transmission in at-risk populations, and may be well suited for AI/AN injection drug users residing in rural reservation communities...
May 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482580/luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-targeted-superparamagnetic-gold-nanoshells-for-a-combination-therapy-of-hyperthermia-and-controlled-drug-delivery
#17
Faruq Mohammad, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
In this, we developed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to be appropriate for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer cells by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetically controlled hyperthermia/drug delivery (respectively). For the preparation of composite, we started with SPIONs, followed by its coating with gold to form SPIONs@Au, which further conjugated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) protein by making use of the cysteamine (Cyst) space linker and finally loaded with 5-Fluororacil (5-Fu) anticancer drug to form SPIONs@Au-Cyst-LHRH_5-Fu composite...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482554/an-enhanced-electrochemiluminescence-sensor-modified-with-a-ru-bpy-3-2-yb2o3-nanoparticle-nafion-composite-for-the-analysis-of-methadone-samples
#18
Morteza Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Karimi Pur, Parviz Norouzi, Mohammad Reza Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Ganjali
The sensitive interaction between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and methadone was used for the modification of a solid-state electrochemiluminescence electrode, and it was also successfully applied to determine methadone in the samples. The working electrode was made of a Yb2O3-containing modified carbon paste electrode. The presence of Yb2O3 nanoparticles in the structure of the electrode, was found to enhance its sensitizing effect towards the Ru(bpy)3(2+)-methadone electrochemiluminescence system. The electrodes with the optimal make-up revealed a linear ECL-concentration behavior from 5×10(-9)-3×10(-7)M and reached method detection limit as low as 2...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481892/numerical-comparison-of-exhaust-plume-flow-behaviors-of-small-monopropellant-and-bipropellant-thrusters
#19
Kyun Ho Lee
In general, a space propulsion system has a crucial role in the normal mission operations of a spacecraft. Depending on the types and number of propellants, a monopropellant and a bipropellant thrusters are mostly utilized for low thrust liquid rocket engines. As the plume gas flow exhausted from these small thrusters expands freely in a vacuum space environment along all directions, adverse effects of the plume impingement onto the spacecraft surfaces can dramatically reduce the function and performance of a spacecraft...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477069/improving-assessment-of-work-related-mental-health-function-using-the-work-disability-functional-assessment-battery-wd-fab
#20
Elizabeth E Marfeo, Pengsheng Ni, Christine McDonough, Kara Peterik, Molly Marino, Mark Meterko, Elizabeth K Rasch, Leighton Chan, Diane Brandt, Alan M Jette
Purpose To improve the mental health component of the Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), developed for the US Social Security Administration's (SSA) disability determination process. Specifically our goal was to expand the WD-FAB scales of mood & emotions, resilience, social interactions, and behavioral control to improve the depth and breadth of the current scales and expand the content coverage to include aspects of cognition & communication function. Methods Data were collected from a random, stratified sample of 1695 claimants applying for the SSA work disability benefits, and a general population sample of 2025 working age adults...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
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