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Stimulus equivalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791658/transfer-of-discriminative-control-during-stimulus-fading-conducted-without-reinforcement
#1
Lanny Fields
Using trial-and-error training, eight pigeons did not learn to discriminate between 45° and 135° lines, but did learn to discriminate between red and green colors. Control by line tilt was induced by stimulus fading that did not include reinforcement while fading out the colors. After establishing the red-green discrimination, low-intensity lines were superimposed on colors and were gradually faded in. All of this was done using reinforcement. At the end of the line fade-in, the lines had not acquired control of responding...
August 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765259/glucose-but-not-kcl-diminishes-submembrane-granule-turnover-in-mouse-beta-cells
#2
Dennis Brüning, Kirstin Reckers, Peter Drain, Ingo Rustenbeck
KCl depolarization is widely used to mimic the depolarization during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Consequently, the insulin secretion elicited by KCl is often regarded as the equivalent of the first phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Here, the effects of both stimuli were compared by measuring the secretion of perifused mouse islets, the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of single beta-cells and the mobility of submembrane insulin granules by TIRF microscopy of primary mouse beta-cells. Two cargo-directed granule labels were used namely insulin-EGFP and C-peptide-emGFP...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748067/a-matched-comparison-across-three-different-sensory-pairs-of-cross-modal-temporal-recalibration-from-sustained-and-transient-adaptation
#3
David Alais, Tam Ho, Shui'er Han, Erik Van der Burg
Sustained exposure to an asynchronous multisensory signal causes perceived simultaneity to shift in the direction of the leading component of the adapting stimulus. This is known as temporal recalibration, and recent evidence suggests that it can occur very rapidly, even after a single asynchronous audiovisual (AV) stimulus. However, this form of rapid recalibration appears to be unique to AV stimuli, in contrast to recalibration following sustained asynchronies which occurs with audiotactile (AT) and visuotactile (VT) stimuli...
July 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736240/adduction-of-untested-derived-stimulus-relations-depends-on-environmental-complexity
#4
Sterling M Rippy, Adam H Doughty
The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were trained with discriminations that could have established four, 5-member classes. Neither group received derived-relations testing; instead, adduction was assessed immediately after the baseline discriminations were learned...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727018/evaluation-of-electrical-broad-bandwidth-impedance-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-body-composition-measurement-in-cows-in-comparison-with-body-measurements-and-the-deuterium-oxide-dilution-method
#5
C T Schäff, U Pliquett, A Tuchscherer, R Pfuhl, S Görs, C C Metges, H M Hammon, C Kröger-Koch
Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725203/retrieval-and-monitoring-processes-during-visual-working-memory-an-erp-study-of-the-benefit-of-visual-semantics
#6
Elizabeth Orme, Louise A Brown, Leigh M Riby
In this study, we examined electrophysiological indices of episodic remembering whilst participants recalled novel shapes, with and without semantic content, within a visual working memory paradigm. The components of interest were the parietal episodic (PE; 400-800 ms) and late posterior negativity (LPN; 500-900 ms), as these have previously been identified as reliable markers of recollection and post-retrieval monitoring, respectively. Fifteen young adults completed a visual matrix patterns task, assessing memory for low and high semantic visual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701912/brain-responses-to-a-6-hz-binaural-beat-effects-on-general-theta-rhythm-and-frontal-midline-theta-activity
#7
Nantawachara Jirakittayakorn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684591/corp-improving-the-status-quo-for-measuring-whole-body-sweat-losses-wbsl
#8
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick
The measurement of whole body sweat losses (WBSL) is important to the study of body heat balance, body water balance, establishing guidelines for water and electrolyte consumption, and the study of metabolism and health. In principal, WBSL is measured by an acute change in body mass (ΔBM) in response to a thermoregulatory sweating stimulus. In this CORP review, we re-visit several basic, but rarely discussed assumptions important to WBSL research, including the common equivalences: mass = weight = water = sweat...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680403/scopolamine-induces-deficits-in-spontaneous-object-location-recognition-and-fear-learning-in-marmoset-monkeys
#9
Jonathan L Melamed, Fernando M de Jesus, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros
The non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCP) induces memory deficits in both animals and humans. However, few studies have assessed the effects of amnesic agents on memory functions of marmosets - a small-bodied neotropical primate that is becoming increasingly used as a translational model for several neuropathologies. Here we assessed the effects of an acute SCP administration (0.03 mg/kg, sc) on the behavior of adult marmoset monkeys in two tasks. In the spontaneous object-location (SOL) recognition task, two identical neutral stimuli were explored on the sample trial, after which preferential exploration of the displaced versus the stationary object was analyzed on the test trial...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676834/exponentially-modified-peak-functions-in-biomedical-sciences-and-related-disciplines
#10
A Golubev
In many cases relevant to biomedicine, a variable time, which features a certain distribution, is required for objects of interest to pass from an initial to an intermediate state, out of which they exit at random to a final state. In such cases, the distribution of variable times between exiting the initial and entering the final state must conform to the convolution of the first distribution and a negative exponential distribution. A common example is the exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG), which is widely used in chromatography for peak analysis and is long known as ex-Gaussian in psychophysiology, where it is applied to times from stimulus to response...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674173/occipitotemporal-category-representations-are-sensitive-to-abstract-category-boundaries-defined-by-generalization-demands
#11
Kurt Braunlich, Zhiya Liu, Carol A Seger
Categorization involves organizing perceptual information so as maximize differences along dimensions that predict class membership, while minimizing differences along dimensions that do not. In the current experiment, we investigated how neural representations reflecting learned category structure vary according to generalization demands. We asked male and female human participants to switch between two rules when determining whether stimuli should be considered members of a single known category. When categorizing according to the "strict" rule, participants were required to limit generalization in order to make fine-grained distinctions between stimuli and the category prototype...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673878/invariance-of-surface-color-representations-across-illuminant-changes-in-the-human-cortex
#12
Michael M Bannert, Andreas Bartels
A central problem in color vision is that the light reaching the eye from a given surface can vary dramatically depending on the illumination. Despite this, our color percept, the brain's estimate of surface reflectance, remains remarkably stable. This phenomenon is called color constancy. Here we investigated which human brain regions represent surface color in a way that is invariant with respect to illuminant changes. We used physically realistic rendering methods to display natural yet abstract 3D scenes that were displayed under three distinct illuminants...
June 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652428/grid-climbing-behaviour-as-a-pain-measure-for-cancer-induced-bone-pain-and-neuropathic-pain
#13
Sarah Falk, Simone Gallego-Pedersen, Nicolas C Petersen
Despite affecting millions of people, chronic pain is generally treated insufficiently. A major point of focus has been the lack of translation from preclinical data to clinical results, with the predictive value of chronic pain models being a major concern. In contrast to current focus on stimulus-based nociceptive responses in preclinical research, development of behavioural tests designed to quantify suspension of normal behaviour is likely a more equivalent readout for human pain-assessment tests. In this study, we quantified grid-climbing behaviour as a non-stimulus-evoked behavioural test for potential use as a measure of neuropathic and cancer-induced bone pain in mice...
July 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638055/pupil-response-hazard-rates-predict-perceived-gaze-durations
#15
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
We investigated the mechanisms for evaluating perceived gaze-shift duration. Timing relies on the accumulation of endogenous physiological signals. Here we focused on arousal, measured through pupil dilation, as a candidate timing signal. Participants timed gaze-shifts performed by face stimuli in a Standard/Probe comparison task. Pupil responses were binned according to "Longer/Shorter" judgements in trials where Standard and Probe were identical. This ensured that pupil responses reflected endogenous arousal fluctuations opposed to differences in stimulus content...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632760/the-development-of-acquired-equivalence-from-childhood-to-adulthood-a-cross-sectional-study-of-265-subjects
#16
Gábor Braunitzer, Attila Őze, Gabriella Eördegh, Anna Pihokker, Petra Rózsa, László Kasik, Szabolcs Kéri, Attila Nagy
Acquired equivalence (AE) is a form of feedback-based associative learning where the subject learns that two or more stimuli are equivalent in terms of being mapped onto the same outcomes or responses. While several studies dealt with how various neurological and psychiatric conditions affect performance on AE tasks (typically with small populations), studies dealing with AE in healthy subjects are rare, and no study has ever made an attempt to plot the development of this form of learning from the childhood through adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618821/low-intensity-ultrasound-activates-vestibular-otolith-organs-through-acoustic-radiation-force
#17
M M Iversen, D A Christensen, D L Parker, H A Holman, J Chen, M J Frerck, R D Rabbitt
The present study examined the efficacy of 5 MHz low-intensity focused ultrasound (LiFU) as a stimulus to remotely activate inner ear vestibular otolith organs. The otolith organs are the primary sensory apparati responsible for detecting orientation of the head relative to gravity and linear acceleration in three-dimensional space. These organs also respond to loud sounds and vibration of the temporal bone. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used to facilitate unobstructed acoustic access to the otolith organs in vivo...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604840/working-memory-operates-over-the-same-representations-as-attention
#18
Ke Chen, Yanyan Ye, Jiushu Xie, Tiansheng Xia, Lei Mo
A recent study observed a working memory (WM) Stroop effect with a magnitude equivalent to that of the classic Stroop effect, indicating that WM operates over the same representations as attention. However, more research is needed to examine this proposal. One unanswered question is whether the WM Stroop effect occurs when the WM item and the perceptual task do not have an overlapping response set. We addressed this question in Experiment 1 by conducting an attentional word-color task and a WM word-color task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599539/the-effects-of-click-rate-on-the-auditory-brainstem-response-of-bottlenose-dolphins
#19
Robert F Burkard, James J Finneran, Jason Mulsow
Rate manipulations can be used to study adaptation processes in the auditory nerve and brainstem. For this reason, rate effects on the click-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) have been investigated in many mammals, including humans. In this study, click-evoked ABRs were obtained in eight bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) while varying stimulus rate using both conventional averaging and maximum length sequences (MLSs), which allow disentangling ABRs that overlap in time and thus permit the study of adaptation at high rates...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599119/dendrites-enable-a-robust-mechanism-for-neuronal-stimulus-selectivity
#20
Romain D Cazé, Sarah Jarvis, Amanda J Foust, Simon R Schultz
Hearing, vision, touch: underlying all of these senses is stimulus selectivity, a robust information processing operation in which cortical neurons respond more to some stimuli than to others. Previous models assume that these neurons receive the highest weighted input from an ensemble encoding the preferred stimulus, but dendrites enable other possibilities. Nonlinear dendritic processing can produce stimulus selectivity based on the spatial distribution of synapses, even if the total preferred stimulus weight does not exceed that of nonpreferred stimuli...
June 9, 2017: Neural Computation
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