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Stimulus equivalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935423/a-comparison-between-the-neural-correlates-of-laser-and-electric-pain-stimulation-and-their-modulation-by-expectation
#1
E J Hird, A K P Jones, D Talmi, W El-Deredy
BACKGROUND: Pain is modulated by expectation. Event-related potential (ERP) studies of the influence of expectation on pain typically utilise laser heat stimulation to provide a controllable nociceptive-specific stimulus. Painful electric stimulation has a number of practical advantages, but is less nociceptive-specific. We compared the modulation of electric versus laser-evoked pain by expectation, and their corresponding pain-evoked and anticipatory ERPs. NEW METHOD: We developed understanding of recognised methods of laser and electric stimulation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918706/speech-intelligibility-benefits-of-frequency-lowering-algorithms-in-adult-hearing-aid-users-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Andrea Simpson, Alicia Bond, Michelle Loeliger, Sandy Clarke
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of two frequency-lowering schemes, non-linear frequency compression and frequency transposition, at improving speech intelligibility for adult hearing-impaired populations. DESIGN: A systematic search of 10 electronic databases was carried out using pre-defined inclusion criteria. Accepted articles were then critically appraised using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Critical Appraisal Tool...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915367/breathlessness-and-the-body-neuroimaging-clues-for-the-inferential-leap
#3
Olivia K Faull, Anja Hayen, Kyle T S Pattinson
Breathlessness debilitates millions of people with chronic illness. Mismatch between breathlessness severity and objective disease markers is common and poorly understood. Traditionally, sensory perception was conceptualised as a stimulus-response relationship, although this cannot explain how conditioned symptoms may occur in the absence of physiological signals from the lungs or airways. A Bayesian model is now proposed, in which the brain generates sensations based on expectations learnt from past experiences (priors), which are then checked against incoming afferent signals...
August 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855548/spontaneous-establishing-of-cross-modal-stimulus-equivalence-in-a-beluga-whale
#4
Tsukasa Murayama, Ryota Suzuki, Yurika Kondo, Mana Koshikawa, Hiroshi Katsumata, Kazutoshi Arai
Beluga whales use calls to convey various information to group members. Is this communication similar to humans? We addressed this question by using the framework of stimulus equivalence. Stimulus equivalence consists of three phases: if the animal is trained to match A to B and B to C, symmetry is demonstrated by matching BA and CB, transitivity by matching AC, and equivalence by matching CA. We tested the spontaneous establishment of cross-modal stimulus equivalence between visual and auditory symbols in a beluga whale nicknamed Nack...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837963/comparing-averaging-limits-for-social-cues-over-space-and-time
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joseph Florey, Steven C Dakin, Isabelle Mareschal
Observers are able to extract summary statistics from groups of faces, such as their mean emotion or identity. This can be done for faces presented simultaneously and also from sequences of faces presented at a fixed location. Equivalent noise analysis, which estimates an observer's internal noise (the uncertainty in judging a single element) and effective sample size (ESS; the effective number of elements being used to judge the average), reveals what limits an observer's averaging performance. It has recently been shown that observers have lower ESSs and higher internal noise for judging the mean gaze direction of a group of spatially distributed faces compared to the mean head direction of the same faces...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832878/development-of-phase-locking-and-frequency-representation-in-the-infant-frequency-following-response
#6
Katlyn B Van Dyke, Rachel Lieberman, Alessandro Presacco, Samira Anderson
Purpose: This study investigates the development of phase locking and frequency representation in infants using the frequency-following response to consonant-vowel syllables. Method: The frequency-following response was recorded in 56 infants and 15 young adults to 2 speech syllables (/ba/ and /ga/), which were presented in randomized order to the right ear. Signal-to-noise ratio and Fsp analyses were used to verify that individual responses were present above the noise floor...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791658/transfer-of-discriminative-control-during-stimulus-fading-conducted-without-reinforcement
#7
Lanny Fields
Using trial-and-error training, eight pigeons did not learn to discriminate between 45° and 135° lines, but did learn to discriminate between red and green colors. Control by line tilt was induced by stimulus fading that did not include reinforcement while fading out the colors. After establishing the red-green discrimination, low-intensity lines were superimposed on colors and were gradually faded in. All of this was done using reinforcement. At the end of the line fade-in, the lines had not acquired control of responding...
August 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765259/glucose-but-not-kcl-diminishes-submembrane-granule-turnover-in-mouse-beta-cells
#8
Dennis Brüning, Kirstin Reckers, Peter Drain, Ingo Rustenbeck
KCl depolarization is widely used to mimic the depolarization during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Consequently, the insulin secretion elicited by KCl is often regarded as the equivalent of the first phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Here, the effects of both stimuli were compared by measuring the secretion of perifused mouse islets, the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of single beta-cells and the mobility of submembrane insulin granules by TIRF microscopy of primary mouse beta-cells. Two cargo-directed granule labels were used namely insulin-EGFP and C-peptide-emGFP...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748067/a-matched-comparison-across-three-different-sensory-pairs-of-cross-modal-temporal-recalibration-from-sustained-and-transient-adaptation
#9
David Alais, Tam Ho, Shui'er Han, Erik Van der Burg
Sustained exposure to an asynchronous multisensory signal causes perceived simultaneity to shift in the direction of the leading component of the adapting stimulus. This is known as temporal recalibration, and recent evidence suggests that it can occur very rapidly, even after a single asynchronous audiovisual (AV) stimulus. However, this form of rapid recalibration appears to be unique to AV stimuli, in contrast to recalibration following sustained asynchronies which occurs with audiotactile (AT) and visuotactile (VT) stimuli...
July 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736240/adduction-of-untested-derived-stimulus-relations-depends-on-environmental-complexity
#10
Sterling M Rippy, Adam H Doughty
The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were trained with discriminations that could have established four, 5-member classes. Neither group received derived-relations testing; instead, adduction was assessed immediately after the baseline discriminations were learned...
October 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727018/evaluation-of-electrical-broad-bandwidth-impedance-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-body-composition-measurement-in-cows-in-comparison-with-body-measurements-and-the-deuterium-oxide-dilution-method
#11
C T Schäff, U Pliquett, A Tuchscherer, R Pfuhl, S Görs, C C Metges, H M Hammon, C Kröger-Koch
Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725203/retrieval-and-monitoring-processes-during-visual-working-memory-an-erp-study-of-the-benefit-of-visual-semantics
#12
Elizabeth Orme, Louise A Brown, Leigh M Riby
In this study, we examined electrophysiological indices of episodic remembering whilst participants recalled novel shapes, with and without semantic content, within a visual working memory paradigm. The components of interest were the parietal episodic (PE; 400-800 ms) and late posterior negativity (LPN; 500-900 ms), as these have previously been identified as reliable markers of recollection and post-retrieval monitoring, respectively. Fifteen young adults completed a visual matrix patterns task, assessing memory for low and high semantic visual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701912/brain-responses-to-a-6-hz-binaural-beat-effects-on-general-theta-rhythm-and-frontal-midline-theta-activity
#13
Nantawachara Jirakittayakorn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684591/corp-improving-the-status-quo-for-measuring-whole-body-sweat-losses-wbsl
#14
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick
The measurement of whole body sweat losses (WBSL) is important to the study of body heat balance, body water balance, establishing guidelines for water and electrolyte consumption, and the study of metabolism and health. In principal, WBSL is measured by an acute change in body mass (ΔBM) in response to a thermoregulatory sweating stimulus. In this CORP review, we re-visit several basic, but rarely discussed assumptions important to WBSL research, including the common equivalences: mass = weight = water = sweat...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680403/scopolamine-induces-deficits-in-spontaneous-object-location-recognition-and-fear-learning-in-marmoset-monkeys
#15
Jonathan L Melamed, Fernando M de Jesus, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros
The non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCP) induces memory deficits in both animals and humans. However, few studies have assessed the effects of amnesic agents on memory functions of marmosets - a small-bodied neotropical primate that is becoming increasingly used as a translational model for several neuropathologies. Here we assessed the effects of an acute SCP administration (0.03 mg/kg, sc) on the behavior of adult marmoset monkeys in two tasks. In the spontaneous object-location (SOL) recognition task, two identical neutral stimuli were explored on the sample trial, after which preferential exploration of the displaced versus the stationary object was analyzed on the test trial...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676834/exponentially-modified-peak-functions-in-biomedical-sciences-and-related-disciplines
#16
A Golubev
In many cases relevant to biomedicine, a variable time, which features a certain distribution, is required for objects of interest to pass from an initial to an intermediate state, out of which they exit at random to a final state. In such cases, the distribution of variable times between exiting the initial and entering the final state must conform to the convolution of the first distribution and a negative exponential distribution. A common example is the exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG), which is widely used in chromatography for peak analysis and is long known as ex-Gaussian in psychophysiology, where it is applied to times from stimulus to response...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674173/occipitotemporal-category-representations-are-sensitive-to-abstract-category-boundaries-defined-by-generalization-demands
#17
Kurt Braunlich, Zhiya Liu, Carol A Seger
Categorization involves organizing perceptual information so as to maximize differences along dimensions that predict class membership while minimizing differences along dimensions that do not. In the current experiment, we investigated how neural representations reflecting learned category structure vary according to generalization demands. We asked male and female human participants to switch between two rules when determining whether stimuli should be considered members of a single known category. When categorizing according to the "strict" rule, participants were required to limit generalization to make fine-grained distinctions between stimuli and the category prototype...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673878/invariance-of-surface-color-representations-across-illuminant-changes-in-the-human-cortex
#18
Michael M Bannert, Andreas Bartels
A central problem in color vision is that the light reaching the eye from a given surface can vary dramatically depending on the illumination. Despite this, our color percept, the brain's estimate of surface reflectance, remains remarkably stable. This phenomenon is called color constancy. Here we investigated which human brain regions represent surface color in a way that is invariant with respect to illuminant changes. We used physically realistic rendering methods to display natural yet abstract 3D scenes that were displayed under three distinct illuminants...
June 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652428/grid-climbing-behaviour-as-a-pain-measure-for-cancer-induced-bone-pain-and-neuropathic-pain
#19
Sarah Falk, Simone Gallego-Pedersen, Nicolas C Petersen
Despite affecting millions of people, chronic pain is generally treated insufficiently. A major point of focus has been the lack of translation from preclinical data to clinical results, with the predictive value of chronic pain models being a major concern. In contrast to current focus on stimulus-based nociceptive responses in preclinical research, development of behavioural tests designed to quantify suspension of normal behaviour is likely a more equivalent readout for human pain-assessment tests. In this study, we quantified grid-climbing behaviour as a non-stimulus-evoked behavioural test for potential use as a measure of neuropathic and cancer-induced bone pain in mice...
July 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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