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Stimulus equivalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323019/comparison-of-perceptual-properties-of-auditory-streaming-between-spectral-and-amplitude-modulation-domains
#1
Shimpei Yamagishi, Sho Otsuka, Shigeto Furukawa, Makio Kashino
The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔFTONE, TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔFAM, AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions...
March 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300278/behavior-analysis-and-neuroscience-complementary-disciplines
#2
John W Donahoe
Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286366/relations-among-auditory-brainstem-and-middle-latency-response-measures-categorical-loudness-judgments-and-their-associated-physical-intensities
#3
REVIEW
Peggy A Korczak, LaGuinn P Sherlock, Monica L Hawley, Craig Formby
This study characterizes changes in response properties of toneburst-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and/or middle latency responses (MLRs) as a function of perceived loudness and physical intensity of these stimuli and delineates the range of levels corresponding to categorical loudness judgments for these stimuli. ABRs/MLRs were recorded simultaneously to 500- and 2,000-Hz tonebursts in 10 normal-hearing adults at levels corresponding to each listener's loudness judgments for four categories on Contour Test of Loudness...
February 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276602/multifactorial-experimental-design-to-optimize-the-anti-inflammatory-and-proangiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids
#4
Kaitlin C Murphy, Jacklyn Whitehead, Patrick C Falahee, Dejie Zhou, Scott I Simon, J Kent Leach
Mesenchymal stem cell therapies promote wound healing by manipulating the local environment to enhance the function of host cells. Aggregation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into three-dimensional spheroids increases cell survival and augments their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic potential, yet there is no consensus on the preferred conditions for maximizing spheroid function in this application. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for forming MSC spheroids that simultaneously enhance their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic nature...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275954/contextual-control-over-equivalence-and-nonequivalence-explains-apparent-arbitrary-applicable-relational-responding-in-accordance-with-sameness-and-opposition
#5
Benigno Alonso-Álvarez, Luis Antonio Pérez-González
We evaluated whether contextual control over equivalence and nonequivalence (i.e., selecting comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of a contextual cue, and excluding the selection of comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of another contextual cue) can account for apparent arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR) in accordance with the frames of sameness and opposition, as defined in relational frame theory (RFT). Three college students were trained to maintain previously established conditional discriminations in the presence of a contextual cue X1, and to reverse them in the presence of another contextual cue X2 (e...
March 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269711/improving-odorant-chemical-class-prediction-with-multi-layer-perceptrons-using-temporal-odorant-spike-responses-from-drosophila-melanogaster-olfactory-receptor-neurons
#6
Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth
In this work, we examine the possibility of improving the prediction performance of an olfactory biosensor through the use of temporal spiking data. We present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in the form of an optimal hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) system for the classification of chemical odorants from olfactory receptor neuron spike responses of the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly (DmOrs). The data used in this study contains the responses to 34 odorants from 6 individual DmOrs, of which we exploit the temporal spiking responses of a 500ms odorant stimulus window...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269486/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#7
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253707/simultaneous-and-forward-masking-of-vowels-and-stop-consonants-effects-of-age-hearing-loss-and-spectral-shaping
#8
Daniel Fogerty, William J Bologna, Jayne B Ahlstrom, Judy R Dubno
Fluctuating noise, common in everyday environments, has the potential to mask acoustic cues important for speech recognition. This study examined the extent to which acoustic cues for perception of vowels and stop consonants differ in their susceptibility to simultaneous and forward masking. Younger normal-hearing, older normal-hearing, and older hearing-impaired adults identified initial and final consonants or vowels in noise-masked syllables that had been spectrally shaped. The amount of shaping was determined by subjects' audiometric thresholds...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253091/enlarged-temporal-integration-window-in-schizophrenia-indicated-by-the-double-flash-illusion
#9
Katharina Haß, Christopher Sinke, Tanya Reese, Mandy Roy, Daniel Wiswede, Wolfgang Dillo, Bob Oranje, Gregor R Szycik
INTRODUCTION: In the present study we were interested in the processing of audio-visual integration in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. The amount of sound-induced double-flash illusions served as an indicator of audio-visual integration. We expected an altered integration as well as a different window of temporal integration for patients. METHODS: Fifteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were included in this study...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230399/not-all-probabilities-are-equivalent-evidence-from-orientation-versus-spatial-probability-learning
#10
Syaheed B Jabar, Britt Anderson
Frequently targets are detected faster, probable locations searched earlier, and likely orientations estimated more precisely. Are these all consequences of a single, domain-general "attentional" effect? To examine this issue, participants were shown brief instances of spatial gratings, and were tasked to draw their location and orientation. Unknown to participants, either the location or orientation probability of these gratings were manipulated. While orientation probability affected the precision of orientation reports, spatial probability did not...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227973/improving-odorant-chemical-class-prediction-with-multi-layer-perceptrons-using-temporal-odorant-spike-responses-from-drosophila-melanogaster-olfactory-receptor-neurons
#11
Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth, Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth, Charles P Unsworth, Andrew V Kralicek, Richard D Newcomb, Luqman R Bachtiar
In this work, we examine the possibility of improving the prediction performance of an olfactory biosensor through the use of temporal spiking data. We present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in the form of an optimal hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) system for the classification of chemical odorants from olfactory receptor neuron spike responses of the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly (DmOrs). The data used in this study contains the responses to 34 odorants from 6 individual DmOrs, of which we exploit the temporal spiking responses of a 500ms odorant stimulus window...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227738/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#12
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185226/memory-and-learning-for-visual-signals-in-time-and-space
#13
Sujala Maharjan, Jason M Gold, Robert Sekuler
Vision is often characterized as a spatial sense, but what does that characterization imply about the relative ease of processing visual information distributed over time rather than over space? Three experiments addressed this question, using stimuli comprising random luminances. For some stimuli, individual items were presented sequentially, at 8 Hz; for other stimuli, individual items were presented simultaneously, as horizontal spatial arrays. For temporal sequences, subjects judged whether each of the last four luminances matched the corresponding luminance in the first four; for spatial arrays, they judged whether each of the right-hand four luminances matched the corresponding left-hand luminance...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166900/effects-of-auditory-and-tactile-warning-on-response-to-visual-hazards-under-a-noisy-environment
#14
Atsuo Murata, Takashi Kuroda, Waldemar Karwowski
A warning signal presented via a visual or an auditory cue might interfere with auditory or visual information inside and outside a vehicle. On the other hand, such interference would be certainly reduced if a tactile cue is used. Therefore, it is expected that tactile cues would be promising as warning signals, especially in a noisy environment. In order to determine the most suitable modality of cue (warning) to a visual hazard in noisy environments, auditory and tactile cues were examined in this study. The condition of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was set to 0ms, 500ms, and 1000ms...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147574/calibration-of-brief-stimuli-for-the-recording-of-evoked-responses-from-the-human-auditory-pathway
#15
Claus Elberling, Lau Crone Esmann
The relationship between the calibration RETSPL-values (reference equivalent threshold sound pressure level) in dB p-p.e.SPL and the corresponding sound pressure levels in dB SPL for brief stimuli is formulated mathematically. The formula is applied on ten brief stimuli consisting of a click, four tone-bursts, a chirp, and four octave-band chirps presented at a stimulus rate of 20 stimuli per second, and using the average acoustical parameter-values from a sample of 20 ER-3A insert earphones in the occluded-ear simulator...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135347/comparing-sensitivity-estimates-from-mlds-and-forced-choice-methods-in-a-slant-from-texture-experiment
#16
Guillermo Aguilar, Felix A Wichmann, Marianne Maertens
Maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS) is a method for the estimation of perceptual scales based on the judgment of differences in stimulus appearance (Maloney & Yang, 2003). MLDS has recently also been used to estimate near-threshold discrimination performance (Devinck & Knoblauch, 2012). Using MLDS as a psychophysical method for sensitivity estimation is potentially appealing, because MLDS has been reported to need less data than forced-choice procedures, and particularly naive observers report to prefer suprathreshold comparisons to JND-style threshold tasks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135213/brain-activity-for-tactile-allodynia-a-longitudinal-awake-rat-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-tracking-emergence-of-neuropathic-pain
#17
Pei-Ching Chang, Maria Virginia Centeno, Daniel Procissi, Alex Baria, A Vania Apkarian
Tactile allodynia, a condition in which innocuous mechanical stimuli are perceived as painful, is a common feature of chronic pain. However, how the brain reorganizes in relation to the emergence of tactile allodynia is still largely unknown. This may stem from the fact that experiments in humans are cross-sectional in nature, whereas animal brain imaging studies typically require anaesthesia rendering the brain incapable of consciously sensing or responding to pain. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study in awake rats, we tracked brain activity with the development of tactile allodynia...
March 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114492/factorizing-the-motion-sensitivity-function-into-equivalent-input-noise-and-calculation-efficiency
#18
Rémy Allard, Angelo Arleo
The photopic motion sensitivity function of the energy-based motion system is band-pass peaking around 8 Hz. Using an external noise paradigm to factorize the sensitivity into equivalent input noise and calculation efficiency, the present study investigated if the variation in photopic motion sensitivity as a function of the temporal frequency is due to a variation of equivalent input noise (e.g., early temporal filtering) or calculation efficiency (ability to select and integrate motion). For various temporal frequencies, contrast thresholds for a direction discrimination task were measured in presence and absence of noise...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114353/computational-account-of-spontaneous-activity-as-a-signature-of-predictive-coding
#19
Veronika Koren, Sophie Denève
Spontaneous activity is commonly observed in a variety of cortical states. Experimental evidence suggested that neural assemblies undergo slow oscillations with Up ad Down states even when the network is isolated from the rest of the brain. Here we show that these spontaneous events can be generated by the recurrent connections within the network and understood as signatures of neural circuits that are correcting their internal representation. A noiseless spiking neural network can represent its input signals most accurately when excitatory and inhibitory currents are as strong and as tightly balanced as possible...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076814/gsmtx4-mechanism-of-inhibiting-mechanosensitive-ion-channels
#20
Radhakrishnan Gnanasambandam, Chiranjib Ghatak, Anthony Yasmann, Kazuhisa Nishizawa, Frederick Sachs, Alexey S Ladokhin, Sergei I Sukharev, Thomas M Suchyna
GsMTx4 is a spider venom peptide that inhibits cationic mechanosensitive channels (MSCs). It has six lysine residues that have been proposed to affect membrane binding. We synthesized six analogs with single lysine-to-glutamate substitutions and tested them against Piezo1 channels in outside-out patches and independently measured lipid binding. Four analogs had ∼20% lower efficacy than the wild-type (WT) peptide. The equilibrium constants calculated from the rates of inhibition and washout did not correlate with the changes in inhibition...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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