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Stimulus equivalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402191/sand-training-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-and-inflammatory-responses-to-matched-intensity-exercise
#1
Henry Brown, Brian Dawson, Martyn J Binnie, Hugh Pinnington, Marc Sim, Tristan D Clemons, Peter Peeling
This study compared markers of muscle damage and inflammation elevated by a matched-intensity interval running session on soft sand and grass surfaces. In a counterbalanced, repeated-measures and crossover design, 10 well-trained female athletes completed 2 interval-based running sessions 1 week apart on either a grass or a sand surface. Exercise heart rate (HR) was fixed at 83-88% of HR maximum. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 24 h post-exercise, and analysed for myoglobin (Mb) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401360/the-effects-of-multiphasic-prepulses-on-automatic-and-attention-modulated-prepulse-inhibition
#2
Albert B Poje, Diane L Filion
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is widely viewed as an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous research has shown that sensorimotor gating can occur automatically and also can be influenced by selective attention. The present research investigated the relationship of the transient detection response (TDR) with automatic and attention-modulated PPI using a novel "multiphasic" prepulse stimulus. Experiment 1 compared discrete versus multiphasic prepulse types in a no-task PPI protocol to validate multiphasic prepulses as effective elicitors of automatic sensorimotor gating...
April 11, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399842/deficits-of-perceived-spatial-separation-induced-prepulse-inhibition-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-relationships-to-symptoms-and-neurocognition
#3
Ning-Bo Yang, Qing Tian, Yu Fan, Qi-Jing Bo, Liang Zhang, Liang Li, Chuan-Yue Wang
BACKGROUND: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and attention were impaired, which may cause psychotic symptoms and (or) hinder the cognitive functions in schizophrenia. However, due to the measurement methods of PPI, findings about the relationship between PPI and clinical symptoms, cognitive performances have been equivocal. METHODS: Seventy-five schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 50 healthy controls (HC) were assessed in a modified acoustic PPI paradigm, named perceived spatial separation-induced PPI (PSS-PPI), compared to perceived spatial co-location PPI (PSC-PPI) with inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 120 ms...
April 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394641/exploring-validation-of-a-graphic-symbol-questionnaire-to-measure-participation-experiences-of-youth-in-activity-settings
#4
Beata Batorowicz, Gillian King, Freda Vane, Madhu Pinto, Parimala Raghavendra
Participation has a subjective and private dimension, and so it is important to hear directly from youth about their experiences in various activity settings, the places where they "do things" and interact with others. To meet this need, our team developed the Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS) measure, which demonstrated good-to-excellent measurement properties. To address the needs of youth who could benefit from graphic symbol support, the SEAS-PCS(TM), (1) was created. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of SEAS-PCS and the preliminary study that explores the equivalency of the SEAS and SEAS-PCS...
April 10, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388868/equivalence-and-test-retest-reproducibility-of-conventional-and-extended-high-frequency-audiometric-thresholds-obtained-using-pure-tone-and-narrow-band-noise-stimuli
#5
Andrew B John, Brian M Kreisman
OBJECTIVES: Extended high-frequency (EHF) audiometry is useful for evaluating ototoxic exposures and may relate to speech recognition, localisation and hearing aid benefit. There is a need to determine whether common clinical practice for EHF audiometry using tone and noise stimuli is reliable. We evaluated equivalence and compared test-retest (TRT) reproducibility for audiometric thresholds obtained using pure tones and narrowband noise (NBN) from 0.25 to 16 kHz. DESIGN: Thresholds and test-retest reproducibility for stimuli in the conventional (0...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380058/audio-visual-interactions-uniquely-contribute-to-resolution-of-visual-conflict-in-people-possessing-absolute-pitch
#6
Sujin Kim, Randolph Blake, Minyoung Lee, Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP) are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377704/electroencephalography-eeg-in-the-study-of-equivalence-class-formation-an-explorative-study
#7
Erik Arntzen, Hanna S Steingrimsdottir
Teaching arbitrary conditional discriminations and testing for derived relations may be essential for understanding changes in cognitive skills. Such conditional discrimination procedures are often used within stimulus equivalence research. For example, the participant is taught AB and BC relations and tested if emergent relations as BA, CB, AC and CA occur. The purpose of the current explorative experiment was to study stimulus equivalence class formation in older adults with electroencephalography (EEG) recordings as an additional measure...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337547/retinal-vascular-changes-after-vitrectomy-for-idiopathic-epiretinal-membrane-a-pilot-study-with-dynamic-vessel-analysis
#8
Lorenzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fogliato, Giuseppe Querques, Francesco Bandello, Marco Codenotti
PURPOSE: To investigate, using the Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (DVA), the retinal vascular changes that may occur after vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). METHODS: Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients affected by unilateral idiopathic ERM were prospectively analyzed. 13 fellow eyes were used as control. The static (central retinal artery and vein equivalents) and dynamic (after flicker light stimulus) DVA analysis was performed at baseline (1 day before surgery) and 6 months after vitrectomy...
March 23, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323019/comparison-of-perceptual-properties-of-auditory-streaming-between-spectral-and-amplitude-modulation-domains
#9
Shimpei Yamagishi, Sho Otsuka, Shigeto Furukawa, Makio Kashino
The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔFTONE, TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔFAM, AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions...
March 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300278/behavior-analysis-and-neuroscience-complementary-disciplines
#10
John W Donahoe
Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286366/relations-among-auditory-brainstem-and-middle-latency-response-measures-categorical-loudness-judgments-and-their-associated-physical-intensities
#11
REVIEW
Peggy A Korczak, LaGuinn P Sherlock, Monica L Hawley, Craig Formby
This study characterizes changes in response properties of toneburst-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and/or middle latency responses (MLRs) as a function of perceived loudness and physical intensity of these stimuli and delineates the range of levels corresponding to categorical loudness judgments for these stimuli. ABRs/MLRs were recorded simultaneously to 500- and 2,000-Hz tonebursts in 10 normal-hearing adults at levels corresponding to each listener's loudness judgments for four categories on Contour Test of Loudness...
February 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276602/multifactorial-experimental-design-to-optimize-the-anti-inflammatory-and-proangiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids
#12
Kaitlin C Murphy, Jacklyn Whitehead, Patrick C Falahee, Dejie Zhou, Scott I Simon, J Kent Leach
Mesenchymal stem cell therapies promote wound healing by manipulating the local environment to enhance the function of host cells. Aggregation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into three-dimensional spheroids increases cell survival and augments their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic potential, yet there is no consensus on the preferred conditions for maximizing spheroid function in this application. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for forming MSC spheroids that simultaneously enhance their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic nature...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275954/contextual-control-over-equivalence-and-nonequivalence-explains-apparent-arbitrary-applicable-relational-responding-in-accordance-with-sameness-and-opposition
#13
Benigno Alonso-Álvarez, Luis Antonio Pérez-González
We evaluated whether contextual control over equivalence and nonequivalence (i.e., selecting comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of a contextual cue, and excluding the selection of comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of another contextual cue) can account for apparent arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR) in accordance with the frames of sameness and opposition, as defined in relational frame theory (RFT). Three college students were trained to maintain previously established conditional discriminations in the presence of a contextual cue X1, and to reverse them in the presence of another contextual cue X2 (e...
March 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269711/improving-odorant-chemical-class-prediction-with-multi-layer-perceptrons-using-temporal-odorant-spike-responses-from-drosophila-melanogaster-olfactory-receptor-neurons
#14
Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth
In this work, we examine the possibility of improving the prediction performance of an olfactory biosensor through the use of temporal spiking data. We present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in the form of an optimal hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) system for the classification of chemical odorants from olfactory receptor neuron spike responses of the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly (DmOrs). The data used in this study contains the responses to 34 odorants from 6 individual DmOrs, of which we exploit the temporal spiking responses of a 500ms odorant stimulus window...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269486/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#15
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253707/simultaneous-and-forward-masking-of-vowels-and-stop-consonants-effects-of-age-hearing-loss-and-spectral-shaping
#16
Daniel Fogerty, William J Bologna, Jayne B Ahlstrom, Judy R Dubno
Fluctuating noise, common in everyday environments, has the potential to mask acoustic cues important for speech recognition. This study examined the extent to which acoustic cues for perception of vowels and stop consonants differ in their susceptibility to simultaneous and forward masking. Younger normal-hearing, older normal-hearing, and older hearing-impaired adults identified initial and final consonants or vowels in noise-masked syllables that had been spectrally shaped. The amount of shaping was determined by subjects' audiometric thresholds...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253091/enlarged-temporal-integration-window-in-schizophrenia-indicated-by-the-double-flash-illusion
#17
Katharina Haß, Christopher Sinke, Tanya Reese, Mandy Roy, Daniel Wiswede, Wolfgang Dillo, Bob Oranje, Gregor R Szycik
INTRODUCTION: In the present study we were interested in the processing of audio-visual integration in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. The amount of sound-induced double-flash illusions served as an indicator of audio-visual integration. We expected an altered integration as well as a different window of temporal integration for patients. METHODS: Fifteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were included in this study...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230399/not-all-probabilities-are-equivalent-evidence-from-orientation-versus-spatial-probability-learning
#18
Syaheed B Jabar, Britt Anderson
Frequently targets are detected faster, probable locations searched earlier, and likely orientations estimated more precisely. Are these all consequences of a single, domain-general "attentional" effect? To examine this issue, participants were shown brief instances of spatial gratings, and were tasked to draw their location and orientation. Unknown to participants, either the location or orientation probability of these gratings were manipulated. While orientation probability affected the precision of orientation reports, spatial probability did not...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227973/improving-odorant-chemical-class-prediction-with-multi-layer-perceptrons-using-temporal-odorant-spike-responses-from-drosophila-melanogaster-olfactory-receptor-neurons
#19
Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth, Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth, Charles P Unsworth, Andrew V Kralicek, Richard D Newcomb, Luqman R Bachtiar
In this work, we examine the possibility of improving the prediction performance of an olfactory biosensor through the use of temporal spiking data. We present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in the form of an optimal hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) system for the classification of chemical odorants from olfactory receptor neuron spike responses of the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly (DmOrs). The data used in this study contains the responses to 34 odorants from 6 individual DmOrs, of which we exploit the temporal spiking responses of a 500ms odorant stimulus window...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227738/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#20
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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