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Stimulus equivalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915105/the-effects-of-sleep-restriction-and-sleep-deprivation-in-producing-false-memories
#1
Alex Chatburn, Mark J Kohler, Jessica D Payne, Sean P A Drummond
False memory has been claimed to be the result of an associative process of generalisation, as well as to be representative of memory errors. These can occur at any stage of memory encoding, consolidation, or retrieval, albeit through varied mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to experimentally determine: i) if cognitive dysfunction brought about by sleep loss at the time of stimulus encoding can influence false memory production; and ii) whether this relationship holds across sensory modalities. Subjects undertook both the Deese-Roedigger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task and a visual task designed to produce false memories...
November 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914441/comparisons-of-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-using-chirp-and-click-stimuli
#2
Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Lisa L Hunter, Denis F Fitzpatrick
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses (0.7-8 kHz) were measured in normal-hearing adult ears using click stimuli and chirps whose local frequency increased or decreased linearly with time over the stimulus duration. Chirp stimuli were created by allpass filtering a click with relatively constant incident pressure level over frequency. Chirp TEOAEs were analyzed as a nonlinear residual signal by inverse allpass filtering each chirp response into an equivalent click response. Multi-window spectral and temporal averaging reduced noise levels compared to a single-window average...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908085/age-effects-in-discrimination-of-intervals-within-accented-tone-sequences-differing-in-accent-type-and-sequence-presentation-rate
#3
Peter J Fitzgibbons, Sandra Gordon-Salant
The study measured listener sensitivity to increments in the duration of one or two target silent intervals embedded within unaccented tone sequences and sequences that featured a single accented component. The baseline unaccented sequences consisted of six 1000-Hz 40-ms tone bursts that were separated equally by silent intervals to establish a slower tone sequence rate, with tonal inter-onset intervals (IOIs) set to 200 ms, or a faster rate with tonal IOIs set to 100 ms. Stimulus accent was created by doubling the baseline duration of a single sequence component, either the second tone burst (tonal accent), or the second tonal IOI (interval accent)...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893100/do-intense-perimetric-stimuli-saturate-the-healthy-visual-system
#4
Andrew J Anderson, Allison M McKendrick, Andrew Turpin
Purpose: A recent proposal for why glaucomatous perimetric sensitivities of approximately 15 to 19 dB or less are unreliable involves the idea that the neural response of normal retinal ganglion cells saturates for intense perimetric stimuli. A predicted consequence of this saturation is that the neural response for two different high intensity stimuli will be the same, leading to an inability to discriminate between them. We test that prediction. Methods: We used a two-interval forced-choice method of constant stimuli (7 steps, 40 presentations/step) to measure the ability of four healthy observers to discriminate between different intensity Size III perimetric stimuli at 0°, 9°, and 21° eccentricity...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891101/spatio-temporal-structure-path-characteristics-and-perceptual-grouping-in-immediate-serial-spatial-recall
#5
Carlo De Lillo, Melissa Kirby, Daniel Poole
Immediate serial spatial recall measures the ability to retain sequences of locations in short-term memory and is considered the spatial equivalent of digit span. It is tested by requiring participants to reproduce sequences of movements performed by an experimenter or displayed on a monitor. Different organizational factors dramatically affect serial spatial recall but they are often confounded or underspecified. Untangling them is crucial for the characterization of working-memory models and for establishing the contribution of structure and memory capacity to spatial span...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873084/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emission-measured-below-300%C3%A2-hz-in-normal-hearing-human-subjects
#6
Anders T Christensen, Rodrigo Ordoñez, Dorte Hammershøi
Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f 1 and f 2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864066/stimulus-control-in-two-rodent-models-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Adam E Fox, Sierra R Caramia, Molly M Haskell, Aerial L Ramey, Depika Singha
The spontaneously hypertensive (SHR/NCrl) rat from Charles River is one of the most widely used models of the combined subtype of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Although often used as its control strain, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) from Charles River has been proposed as a model of the predominately inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-PI). In Experiment 1 SHR/NCrl, WKY/NCrl, and Wistar (WI; the progenitor strain for the two models) rats were trained on a left→right lever-press sequence in the presence of light discriminative stimuli that signaled the active lever in the sequence...
November 15, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813105/the-influence-of-the-rebaudioside-a-content-of-stevia-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-on-the-determination-of-sweetness-equivalence-in-bittersweet-chocolates-using-the-time-intensity-analysis
#8
Bruna M Azevedo, Janaína M M Ferreira, Valdecir Luccas, Helena M A Bolini
The consumption of diet products has increased greatly in recent years. The objectives of the study were to develop a bittersweet chocolate added inulin and stevias with different rebaudioside A contents (60%, 80%, and 97%). Five chocolate samples were formulated with different sucrose concentrations to determine the ideal sucrose concentration for bittersweet chocolate. The use of just-about-right scale identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 47.5% (w/w). The sweetness equivalence in sugar-free bittersweet chocolates was determined by the time-intensity method by 14 selected and trained judges...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802145/three-dimensional-motion-tracking-reveals-a-diving-component-to-visual-and-auditory-escape-swims-in-zebrafish-larvae
#9
Benjamin H Bishop, Nathan Spence-Chorman, Ethan Gahtan
Escape behaviors have been studied in zebrafish by neuroscientists seeking cellular-level descriptions of neural circuits but few studies have examined vertical swimming during escapes. We analyzed 3-dimensional swimming paths of zebrafish larvae during visually-evoked and auditory-evoked escapes while the fish were in a cubical tank with equal vertical and lateral range. Visually-evoked escapes, elicited by sudden dimming of ambient light, consistently elicited downward spiral swimming (dives) with faster vertical than lateral movement...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801959/different-synaptic-stimulation-patterns-influence-the-local-androgenic-and-estrogenic-neurosteroid-availability-triggering-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-male-rat
#10
Michela Di Mauro, Alessandro Tozzi, Paolo Calabresi, Vito Enrico Pettorossi, Silvarosa Grassi
Electrophysiological recordings were used to investigate the role of the local synthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on synaptic long-term effects induced in the hippocampal CA1 region of male rat slices. Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP), induced by different stimulation patterns, were examined under the block of the DHT synthesis by finasteride, and the E2 synthesis by letrozole. We used low frequency stimulation (LFS) for LTD, high frequency stimulation (HFS) for LTP, and intermediate patterns differing in duration or frequency...
November 1, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792805/dynamics-of-oculomotor-direction-discrimination
#11
Doris I Braun, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Successful foveation of a dynamic target depends on good predictions of its movement direction and speed. We measured and compared the temporal dynamics of directional precision of both saccades and smooth pursuit and their interactions. We also compared the directional precision of both eye movements to psychophysical direction discrimination thresholds. Directional thresholds of pure pursuit responses improved rapidly and reached asymptotic values of 1.5°-3° within 300 ms after target motion onset, both for trained and untrained observers and irrespective of the speed of the stimuli...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777560/changes-in-the-influence-of-alcohol-paired-stimuli-on-alcohol-seeking-across-extended-training
#12
Laura H Corbit, Patricia H Janak
Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766646/establishing-derived-categorical-responding-in-children-with-disabilities-using-the-peak-e-curriculum
#13
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Ryan C Speelman, Kyle E Rowsey, Dena Kime, Jacob H Daar
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained using a match-to-sample procedure. Test probes were conducted for categorical responding, including both a trained (D-A) and two derived (D-B, D-C) relational responses, as well as the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responding (D-A/B/C) throughout the study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740707/comparative-effects-of-adaptation-on-layer-ii-iii-and-layer-v-vi-neurons-in-cat-v1
#14
Nayan Chanauria, Vishal Bharmauria, Lyes Bachatene, Sarah Cattan, Jean Rouat, Stéphane Molotchnikoff
V1 is fundamentally grouped into columns that descend from layer II-III to layer V-VI. Neurons inherent to visual cortex are capable of adapting to changes in the incoming stimuli that drive the cortical plasticity. A principle feature called orientation selectivity can be altered by the presentation of non-optimal stimulus called 'adapter'. When triggered, LGN cells impinge upon layer IV and further relay the information to deeper layers via layer II-III. Using different adaptation protocols, neuronal plasticity can be investigated...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721145/alternative-pathway-regulation-by-factor-h-modulates-streptococcus-pneumoniae-induced-proinflammatory-cytokine-responses-by-decreasing-c5a-receptor-crosstalk
#15
Erika van der Maten, Cynthia M de Bont, Ronald de Groot, Marien I de Jonge, Jeroen D Langereis, Michiel van der Flier
Bacterial pathogens not only stimulate innate immune receptors, but also activate the complement system. Crosstalk between complement C5a receptor (C5aR) and other innate immune receptors is known to enhance the proinflammatory cytokine response. An important determinant of the magnitude of complement activation is the activity of the alternative pathway, which serves as an amplification mechanism for complement activation. Both alternative pathway activity as well as plasma levels of factor H, a key inhibitor of the alternative pathway, show large variation within the human population...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720742/neural-correlates-of-sample-coding-and-reward-coding-in-the-delay-activity-of-neurons-in-the-entopallium-and-nidopallium-caudolaterale-of-pigeons-columba-livia
#16
Melissa Johnston, Catrona Anderson, Michael Colombo
We recorded neuronal activity from the nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the entopallium, the avian equivalent of the mammalian visual cortex, in four birds trained on a differential outcomes delayed matching-to-sample procedure in which one sample stimulus was followed by reward and the other was not. Despite similar incidence of reward-specific and reward-unspecific delay cell types across the two areas, overall entopallium delay activity occurred following both rewarded and non-rewarded stimuli, whereas nidopallium caudolaterale delay activity tended to occur following the rewarded stimulus but not the non-rewarded stimulus...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716112/accommodative-changes-after-smile-for-moderate-to-high-myopia-correction
#17
Ke Zheng, Tian Han, Xingtao Zhou
BACKGROUND: To investigate accommodative response and accommodative lag changes after femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for moderate to high myopia correction. METHODS: A total of 32 eyes of 32 patients with no strabismus who underwent SMILE were enrolled in this prospective clinical study. The accommodative response was obtained viewing monocularly with spherical equivalent refractive error corrected, using an open-field autorefractor at different stimulus levels (2...
October 4, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711136/peripersonal-space-and-margin-of-safety-around-the-body-learning-visuo-tactile-associations-in-a-humanoid-robot-with-artificial-skin
#18
Alessandro Roncone, Matej Hoffmann, Ugo Pattacini, Luciano Fadiga, Giorgio Metta
This paper investigates a biologically motivated model of peripersonal space through its implementation on a humanoid robot. Guided by the present understanding of the neurophysiology of the fronto-parietal system, we developed a computational model inspired by the receptive fields of polymodal neurons identified, for example, in brain areas F4 and VIP. The experiments on the iCub humanoid robot show that the peripersonal space representation i) can be learned efficiently and in real-time via a simple interaction with the robot, ii) can lead to the generation of behaviors like avoidance and reaching, and iii) can contribute to the understanding the biological principle of motor equivalence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649900/the-student-experience-of-applied-equivalence-based-instruction-for-neuroanatomy-teaching
#19
W James Greville, Simon Dymond, Philip M Newton
PURPOSE: Esoteric jargon and technical language are potential barriers to the teaching of science and medicine. Effective teaching strategies which address these barriers are desirable. Here, we created and evaluated the effectiveness of stand-alone 'equivalence-based instruction' (EBI) learning resources wherein the teaching of a small number of direct relationships between stimuli (e.g., anatomical regions, their function, and pathology) results in the learning of higher numbers of untaught relationships...
2016: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641323/learning-and-generalization-from-reward-and-punishment-in-opioid-addiction
#20
Catherine E Myers, Janice Rego, Paul Haber, Kirsten Morley, Kevin D Beck, Lee Hogarth, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study adapts a widely-used acquired equivalence paradigm to investigate how opioid-addicted individuals learn from positive and negative feedback, and how they generalize this learning. The opioid-addicted group consisted of 33 participants with a history of heroin dependency currently in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 32 healthy participants without a history of drug addiction. All participants performed a novel variant of the acquired equivalence task, where they learned to map some stimuli to correct outcomes in order to obtain reward, and to map other stimuli to correct outcomes in order to avoid punishment; some stimuli were implicitly "equivalent" in the sense of being paired with the same outcome...
January 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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