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Stimulus equivalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134296/p300-based-acuity-estimation-in-imitated-amblyopia
#1
Marvin L Beusterien, Sven P Heinrich
PURPOSE: A frequent approach to estimating visual acuity objectively is the recording of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to patterns of different coarseness. This, however, overestimates acuity in patients with fragmented and distorted vision such as in amblyopia. This is likely due to VEP-based techniques using checkerboard or grating stimuli. We hypothesized that no overestimation would occur when the event-related potential P300 in response to optotype stimuli is used for acuity estimation...
November 13, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101523/functional-comparison-of-corticostriatal-and-thalamostriatal-postsynaptic-responses-in-striatal-neurons-of-the-mouse
#2
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
November 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093696/a-neurocomputational-approach-to-trained-and-transitive-relations-in-equivalence-classes
#3
Ángel E Tovar, Gert Westermann
A stimulus class can be composed of perceptually different but functionally equivalent stimuli. The relations between the stimuli that are grouped in a class can be learned or derived from other stimulus relations. If stimulus A is equivalent to B, and B is equivalent to C, then the equivalence between A and C can be derived without explicit training. In this work we propose, with a neurocomputational model, a basic learning mechanism for the formation of equivalence. We also describe how the relatedness between the members of an equivalence class is developed for both trained and derived stimulus relations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092510/switched-ratiometric-lock-in-amplifier-enabling-sub-ppm-measurements-in-a-wide-frequency-range
#4
G Gervasoni, M Carminati, G Ferrari
Lock-in amplifiers (LIAs) are extensively used to perform high-resolution measurements. Ideally, when using LIAs, it would be possible to measure a minimum signal variation limited by the instrument input equivalent noise at the operating frequency and the chosen filtering bandwidth. Instead, digital LIAs show an unforeseen 1/f noise at the instrument demodulated output, proportional to the signal amplitude that poses a fundamental limit to the minimum detectable signal variation using the lock-in technique...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058320/the-transfer-of-crel-contextual-control-same-opposite-less-than-more-than-through-equivalence-relations
#5
William F Perez, Roberta Kovac, Yara C Nico, Daniel M Caro, Adriana P Fidalgo, Ila Linares, João Henrique de Almeida, Júlio C de Rose
According to Relational Frame Theory (RFT) Crel denotes a contextual stimulus that controls a particular type of relational response (sameness, opposition, comparative, temporal, hierarchical etc.) in a given situation. Previous studies suggest that contextual functions may be indirectly acquired via transfer of function. The present study investigated the transfer of Crel contextual control through equivalence relations. Experiment 1 evaluated the transfer of Crel contextual functions for relational responses based on sameness and opposition...
October 23, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#6
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041976/human-pupillary-light-reflex-during-successive-irradiation-with-1-ms-blue-and-green-pulsed-light
#7
Soomin Lee, Naoko Muto, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
BACKGROUND: In the human retina, the contribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to the regulation of the pupillary response remains poorly understood. The objective of the current study was to determine the response dynamics of the pupillary light reflex to short, successive pulses of light. In order to better assess the roles of ipRGCs and cones, we used pulses of blue and green light. METHODS: Each participant was exposed to 1-ms blue (466 nm) and/or green (527 nm) light pulses simultaneously or separately, with inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 0, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 ms...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031809/grouping-subjects-based-on-conditioning-criteria-reveals-differences-in-acquisition-rates-and-in-strength-of-conditioning-specific-reflex-modification
#8
Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found...
October 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986084/on-the-functional-significance-of-retrieval-mode-task-switching-disrupts-the-recollection-of-conceptual-stimulus-information-from-episodic-memory
#9
Kristina Küper
Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to be associated with the tonic cognitive state of retrieval mode. Despite extensive research into the neurophysiological correlates of retrieval mode, as of yet, relatively little is known about its functional significance. The present event-related potential (ERP) study was aimed at examining the impact of retrieval mode on the specificity of memory content retrieved in the course of familiarity and recollection processes. In two experiments, participants performed a recognition memory inclusion task in which they had to distinguish identically repeated and re-colored versions of study items from new items...
October 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973957/stress-attenuates-the-flexible-updating-of-aversive-value
#10
Candace M Raio, Catherine A Hartley, Temidayo A Orederu, Jian Li, Elizabeth A Phelps
In a dynamic environment, sources of threat or safety can unexpectedly change, requiring the flexible updating of stimulus-outcome associations that promote adaptive behavior. However, aversive contexts in which we are required to update predictions of threat are often marked by stress. Acute stress is thought to reduce behavioral flexibility, yet its influence on the modulation of aversive value has not been well characterized. Given that stress exposure is a prominent risk factor for anxiety and trauma-related disorders marked by persistent, inflexible responses to threat, here we examined how acute stress affects the flexible updating of threat responses...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948611/transfers-of-stimulus-function-during-roulette-wagering
#11
Mark R Dixon, Mary Rachel Enoch, Jordan Belisle
Twenty-five recreational gamblers were initially asked to place bets on either red or black positions on a roulette board in a simulated casino setting. Each participant was then exposed to a stimulus pairing observing procedure which attempted to develop equivalence classes between one color (black or red) and traditionally positive words (e.g., love, happy, sex) and another color (black or red) and traditionally negative words (e.g., death, cancer, taxes), in the absence of consequence manipulations. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants demonstrated greater response allocation to the color position on the roulette board that participated in a relational network with the positive words...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935423/a-comparison-between-the-neural-correlates-of-laser-and-electric-pain-stimulation-and-their-modulation-by-expectation
#12
E J Hird, A K P Jones, D Talmi, W El-Deredy
BACKGROUND: Pain is modulated by expectation. Event-related potential (ERP) studies of the influence of expectation on pain typically utilise laser heat stimulation to provide a controllable nociceptive-specific stimulus. Painful electric stimulation has a number of practical advantages, but is less nociceptive-specific. We compared the modulation of electric versus laser-evoked pain by expectation, and their corresponding pain-evoked and anticipatory ERPs. NEW METHOD: We developed understanding of recognised methods of laser and electric stimulation...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918706/speech-intelligibility-benefits-of-frequency-lowering-algorithms-in-adult-hearing-aid-users-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Andrea Simpson, Alicia Bond, Michelle Loeliger, Sandy Clarke
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of two frequency-lowering schemes, non-linear frequency compression and frequency transposition, at improving speech intelligibility for adult hearing-impaired populations. DESIGN: A systematic search of 10 electronic databases was carried out using pre-defined inclusion criteria. Accepted articles were then critically appraised using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Critical Appraisal Tool...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915367/breathlessness-and-the-body-neuroimaging-clues-for-the-inferential-leap
#14
Olivia K Faull, Anja Hayen, Kyle T S Pattinson
Breathlessness debilitates millions of people with chronic illness. Mismatch between breathlessness severity and objective disease markers is common and poorly understood. Traditionally, sensory perception was conceptualised as a stimulus-response relationship, although this cannot explain how conditioned symptoms may occur in the absence of physiological signals from the lungs or airways. A Bayesian model is now proposed, in which the brain generates sensations based on expectations learnt from past experiences (priors), which are then checked against incoming afferent signals...
October 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855548/spontaneous-establishing-of-cross-modal-stimulus-equivalence-in-a-beluga-whale
#15
Tsukasa Murayama, Ryota Suzuki, Yurika Kondo, Mana Koshikawa, Hiroshi Katsumata, Kazutoshi Arai
Beluga whales use calls to convey various information to group members. Is this communication similar to humans? We addressed this question by using the framework of stimulus equivalence. Stimulus equivalence consists of three phases: if the animal is trained to match A to B and B to C, symmetry is demonstrated by matching BA and CB, transitivity by matching AC, and equivalence by matching CA. We tested the spontaneous establishment of cross-modal stimulus equivalence between visual and auditory symbols in a beluga whale nicknamed Nack...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837963/comparing-averaging-limits-for-social-cues-over-space-and-time
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joseph Florey, Steven C Dakin, Isabelle Mareschal
Observers are able to extract summary statistics from groups of faces, such as their mean emotion or identity. This can be done for faces presented simultaneously and also from sequences of faces presented at a fixed location. Equivalent noise analysis, which estimates an observer's internal noise (the uncertainty in judging a single element) and effective sample size (ESS; the effective number of elements being used to judge the average), reveals what limits an observer's averaging performance. It has recently been shown that observers have lower ESSs and higher internal noise for judging the mean gaze direction of a group of spatially distributed faces compared to the mean head direction of the same faces...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832878/development-of-phase-locking-and-frequency-representation-in-the-infant-frequency-following-response
#17
Katlyn B Van Dyke, Rachel Lieberman, Alessandro Presacco, Samira Anderson
Purpose: This study investigates the development of phase locking and frequency representation in infants using the frequency-following response to consonant-vowel syllables. Method: The frequency-following response was recorded in 56 infants and 15 young adults to 2 speech syllables (/ba/ and /ga/), which were presented in randomized order to the right ear. Signal-to-noise ratio and Fsp analyses were used to verify that individual responses were present above the noise floor...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791658/transfer-of-discriminative-control-during-stimulus-fading-conducted-without-reinforcement
#18
Lanny Fields
Using trial-and-error training, eight pigeons did not learn to discriminate between 45° and 135° lines, but did learn to discriminate between red and green colors. Control by line tilt was induced by stimulus fading that did not include reinforcement while fading out the colors. After establishing the red-green discrimination, low-intensity lines were superimposed on colors and were gradually faded in. All of this was done using reinforcement. At the end of the line fade-in, the lines had not acquired control of responding...
August 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765259/glucose-but-not-kcl-diminishes-submembrane-granule-turnover-in-mouse-beta-cells
#19
Dennis Brüning, Kirstin Reckers, Peter Drain, Ingo Rustenbeck
KCl depolarization is widely used to mimic the depolarization during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Consequently, the insulin secretion elicited by KCl is often regarded as the equivalent of the first phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Here, the effects of both stimuli were compared by measuring the secretion of perifused mouse islets, the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of single beta-cells and the mobility of submembrane insulin granules by TIRF microscopy of primary mouse beta-cells. Two cargo-directed granule labels were used namely insulin-EGFP and C-peptide-emGFP...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748067/a-matched-comparison-across-three-different-sensory-pairs-of-cross-modal-temporal-recalibration-from-sustained-and-transient-adaptation
#20
David Alais, Tam Ho, Shui'er Han, Erik Van der Burg
Sustained exposure to an asynchronous multisensory signal causes perceived simultaneity to shift in the direction of the leading component of the adapting stimulus. This is known as temporal recalibration, and recent evidence suggests that it can occur very rapidly, even after a single asynchronous audiovisual (AV) stimulus. However, this form of rapid recalibration appears to be unique to AV stimuli, in contrast to recalibration following sustained asynchronies which occurs with audiotactile (AT) and visuotactile (VT) stimuli...
July 2017: I-Perception
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