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Relational frame theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905490/inter-laboratory-evolution-of-a-model-organism-and-its-epistatic-effects-on-mutagenesis-screens
#1
Michael D Bradley, Devin Neu, Fatmagul Bahar, Roy D Welch
In theory, a few naturally occurring evolutionary changes in the genome of a model organism may have little or no observable impact on its wild type phenotype, and yet still substantially impact the phenotypes of mutant strains through epistasis. To see if this is happening in a model organism, we obtained nine different laboratories' wild type Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 "sublines" and sequenced each to determine if they had evolved after their physical separation. Under a common garden experiment, each subline satisfied the phenotypic prerequisites for wild type, but many differed to a significant degree in each of the four quantitative phenotypic traits we measured, with some sublines differing by several-fold...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893254/dynamic-interplay-between-merger-process-justice-and-cognitive-trust-in-top-management-a-longitudinal-study
#2
Janne Kaltiainen, Jukka Lipponen, Brian C Holtz
This study examines two fundamental concerns in the context of organizational change: employees' perceptions of merger process justice and cognitive trust in the top management team. Our main purpose is to better understand the nature of reciprocal relations between these important constructs through a significant change event. Previous research, building mainly on social exchange theory, has framed trust as a consequence of justice perceptions. More recently, scholars have suggested that this view may be overly simplistic and that trust-related cognitions may also represent an important antecedent of justice perceptions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871333/building-a-competent-health-manager-at-district-level-a-grounded-theory-study-from-eastern-uganda
#3
Moses Tetui, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Elizabeth Ekirpa-Kiracho, Suzanne N Kiwanuka, Anna-Britt Coe
BACKGROUND: Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building...
November 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#4
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857997/a-critical-examination-of-the-use-of-trained-health-coaches-to-decrease-the-metabolic-syndrome-for-participants-of-a-community-based-diabetes-prevention-and-management-program
#5
Brandon Lucke-Wold, Samantha Shawley, John Spencer Ingels, Jonathan Stewart, Ranjita Misra
The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge...
2016: Journal of Healthcare Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833651/embodiment-and-human-development
#6
Peter J Marshall
We are recognizing increasingly that the study of cognitive, social, and emotional processes must account for their embodiment in living, acting beings. The related field of embodied cognition (EC) has coalesced around dissatisfaction with the lack of attention to the body in cognitive science. For developmental scientists, the emphasis in the literature on adult EC on the role of the body in cognition may not seem particularly novel, given that bodily action was central to Piaget's theory of cognitive development...
December 2016: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832508/message-design-and-audience-engagement-with-tobacco-prevention-posts-on-social-media
#7
Yulia A Strekalova, Rachel E Damiani
Understanding the appropriate medium to communicate health promotion messages is vital for improving personal and societal health. As increasingly more people utilize social media for health information, public health practitioners use these platforms to engage an existing audience in health promotion messages. In this study, the relational framing theory was used as a lens for studying how message framing may influence social media audience engagement. Specifically, we assessed how posts from Tobacco Free Florida's Facebook page were framed as either dominant-submissive or affiliate-disaffiliate to an implied audience of either smokers, nonsmokers, active quitters, or a mixed audience, and the extent to which a direct call for engagement, in terms of a request to comment, like, or share the post, was used for audience engagement...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794356/bending-longitudinal-and-torsional-wave-transmission-on-euler-bernoulli-and-timoshenko-beams-with-high-propagation-losses
#8
X Wang, C Hopkins
Advanced Statistical Energy Analysis (ASEA) is used to predict vibration transmission across coupled beams which support multiple wave types up to high frequencies where Timoshenko theory is valid. Bending-longitudinal and bending-torsional models are considered for an L-junction and rectangular beam frame. Comparisons are made with measurements, Finite Element Methods (FEM) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). When beams support at least two local modes for each wave type in a frequency band and the modal overlap factor is at least 0...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794282/inverse-characterization-of-the-frequency-dependent-acoustic-and-elastic-parameters-of-porous-materials-by-surface-normal-impedance-method
#9
Yaoguang Liu
A method for characterizing the frequency-dependent acoustic and elastic parameters of porous materials is proposed and validated in the paper, based on the Biot theory. The parameters include the characteristic impedance, propagation coefficient (also denoted as complex wave number), and longitudinal modulus. The first two are the macroscopic acoustic properties of pore fluid, while the last one is the elastic property of frame. A system related to the three parameters is constructed through the normal surface impedance of three samples with different thickness, based on the transfer matrix theory...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783793/cerebral-palsy-how-the-child-s-age-and-severity-of-impairment-affect-the-mother-s-stress-and-coping-strategies
#10
Maysa Ferreira Martins Ribeiro, Luc Vandenberghe, Cejane Oliveira Martins Prudente, Vanessa da Silva Carvalho Vila, Celmo Celeno Porto
The aim of the study was to comprehend how the age group and the severity of the motor impairment of children with cerebral palsy modify the mothers' experiences of stress and to understand the coping strategies they use. A qualitative approach was used, with the method framed on Grounded Theory Analysis. Nineteen mothers of children and adolescents with different degrees of motor impairment participated in individual semi-structured interviews. A lack of support and increased time and effort invested in parenting, at the cost of other areas of life threaten participants' physical and emotional health...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766939/phylogenetic-tree-construction-using-trinucleotide-usage-profile-tup
#11
Si Chen, Lih-Yuan Deng, Dale Bowman, Jyh-Jen Horng Shiau, Tit-Yee Wong, Behrouz Madahian, Henry Horng-Shing Lu
BACKGROUND: It has been a challenging task to build a genome-wide phylogenetic tree for a large group of species containing a large number of genes with long nucleotides sequences. The most popular method, called feature frequency profile (FFP-k), finds the frequency distribution for all words of certain length k over the whole genome sequence using (overlapping) windows of the same length. For a satisfactory result, the recommended word length (k) ranges from 6 to 15 and it may not be a multiple of 3 (codon length)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739700/duality-and-reciprocity-of-fluctuation-dissipation-relations-in-conductors
#12
Lino Reggiani, Eleonora Alfinito, Tilmann Kuhn
By analogy with linear response, we formulate the duality and reciprocity properties of current and voltage fluctuations expressed by Nyquist relations, including the intrinsic bandwidths of the respective fluctuations. For this purpose, we individuate total-number and drift-velocity fluctuations of carriers inside a conductor as the microscopic sources of noise. The spectral densities at low frequency of the current and voltage fluctuations and the respective conductance and resistance are related in a mutually exclusive way to the corresponding noise source...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729886/coordination-and-collective-performance-cooperative-goals-boost-interpersonal-synchrony-and-task-outcomes
#13
Jamie S Allsop, Tomas Vaitkus, Dannette Marie, Lynden K Miles
Whether it be a rugby team or a rescue crew, ensuring peak group performance is a primary goal during collective activities. In reality, however, groups often suffer from productivity losses that can lead to less than optimal outputs. Where researchers have focused on this problem, inefficiencies in the way team members coordinate their efforts has been identified as one potent source of productivity decrements. Here, we set out to explore whether performance on a simple object movement task is shaped by the spontaneous emergence of interpersonally coordinated behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713710/cognitive-reflection-decision-biases-and-response-times
#14
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694654/implementing-health-in-all-policies-time-and-ideas-matter-too-comment-on-understanding-the-role-of-public-administration-in-implementing-action-on-the-social-determinants-of-health-and-health-inequities
#15
Carole Clavier
Carey and Friel suggest that we turn to knowledge developed in the field of public administration, especially new public governance, to better understand the process of implementing health in all policies (HiAP). In this commentary, I claim that theories from the policy studies bring a broader view of the policy process, complementary to that of new public governance. Drawing on the policy studies, I argue that time and ideas matter to HiAP implementation, alongside with interests and institutions. Implementing HiAP is a complex process considering that it requires the involvement and coordination of several policy sectors, each with their own interests, institutions and ideas about the policy...
June 20, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689860/hearing-voices-dissociation-and-the-self-a-functional-analytic-perspective
#16
Ciara McEnteggart, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Jacqui Dillon, Jos Egger, Joseph E Oliver
In the current article, we review existing models of the etiology of voice hearing. We summarize the argument and evidence that voice hearing is primarily a dissociative process involving critical aspects of self. We propose a complementary perspective on these phenomena that is based on a modern behavioral account of complex behavior known as relational frame theory. This type of approach to voice hearing concerns itself with the functions served for the individual by this voice hearing; the necessary history, such as trauma, that establishes these functions; and the relevant dissociative processes involving self and others...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672719/theory-in-highly-cited-studies-of-sexual-minority-parent-families-variations-and-implications
#17
Rachel H Farr, Fiona Tasker, Abbie E Goldberg
This article includes a systematic review and citation analysis of the literature regarding sexual minority parent families, particularly attending to what theories have been used, and how. We consider the importance of theoretical frameworks for future research and implications for policy, practice, and law related to sexual minority parent families. Our review targets 30 highly cited studies located through Google Scholar (as an interdisciplinary search engine) and published within a specific timeframe (2005-2010)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668892/belief-in-the-immutability-of-attitudes-both-increases-and-decreases-advocacy
#18
Omair Akhtar, S Christian Wheeler
People with an entity theory of attitudes (i.e., the belief that attitudes are relatively unchanging) are more certain of their attitudes than are people with an incremental theory (i.e., the belief that attitudes are relatively malleable), and people with greater attitude certainty are generally more willing to try to persuade others. Combined, these findings suggest that an entity theory should foster greater advocacy. Yet, people with entity theories may be less willing to advocate because they also perceive others' attitudes as unchanging...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645805/the-rehabilitation-research-matrix-producing-knowledge-at-micro-meso-and-macro-levels
#19
Per Koren Solvang, Halvor Hanisch, Jan D Reinhardt
PURPOSE: EU policy documents and health scholars point out that in order to understand the complexity of modern health systems, as well as to devise appropriate policy responses, considering micro, meso, and macro levels is indispensable. This article aims to develop an analytical framework for how rehabilitation as an interdisciplinary field can be framed in such a three-level framework. METHODS: This is a conceptual paper based on recent contributions to the development of a theory of rehabilitation...
September 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644768/a-primer-for-preventing-teen-dating-violence-the-representation-of-teen-dating-violence-in-young-adult-literature-and-its-implications-for-prevention
#20
Heather L Storer, Katyayani R Strohl
Teen dating violence (TDV) is a significant public health issue. Preventing TDV requires attention to risk and protective factors across ecological system levels. The media is one of the primary cultural drivers of societal-level social scripts about the causes of TDV. Framing theory asserts that the media's portrayal of social issues, including what contextual information is included and/or excluded, affects individual-level attitudes about TDV and potential policy responses. This study investigates the representation of TDV in young adult (YA) literature, a media genre that is marketed to adolescent audiences...
September 18, 2016: Violence Against Women
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