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Relational frame theory

Carla T Hilario, John L Oliffe, Josephine P Wong, Annette J Browne, Joy L Johnson
Distress among young immigrant and refugee men has drawn increasing research attention in recent years. Nuanced understandings of distress are needed to inform mental health and public health programming. The purpose of this research was to examine distress from the perspectives of young immigrant and refugee men living in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-three young men (aged 15-22 years) from diverse immigrant and refugee backgrounds participated in interviews, which were conducted between 2014 and 2015...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
Thomas J Bridges, Daniel J Ratliff
The dispersionless Whitham modulation equations in 2+1 (two space dimensions and time) are reviewed and the instabilities identified. The modulation theory is then reformulated, near the Lighthill instability threshold, with a slow phase, moving frame and different scalings. The resulting nonlinear phase modulation equation near the Lighthill surfaces is a geometric form of the 2+1 two-way Boussinesq equation. This equation is universal in the same sense as Whitham theory. Moreover, it is dispersive, and it has a wide range of interesting multi-periodic, quasi-periodic and multi-pulse localized solutions...
April 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Haitao Xu, Jesús Cuevas-Maraver, Panayotis G Kevrekidis, Anna Vainchtein
In this work, we revisit a criterion, originally proposed in Friesecke & Pego (Friesecke & Pego 2004 Nonlinearity 17 , 207-227. (doi:10.1088/0951715/17/1/013)), for the stability of solitary travelling waves in Hamiltonian, infinite-dimensional lattice dynamical systems. We discuss the implications of this criterion from the point of view of stability theory, both at the level of the spectral analysis of the advance-delay differential equations in the co-travelling frame, as well as at that of the Floquet problem arising when considering the travelling wave as a periodic orbit modulo shift...
April 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Gemma Via-Clavero, Marta Sanjuán-Naváis, Marta Romero-García, Laura de la Cueva-Ariza, Gemma Martínez-Estalella, Erika Plata-Menchaca, Pilar Delgado-Hito
BACKGROUND: Despite the reported harms and ethical concerns about physical restraint use in the critical care settings, nurses' intention to apply them is unequal across countries. According to the theory of planned behaviour, eliciting nurses' beliefs regarding the use of physical restraints would provide additional social information about nurses' intention to perform this practice. AIM: To explore the salient behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying the intention of critical care nurses to use physical restraints from the theory of planned behaviour...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Rob Stones, Kate Botterill, Maggy Lee, Karen O'Reilly
The paper is based on original empirical research into the lifestyle migration of European migrants, primarily British, to Thailand and Malaysia, and of Hong Kong Chinese migrants to Mainland China. We combine strong structuration theory (SST) with Heideggerian phenomenology to develop a distinctive approach to the interplay between social structures and the lived experience of migrants. The approach enables a rich engagement with the subjectivities of migrants, an engagement that is powerfully enhanced by close attention to how these inner lives are deeply interwoven with relevant structural contexts...
February 25, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Karen Kane McDonnell, Scott M Strayer, Erica Sercy, Callie Campbell, Daniela B Friedman, Kathleen B Cartmell, Jan M Eberth
BACKGROUND: Cancer screening-related decisions require patients to evaluate complex medical information in short time frames, often with primary care providers (PCPs) they do not know. PCPs play an essential role in facilitating comprehensive shared decision making (SDM). OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a decision aid (DA) and SDM strategy for PCPs and high-risk patients. DESIGN: The DA was tested with 20 dyads. Each dyad consisted of one PCP and one patient eligible for screening...
February 23, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Samantha J Stanley, Margaret Jane Pitts
While cigarette smoking is decreasing among young adults, rates of nicotine consumption through other devices, most notably electronic cigarettes, are on the rise. Framed by communication theory of identity, this study examines young adult smokers' experiences with relational others in regard to their smoking. Focus group discussions and individual interviews convened with 20 young adult cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers revealed identity gaps implicating the relational layer of identity, including personal-relational, enacted-relational, and personal-enacted-relational identity gaps...
February 22, 2018: Health Communication
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
Shamima Najnin, Bonny Banerjee
Cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theories are prominent mechanisms for learning word meanings (i.e., word-object pairs). In this paper, the role of reinforcement is investigated for early word-learning by an artificial agent. When exposed to a group of speakers, the agent comes to understand an initial set of vocabulary items belonging to the language used by the group. Both cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theory are taken into account. As social cues, joint attention and prosodic cues in caregiver's speech are considered...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yasmin Mashhoon, Jennifer Betts, Stacey L Farmer, Scott E Lukas
BACKGROUND: Initiation of cigarette smoking during adolescence coincides with structural and cognitive neuromaturation. Thus, early onset smokers (EOS; initiated <16 years old) may be at unique risk of altered development of executive function relative to late onset smokers (LOS; initiated >16 years old). This study quantified the effects of age of smoking onset on response impulsivity and inhibitory control using a novel smoking Go/NoGo task (Luijten et al., 2011). METHODS: Nicotine deprived adult EOS (n = 10) and LOS (n = 10) and adult healthy non-smokers (HNS; n = 10) were shown smoking-related and neutral images with either a blue (Go) or yellow (NoGo) frame...
January 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Darren J Edwards, Ciara McEnteggart, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Rob Lowe, Nicky Evans, Roger Vilardaga
Perspective-taking interventions have been shown to improve attitudes toward social outgroups. In contrast, similar interventions have produced opposite effects (i.e., enhanced negativity) in the context of attitudes toward elderly groups. The current study investigated whether a brief perspective-taking intervention enhanced with mindfulness would be associated with less negativity than perspective-taking alone. One hundred five participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions which comprised of an active or control perspective-taking component and an active or control mindfulness component...
December 2017: Mindfulness
Simon J Sebire, Zoi Toumpakari, Katrina M Turner, Ashley R Cooper, Angie S Page, Alice Malpass, Robert C Andrews
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis with Type 2 Diabetes is an opportunity for individuals to change their physical activity and dietary behaviours. Diabetes treatment guidelines recommend theory-based, patient-centred care and advocate the provision of support for patient motivation but the motivational experiences of people newly diagnosed with diabetes have not been well studied. Framed in self-determination theory, this study aimed to qualitatively explore how this patient group articulate and experience different types of motivation when attempting lifestyle change...
January 31, 2018: BMC Public Health
Alysa D Haas, Daniel A Hunter, Ninica L Howard
BACKGROUND: Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) experience a high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and are further made vulnerable by their situation in low levels of workplace and societal hierarchies of power and privilege. OBJECTIVE: This study applies structural vulnerability theory to CNA WMSD experiences in order to identify structural factors that may influence such injuries. METHODS: A sample of CNAs (n = 26) working in Nursing and Residential Care Facilities (NRCFs) was selected from workers who filed a claim during 2011-2014 for a WMSD of the back, shoulder, knee, or hand/wrist in the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries workers' compensation system...
January 19, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
James Chen
A high order morphing continuum theory (MCT) is introduced to model highly compressible turbulence. The theory is formulated under the rigorous framework of rational continuum mechanics. A set of linear constitutive equations and balance laws are deduced and presented from the Coleman-Noll procedure and Onsager's reciprocal relations. The governing equations are then arranged in conservation form and solved through the finite volume method with a second-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for shock preservation. A numerical example of transonic flow over a three-dimensional bump is presented using MCT and the finite volume method...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Elizabeth Culatta, Jody Clay-Warner, Kaitlin M Boyle, Assaf Oshri
Research has shown that victims of sexual assault are at a significant risk of revictimization. We use routine activity theory to predict how sexual victimization in adolescence relates to depression, substance use, and ultimately revictimization as a young adult. We frame our research within routine activity theory and predict that sexual victimization increases substance use and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the likelihood of revictimization. We test the hypotheses with three waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Margo van Mol, Marjan Nijkamp, Christine Markham, Erwin Ista
BACKGROUND: Admission into an intensive care unit (ICU) may result in long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional consequences for patients and their relatives. The care of the critically ill patient does not end upon ICU discharge; therefore, integrated and ongoing care during and after transition to the follow-up ward is pivotal. This study described the development of an intervention that responds to this need. METHODS: Intervention Mapping (IM), a six-step theory- and evidence-based approach, was used to guide intervention development...
December 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Miray Arslan, Sevgi Şar
BACKGROUND: Logistics activities play a prominent role in enabling manufacturers, distribution channels, and pharmacies to work in harmony. Nowadays these activities have become increasingly striking in the pharmaceutical industry and seen as a development area for this sector. Additionally, green practices are beginning to be more attracting particularly in decreasing costs and increasing image of pharmaceutical companies. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was modeling green logistics (GL) behavior of the managers in the pharmaceutical sector in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) frame via structural equation modeling (SEM)...
December 11, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Chia-Yen Lin, Wei-Ju Yeh
The health costs of colorectal cancer have increased over the years in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and the Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan advocate that people have to change their unhealthy behaviors; however, the number of patients of colorectal cancer is increasing annually. This research discussed the effects of healthy diet advocacy advertisements (ads) on healthy diet behavior intentions as influenced by the interactions between regulatory focus theory (RFT) and message framing effects...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alex Moroz, Margaret Horlick, Neil Mandalaywala, David T Stern
CONTEXT: The seeking and incorporating of feedback are necessary for continuous performance improvement in medicine. We know that beginning feedback conversations with resident self-assessment may reduce some of the tensions experienced by faculty staff. However, we do not fully understand how residents experience feedback that begins with self-assessment, and whether any existing theoretical frameworks can explain their experiences. METHODS: We conducted a constructivist grounded theory study exploring physical medicine and rehabilitation residents' experiences as they engaged in a structured self-assessment and faculty staff feedback programme...
March 2018: Medical Education
Teru Miyake
This paper examines the history of two related problems concerning earthquakes, and the way in which a theoretical advance was involved in their resolution. The first problem is the development of a physical, as opposed to empirical, scale for measuring the size of earthquakes. The second problem is that of understanding what happens at the source of an earthquake. There was a controversy about what the proper model for the seismic source mechanism is, which was finally resolved through advances in the theory of elastic dislocations...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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