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Relational frame theory

Si Chen, Lih-Yuan Deng, Dale Bowman, Jyh-Jen Horng Shiau, Tit-Yee Wong, Behrouz Madahian, Henry Horng-Shing Lu
BACKGROUND: It has been a challenging task to build a genome-wide phylogenetic tree for a large group of species containing a large number of genes with long nucleotides sequences. The most popular method, called feature frequency profile (FFP-k), finds the frequency distribution for all words of certain length k over the whole genome sequence using (overlapping) windows of the same length. For a satisfactory result, the recommended word length (k) ranges from 6 to 15 and it may not be a multiple of 3 (codon length)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Lino Reggiani, Eleonora Alfinito, Tilmann Kuhn
By analogy with linear response, we formulate the duality and reciprocity properties of current and voltage fluctuations expressed by Nyquist relations, including the intrinsic bandwidths of the respective fluctuations. For this purpose, we individuate total-number and drift-velocity fluctuations of carriers inside a conductor as the microscopic sources of noise. The spectral densities at low frequency of the current and voltage fluctuations and the respective conductance and resistance are related in a mutually exclusive way to the corresponding noise source...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jamie S Allsop, Tomas Vaitkus, Dannette Marie, Lynden K Miles
Whether it be a rugby team or a rescue crew, ensuring peak group performance is a primary goal during collective activities. In reality, however, groups often suffer from productivity losses that can lead to less than optimal outputs. Where researchers have focused on this problem, inefficiencies in the way team members coordinate their efforts has been identified as one potent source of productivity decrements. Here, we set out to explore whether performance on a simple object movement task is shaped by the spontaneous emergence of interpersonally coordinated behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Carole Clavier
Carey and Friel suggest that we turn to knowledge developed in the field of public administration, especially new public governance, to better understand the process of implementing health in all policies (HiAP). In this commentary, I claim that theories from the policy studies bring a broader view of the policy process, complementary to that of new public governance. Drawing on the policy studies, I argue that time and ideas matter to HiAP implementation, alongside with interests and institutions. Implementing HiAP is a complex process considering that it requires the involvement and coordination of several policy sectors, each with their own interests, institutions and ideas about the policy...
June 20, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Ciara McEnteggart, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Jacqui Dillon, Jos Egger, Joseph E Oliver
In the current paper, we review existing models of the aetiology of voice hearing. We summarise the argument and evidence that voice hearing is primarily a dissociative process, involving critical aspects of self. We propose a complementary perspective on these phenomena that is based on a modern behavioural account of complex behaviour, known as Relational Frame Theory (RFT). This type of approach to voice hearing concerns itself with: the functions served for the individual by this voice hearing; the necessary history, such as trauma, that establishes these functions; and the relevant dissociative processes involving self and others...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Rachel H Farr, Fiona Tasker, Abbie E Goldberg
This paper includes a systematic review and citation analysis of the literature regarding sexual minority parent families, particularly attending to what theories have been used, and how. We consider the importance of theoretical frameworks for future research and implications for policy, practice, and law related to sexual minority parent families. Our review targets 30 highly cited studies located through Google Scholar (as an interdisciplinary search engine) and published within a specific time frame (2005-2010)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Omair Akhtar, S Christian Wheeler
People with an entity theory of attitudes (i.e., the belief that attitudes are relatively unchanging) are more certain of their attitudes than are people with an incremental theory (i.e., the belief that attitudes are relatively malleable), and people with greater attitude certainty are generally more willing to try to persuade others. Combined, these findings suggest that an entity theory should foster greater advocacy. Yet, people with entity theories may be less willing to advocate because they also perceive others' attitudes as unchanging...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Per Koren Solvang, Halvor Hanisch, Jan D Reinhardt
PURPOSE: EU policy documents and health scholars point out that in order to understand the complexity of modern health systems, as well as to devise appropriate policy responses, considering micro, meso, and macro levels is indispensable. This article aims to develop an analytical framework for how rehabilitation as an interdisciplinary field can be framed in such a three-level framework. METHODS: This is a conceptual paper based on recent contributions to the development of a theory of rehabilitation...
September 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Heather L Storer, Katyayani R Strohl
Teen dating violence (TDV) is a significant public health issue. Preventing TDV requires attention to risk and protective factors across ecological system levels. The media is one of the primary cultural drivers of societal-level social scripts about the causes of TDV. Framing theory asserts that the media's portrayal of social issues, including what contextual information is included and/or excluded, affects individual-level attitudes about TDV and potential policy responses. This study investigates the representation of TDV in young adult (YA) literature, a media genre that is marketed to adolescent audiences...
September 18, 2016: Violence Against Women
Katarzyna Sekścińska, Dominika Agnieszka Maison, Agata Trzcińska
People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Phyllis Raynor, Charlene Pope
BACKGROUND: Lack of stress modifiers, such as self-care behaviors (SCBs), can increase vulnerability to drug use for parents in recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). PURPOSE: The purpose of this integrative review was to determine how the existing literature describes, conceptualizes, and measures SCB for parents in the general population for its application to parents with a history of SUD. METHODS: Framed by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory of Substance Abuse, four qualitative and five quantitative studies identify SCB, although only one study describes SCB of parents in recovery...
July 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Valentina Lichtner, Dawn Dowding, Nick Allcock, John Keady, Elizabeth L Sampson, Michelle Briggs, Anne Corbett, Kirstin James, Reena Lasrado, Caroline Swarbrick, S José Closs
BACKGROUND: Pain is often poorly managed in people who have a dementia. Little is known about how this patient population is managed in hospital, with research to date focused mainly on care homes. This study aimed to investigate how pain is recognised, assessed and managed in patients with dementia in a range of acute hospital wards, to inform the development of a decision support tool to improve pain management for this group. METHODS: A qualitative, multi-site exploratory case study...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Shannon A McMahon, Stephan Brenner, Julia Lohmann, Christopher Makwero, Aleksandra Torbica, Don P Mathanga, Adamson S Muula, Manuela De Allegri
BACKGROUND: Gaps remain in understanding how performance-based incentive (PBI) programs affect quality of care and service quantity, whether programs are cost effective and how programs could be tailored to meet client and provider needs while remaining operationally viable. In 2014, Malawi's Ministry of Health launched the Service Delivery Integration-PBI (SSDI-PBI) program. The program is unique in that no portion of performance bonuses are paid to individual health workers, and it shifts responsibility for infrastructure and equipment procurement from facility staff to implementing partners...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Irene Ilott, Kate Gerrish, Sabrina A Eltringham, Carolyn Taylor, Sue Pownall
BACKGROUND: Swallowing difficulties challenge patient safety due to the increased risk of malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration pneumonia. A theoretically driven study was undertaken to examine the spread and sustainability of a locally developed innovation that involved using the Inter-Professional Dysphagia Framework to structure education for the workforce. A conceptual framework with 3 spread strategies (hierarchical control, participatory adaptation and facilitated evolution) was blended with a processual approach to sustaining organisational change...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
G Anthony Giannoumis
Research has yet to provide an interdisciplinary framework for examining ICT accessibility as it relates to Universal Design. This article assesses the conceptualizations and interdisciplinarity of ICT accessibility and Universal Design research. This article uses a grounded theory approach to pose a multilevel framework for Universal Design. The macro level, consists of scholarship that examines the context of Universal Design, and is typified by legal and sociological studies that investigate social norms and environments...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Emma Tonkin, John Coveney, Samantha B Meyer, Annabelle M Wilson, Trevor Webb
General consumer knowledge of and engagement with the production of food has declined resulting in increasing consumer uncertainty about, and sensitivity to, food risks. Emphasis is therefore placed on providing information for consumers to reduce information asymmetry regarding food risks, particularly through food labelling. This study examines the role of food labelling in influencing consumer perceptions of food risks. In-depth, 1-h interviews were conducted with 24 Australian consumers. Participants were recruited based on an a priori defined food safety risk scale, and to achieve a diversity of demographic characteristics...
August 11, 2016: Appetite
Simon Bruce Carter
BACKGROUND: This study examines the effectiveness of animal management from a critical theory perspective, establishing a framework to describe the animal management activities of local government. In creating sustainable cities, local government must critically engage with the management of other species which live alongside humans. Despite around 40 % of Australian households owning a dog, there is relatively scarce scholarly attention paid to animal management as a subject in its own right...
2016: SpringerPlus
Jan De Houwer, Sean Hughes, Dermot Barnes-Holmes
We aim to provide a new perspective on the old debate about whether evidence for higher order cognition in nonhuman animals can be reinterpreted in terms of associative learning. Our starting point is the idea that associative learning is best thought of as an effect (i.e., the impact of paired events on behavior) rather than a specific mental process (e.g., the formation of associations). This idea allows us to consider (a) propositional theories according to which associative learning is mediated by higher order mental processes akin to problem solving and (b) relational frame theory that allows one to think of seemingly simple associative learning effects as instances of a complex phenomenon known as arbitrarily applicable relational responding...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Andrzej Bielecki, Sylwia Nieszporska
The studies of health care systems are conducted intensively on various levels. They are important because the systems suffer from numerous pathologies. The health care is analyzed, first of all, in economic aspects but their functionality in the framework of systems theory is studied, as well. There are also attempts to work out some general values on which health care systems should be based. Nevertheless, the aforementioned studies, however, are fragmentary ones. In this paper holistic approach to the philosophical basis of health care is presented...
August 4, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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