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Relational frame theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527377/fishing-for-leadership-the-role-diversification-plays-in-facilitating-change-agents
#1
Joshua S Stoll
Leadership is often viewed as being critical to successful natural resource management. This research focuses on a set of leaders identified through a social network analysis of fishers in a rural coastal region. Leaders' connections to different fisheries are evaluated, and these actors are found to be significantly more diversified than other fishers in the area. Drawing on theory related to institutional entrepreneurship and a series of in-depth interviews with these actors, this paper puts forward several hypotheses to explain how diverse social-ecological connections facilitate leadership...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524804/from-mirror-touch-synaesthesia-to-models-of-vicarious-experience-a-reply-to-commentaries
#2
Jamie Ward, Michael J Banissy
In this reply to the eight commentaries to our article (Ward & Banissy, 2015) we discuss three important challenges. Firstly, we discuss the relationship of mirror-touch to other forms of synaesthesia. We note that synaesthetic experiences are generally not mistaken as veridical but this does not mean that they lack percept-like qualities. We acknowledge that neither Threshold Theory nor Self-Other Theory offer a direct account of other forms of synaesthesia, although we discuss how the latter could. Secondly, we discuss alternative explanations...
May 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505728/j-shaped-stress-strain-diagram-of-collagen-fibers-frame-tension-of-triangulated-surfaces-with-fixed-boundaries
#3
Yu Takano, Hiroshi Koibuchi
We present Monte Carlo data of the stress-strain diagrams obtained using two different triangulated surface models. The first is the canonical surface model of Helfrich and Polyakov (HP), and the second is a Finsler geometry (FG) model. The shape of the experimentally observed stress-strain diagram is called J-shaped. Indeed, the diagram has a plateau for the small strain region and becomes linear in the relatively large strain region. Because of this highly nonlinear behavior, the J-shaped diagram is far beyond the scope of the ordinary theory of elasticity...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489082/experimental-test-of-photonic-entanglement-in-accelerated-reference-frames
#4
Matthias Fink, Ana Rodriguez-Aramendia, Johannes Handsteiner, Abdul Ziarkash, Fabian Steinlechner, Thomas Scheidl, Ivette Fuentes, Jacques Pienaar, Timothy C Ralph, Rupert Ursin
The unification of the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics is a long-standing challenge in contemporary physics. Experimental techniques in quantum optics have only recently reached the maturity required for the investigation of quantum systems under the influence of non-inertial motion, such as being held at rest in gravitational fields, or subjected to uniform accelerations. Here, we report on experiments in which a genuine quantum state of an entangled photon pair is exposed to a series of different accelerations...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481914/a-modified-belief-entropy-in-dempster-shafer-framework
#5
Deyun Zhou, Yongchuan Tang, Wen Jiang
How to quantify the uncertain information in the framework of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is still an open issue. Quite a few uncertainty measures have been proposed in Dempster-Shafer framework, however, the existing studies mainly focus on the mass function itself, the available information represented by the scale of the frame of discernment (FOD) in the body of evidence is ignored. Without taking full advantage of the information in the body of evidence, the existing methods are somehow not that efficient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471239/does-question-wording-predict-support-for-the-affordable-care-act-an-analysis-of-polling-during-the-implementation-period-2010-2016
#6
Kristen Holl, Jeff Niederdeppe, Jonathon P Schuldt
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) continues to be the subject of fierce political debate in the United States. Drawing on issue framing theory, together with research on wording effects in survey responding, we tested how common differences in the wording of ACA surveys relate to apparent public support for the law. We report on a content analysis of N = 376 U.S. national opinion surveys fielded during a more than six-year period, beginning 23 March 2010 (when President Obama signed the bill into law) and ending 8 November 2016 (Election Day), and use ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to predict public support for the law as a function of variation in question wording...
May 4, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442731/glag-theory-for-superconducting-property-variations-with-a15-composition-in-nb3sn-wires
#7
Yingxu Li, Yuanwen Gao
We present a model for the variation of the upper critical field H c2 with Sn content in A15-type Nb-Sn wires, within the Ginzburg-Landau-Abrikosov-Gor'kov (GLAG) theory frame. H c2 at the vicinity of the critical temperature T c is related quantitatively to the electrical resistivity ρ, specific heat capacity coefficient γ and T c. H c2 versus tin content is theoretically formulated within the GLAG theory, and generally reproduces the experiment results. As Sn content gradually approaches the stoichiometry, A15-type Nb-Sn undergoes a transition from the dirty limit to clean limit, split by the phase transformation boundary...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441736/a-weighted-belief-entropy-based-uncertainty-measure-for-multi-sensor-data-fusion
#8
Yongchuan Tang, Deyun Zhou, Shuai Xu, Zichang He
In real applications, how to measure the uncertain degree of sensor reports before applying sensor data fusion is a big challenge. In this paper, in the frame of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, a weighted belief entropy based on Deng entropy is proposed to quantify the uncertainty of uncertain information. The weight of the proposed belief entropy is based on the relative scale of a proposition with regard to the frame of discernment (FOD). Compared with some other uncertainty measures in Dempster-Shafer framework, the new measure focuses on the uncertain information represented by not only the mass function, but also the scale of the FOD, which means less information loss in information processing...
April 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441519/grounding-principles-for-inferring-agency-two-cultural-perspectives
#9
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research investigates cultural variation in grounding principles for inferring agency in order to address an important theoretical debate: does cultural diversity in agency concepts reflect an animistic overextension of (universal) folkpsychology, as many have argued, or an alternative theory of folkcommunication based on relational principles? In two experiments, mind perception measures were adapted to assess beliefs concerning the agency of non-animal kinds (plants, abiotic kinds, complex artifacts) among Indigenous Ngöbe adults in Panama and US college students...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403860/the-social-accountability-of-doctors-a-relationship-based-framework-for-understanding-emergent-community-concepts-of-caring
#10
Lionel P Green-Thompson, Patricia McInerney, Bob Woollard
BACKGROUND: Social accountability is defined as the responsibility of institutions to respond to the health priorities of a community. There is an international movement towards the education of health professionals who are accountable to communities. There is little evidence of how communities experience or articulate this accountability. METHODS: In this grounded theory study eight community based focus group discussions were conducted in rural and urban South Africa to explore community members' perceptions of the social accountability of doctors...
April 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401815/to-be-or-not-to-be-sick-and-tired-managing-the-visibility-of-hiv-and-hiv-related-fatigue
#11
Laura Schuft, Estelle Duval, Julie Thomas, Sylvain Ferez
This article takes a new direction in exploring HIV-related fatigue by adopting a qualitative interactionist approach. We analyse the social meanings attributed to fatigue among people living with HIV in France, the social gains and losses of its visibility and the social frames that condition its discursive and physical expression. The two-part methodology combines grounded theory analysis of 50 transcribed unstructured interviews conducted across France and participant observations within four HIV-related associations...
January 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388108/eckart-ro-vibrational-hamiltonians-via-the-gateway-hamilton-operator-theory-and-practice
#12
Viktor Szalay
Recently, a general expression for Eckart-frame Hamilton operators has been obtained by the gateway Hamiltonian method [V. Szalay, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 174107 (2015) and V. Szalay, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 064104 (2015)]. The kinetic energy operator in this general Hamiltonian is nearly identical to that of the Eckart-Watson operator even when curvilinear vibrational coordinates are employed. Its different realizations correspond to different methods of calculating Eckart displacements. There are at least two different methods for calculating such displacements: rotation and projection...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383992/role-of-accentuation-in-the-selection-rejection-task-framing-effect
#13
Jing Chen, Robert W Proctor
Procedure invariance is a basic assumption of rational theories of choice, however, it has been shown to be violated: Different response modes, or task frames, sometimes reveal opposite preferences. The current study focused on selection and rejection task frames, involving a unique type of problem with enriched and impoverished options, which has previously led to conflicting findings and theoretical explanations: the compatibility hypothesis (Shafir, 1993) and the accentuation hypothesis (Wedell, 1997). We examined the role of task frame by distinguishing these 2 hypotheses and evaluating the information-processing basis of the choices...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370942/the-role-of-life-context-and-self-defined-well-being-in-the-outcomes-that-matter-to-people-with-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia
#14
Helen Lloyd, Joanne Lloyd, Ray Fitzpatrick, Michele Peters
OBJECTIVE: Conduct a deep exploration of the outcomes that matter to people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and understand from their perspective how these outcomes can be achieved. SAMPLE AND METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Interviews were analysed using thematic frameworks, and a realist informed theories of change approach. RESULTS: Our study revealed the potential causal relationships between the context of a person's life, short-term goals and long-term outcomes...
April 3, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360249/understanding-the-acceptability-and-adherence-to-paediatric-antiretroviral-treatment-in-the-new-formulation-of-pellets-lpv-r-the-protocol-of-a-realist-evaluation
#15
Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Christiana Nöstlinger, Janice Lee, Olawale Salami, Marc Lallemant, Onyango Ouma, Isaac Nyamongo, Bruno Marchal
BACKGROUND: Improving access to paediatric HIV treatment requires both large-scale treatment programmes and medication that is adapted to infants and children's needs. The WHO recommends lopinavir/ritonavir as first-line antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-infected children younger than 3 years. There is currently little evidence on the acceptability of, and adherence to, a formulation of this combination treatment if given in the form of pellets. This protocol presents how we will carry a realist evaluation to assess the factors that contribute to the acceptability and adherence to the new pellets formulation in 3 hospitals in Kenya...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315945/organization-of-the-reach-and-grasp-in-head-fixed-vs-freely-moving-mice-provides-support-for-multiple-motor-channel-theory-of-neocortical-organization
#16
Ian Q Whishaw, Jamshid Faraji, Jessica Kuntz, Behroo Mirza Agha, Mukt Patel, Gerlinde A S Metz, Majid H Mohajerani
Multiple motor channel (MMC) theory of neocortical organization proposes that complex movements, such as reaching for a food item to eat, are produced by the coordinated action of separate neural channels. For example, the human reach-to-grasp act is mediated by two visuo-parieto-motor cortex channels, one for the reach and one for the grasp. The present analysis asked whether there is a similar organization of reach-and-grasp movements in the mouse. The reach-to-eat movements of the same mice were examined from high-shutter speed, frame-by-frame video analysis in three tasks in which the mice obtained equivalent success scores: when freely-moving reaching for food pellets, when head-fixed reaching for food pellets, and when head-fixed reaching for pieces of pasta...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314495/global-service-learning-and-student-athletes-a-model-for-enhanced-academic-inclusion-at-the-university-of-washington
#17
Holly M Barker
BACKGROUND: The University of Washington (UW) continues to create opportunities to engage all students in transformational undergraduate educational opportunities, such as study abroad. OBJECTIVE: This article describes specific efforts to increase inclusion for student-athletes in study abroad, particularly for first-generation students, including low-income students of color. Given the overrepresentation of students of color in sports vis-à-vis the larger student body at predominantly white institutions (PWIs), like UW, service-learning in communities beyond campus boundaries provides opportunities to apply international learning to a local context and to create a continuum of learning...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302187/dynamical-systems-theory-in-quantitative-psychology-and-cognitive-science-a-fair-discrimination-between-deterministic-and-statistical-counterparts-is-required
#18
Adam Gadomski, Marcel Ausloos, Tahlia Casey
This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301962/overcoming-obesity
#19
Elaine Seaton Banerjee, Sharon J Herring, Katelyn E Hurley, Katherine Puskarz, Kyle Yebernetsky, Marianna LaNoue
PURPOSE: Low-income, African American women are disproportionately impacted by obesity. Little is known about the interactions between low-income, African American women who successfully lost weight and their primary care physicians (PCPs). DESIGN: Mixed methods, positive deviance study. SETTING: Urban university-based family medicine practice. PARTICIPANTS: The positive deviance group comprised low-income, African American women who were obese, lost 10% body weight, and maintained this loss for 6 months...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275954/contextual-control-over-equivalence-and-nonequivalence-explains-apparent-arbitrary-applicable-relational-responding-in-accordance-with-sameness-and-opposition
#20
Benigno Alonso-Álvarez, Luis Antonio Pérez-González
We evaluated whether contextual control over equivalence and nonequivalence (i.e., selecting comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of a contextual cue, and excluding the selection of comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of another contextual cue) can account for apparent arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR) in accordance with the frames of sameness and opposition, as defined in relational frame theory (RFT). Three college students were trained to maintain previously established conditional discriminations in the presence of a contextual cue X1, and to reverse them in the presence of another contextual cue X2 (e...
March 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
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