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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436740/major-immunodominant-region-of-hepatitis-b-virus-core-antigen-as-a-delivery-vector-to-improve-the-immunogenicity-of-the-fusion-antigen-rop2-sag1-multiepitope-from-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice
#1
Wenhuan Wang, Fangfang Feng, Jinhui Lv, Zixin Xie, Jun Chen, Lifang Zhang, Wenshu Li
To prepare the dominant multiepitope fusion antigen ROP2-SAG1 (RSmultiepitope) from Toxoplasma gondii in a prokaryotic system, the major immunodominant region (MIR) of the human hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg(MIR)) was used as a delivery vector. The gene encoding the RSmultiepitope was inserted into HBcAg(MIR), and rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope was prepared, purified, and administered to BALB/c mice through intradermal injection. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis based on a multiepitope peptide facilitated the specific differentiation of sera obtained from mice immunized with the rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope protein, and high titers (greater than 1:6,400) of specific anti-RSmultiepitope antibodies were obtained...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435909/self-assembled-particulate-psaa-as-vaccine-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#2
Majela González-Miro, Laura Rodríguez-Noda, Mildrey Fariñas-Medina, Dagmar García-Rivera, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo, Bernd H A Rehm
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435676/understanding-cd8-t-cell-responses-toward-the-native-and-alternate-hla-a-02-01-restricted-wt1-epitope
#3
Thi Ho Nguyen, Amabel Cl Tan, Sue D Xiang, Anne Goubier, Kim L Harland, E Bridie Clemens, Magdalena Plebanski, Katherine Kedzierska
The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen is expressed in solid and hematological malignancies, but not healthy tissues, making it a promising target for cancer immunotherapies. Immunodominant WT1 epitopes, the native HLA-A2/WT1126-134 (RMFPNAPYL) (HLA-A2/RMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1A)) and its modified variant YMFPNAPYL (HLA-A2/YMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1B)), can induce WT1-specific CD8(+) T cells, although WT1B is more stably bound to HLA-A*02:01. Here, to further determine the benefits of those two targets, we assessed the naive precursor frequencies; immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of CD8(+) T cells directed toward these two WT1 epitopes...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435516/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-promotes-immunogenic-apoptosis-in-human-multiple-myeloma-cells-induces-autophagy-and-inhibits-stat3-in-both-tumor-and-dendritic-cells
#4
Donatella D'Eliseo, Livia Di Renzo, Angela Santoni, Francesca Velotti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oil, is a multi-target agent and exerts anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities alone or in combination with chemotherapies. Combinatorial anticancer therapies, which induce immunogenic apoptosis, autophagy and STAT3 inhibition have been proposed for long-term therapeutic success. Here, we found that DHA promoted immunogenic apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, with no toxicity on PBMCs and DCs. Immunogenic apoptosis was shown by the emission of specific DAMPs (CRT, HSP90, HMGB1) by apoptotic MM cells and the activation of their pro-apoptotic autophagy...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435472/simultaneous-targeting-of-cd44-and-epcam-with-a-bispecific-aptamer-effectively-inhibits-intraperitoneal-ovarian-cancer-growth
#5
Jingying Zheng, Shuhua Zhao, Xiaolin Yu, Shuang Huang, Hong Yan Liu
CD44 and EpCAM play crucial roles in intraperitoneal ovarian cancer development. In this study, we developed an RNA-based bispecific CD44-EpCAM aptamer that is capable of blocking CD44 and EpCAM simultaneously by fusing single CD44 and EpCAM aptamers with a double stranded RNA adaptor. With the aid of a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that bispecific CD44-EpCAM aptamer was much more effective than either single CD44 or EpCAM aptamer in the ability to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435428/in-silico-cd4-cd8-t-cell-and-b-cell-immunity-associated-immunogenic-epitope-prediction-and-hla-distribution-analysis-of-zika-virus
#6
Essam Mohammed Janahi, Anupam Dhasmana, Vandana Srivastava, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Sana Raza, Jamal M Arif, Madan Lal Bramha Bhatt, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammed Yahya Areeshi, Anand Murari Saxena, Shafiul Haque
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed all over Africa, South America and Asia. The infection with the virus may cause acute febrile sickness that clinically resembles dengue fever, yet there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment, and no means of evaluating the risk of the disease or prognosis in the infected people. In the present study, the efficacy of the host's immune response in reducing the risk of infectious diseases was taken into account to carry out immuno-informatics driven epitope screening strategy of vaccine candidates against ZIKV...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435261/ph-sensitive-au-bsa-dox-fa-nanocomposites-for-combined-ct-imaging-and-targeted-drug-delivery
#7
He Huang, Da-Peng Yang, Minghuan Liu, Xiangsheng Wang, Zhiyong Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Wei Liu, Yilin Cao, Wen Jie Zhang, Xiansong Wang
Albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery system have attracted much attention owing to their nontoxicity, non-immunogenicity, great stability and ability to bind to many therapeutic drugs. Herein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was utilized as a template to prepare Au-BSA core/shell NPs. The outer layer BSA was subsequently conjugated with cis-aconityl doxorubicin (DOX) and folic acid (FA) to create Au-BSA-DOX-FA nanocomposites. A list of characterizations was undertaken to identify the successful conjugation of drug molecules and targeted agents...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435250/sl2b-aptamer-and-folic-acid-dual-targeting-dna-nanostructures-for-synergic-biological-effect-with-chemotherapy-to-combat-colorectal-cancer
#8
Pengchao Sun, Nan Zhang, Yafang Tang, Yanan Yang, Xiao Chu, Yongxing Zhao
DNA nanostructures prepared by self-assembly possess good stability, high biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity as drug delivery vehicles. In this work, DNA tetrahedron (TD) was constructed and modified with SL2B aptamer (S) and folic acid (F). TD possessed a small diameter (~6 nm) and entered into the nucleus quickly. SL2B aptamer can inhibit cancer cell growth by disturbing vascular endothelial growth factor/Notch signaling pathways. To explore the effect of SL2B number on colorectal cancer inhibition, SL2B multimers (dimer, trimer, and tetramer) were constructed by functionalization of TD with different numbers of SL2B...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435136/chitosan-enhances-nanoparticle-delivery-from-the-reproductive-tract-to-target-draining-lymphoid-organs
#9
Jaehyung Park, Renuka Ramanathan, Linhchi Pham, Kim A Woodrow
To prime adaptive immune responses from the female reproductive tract (FRT), particulate antigens must be transported to draining lymph nodes (dLNs) since there are no local organized lymphoid structures equivalent to those found in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts. However, little is known about how to safely and effectively navigate successive barriers to transport such as crossing the epithelium and gaining access to migratory cells and lymphatic drainage that provide entry into dLNs. Here, we demonstrate that intravaginal pre-treatment with chitosan significantly facilitates translocation of nanoparticles (NPs) across the multilayered vaginal epithelium to target dLNs...
April 20, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434944/dose-dependent-t-cell-dynamics-and-cytokine-cascade-following-rvsv-zebov-immunization
#10
Christine Dahlke, Rahel Kasonta, Sebastian Lunemann, Verena Krähling, Madeleine E Zinser, Nadine Biedenkopf, Sarah K Fehling, My L Ly, Anne Rechtien, Hans C Stubbe, Flaminia Olearo, Saskia Borregaard, Alen Jambrecina, Felix Stahl, Thomas Strecker, Markus Eickmann, Marc Lütgehetmann, Michael Spohn, Stefan Schmiedel, Ansgar W Lohse, Stephan Becker, Marylyn M Addo
BACKGROUND: The recent West African Ebola epidemic led to accelerated efforts to test Ebola vaccine candidates. As part of the World Health Organisation-led VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON), we performed a phase I clinical trial investigating rVSV-ZEBOV (a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Ebola vaccine), which has recently demonstrated protection from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in phase III clinical trials and is currently in advanced stages of licensing. So far, correlates of immune protection are incompletely understood and the role of cell-mediated immune responses has not been comprehensively investigated to date...
April 5, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434691/immunogenicity-to-poliovirus-type-2-following-two-doses-of-fractional-intradermal-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-a-novel-dose-sparing-immunization-schedule
#11
Abhijeet Anand, Natalie A Molodecky, Mark A Pallansch, Roland W Sutter
INTRODUCTION: The polio eradication endgame strategic plan calls for the sequential removal of Sabin poliovirus serotypes from the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), starting with type 2, and the introduction of ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), to maintain an immunity base against poliovirus type 2. The global removal of oral poliovirus type 2 was successfully implemented in May 2016. However, IPV supply constraints has prevented introduction in 21 countries and led to complete stock-out in >20 countries...
April 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434399/the-next-generation-of-immunotherapy-keeping-lung-cancer-in-check
#12
REVIEW
Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns
Lung cancer is the deadliest malignancy with more cancer deaths per year than the next three cancers combined. Despite remarkable advances in targeted therapy, advanced lung cancer patients have not experienced a significant improvement in mortality. Lung cancer has been shown to be immunogenic and responsive to checkpoint blockade therapy. Checkpoint signals such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 dampen T cell activation and allow tumors to escape the adaptive immune response. Response rates in patients with pretreated, advanced NSCLC were much higher and more durable with PD-1 blockade therapy compared to standard-of-care, cytotoxic chemotherapy...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433740/xenotransplantation-of-layer-by-layer-encapsulated-non-human-primate-islets-with-a-specified-immunosuppressive-drug-protocol
#13
Muhammad R Haque, Jiwoong Kim, Hyojun Park, Han Sin Lee, Kyo Won Lee, Taslim A Al-Hilal, Jee-Heon Jeong, Cheol-Hee Ahn, Doo Sung Lee, Sung Joo Kim, Youngro Byun
Islet transplantation is as effective as but also less immunogenic than pancreas transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, as the complete elimination of immunogenicity still remains a major obstacle in islet transplantation, layer-by-layer encapsulation (LbL) of pancreatic islets using biocompatible polymers offers a rational approach to reducing host immune response towards transplanted islets. We investigated the effect of LbL of non-human primate (NHP) islets on reducing immunogenicity as a preclinical model since NHPs have close phylogenetic and immunological relationship with human...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433344/application-of-a-rapid-hilic-uv-method-for-synthesis-optimization-and-stability-studies-of-immunogenic-neo-glycoconjugates
#14
F Rinaldi, S Tengattini, E Calleri, T Bavaro, L Piubelli, L Pollegioni, G Massolini, C Temporini
Proteins and glycoproteins with therapeutic activity are susceptible to environmental factors, which can cause their degradation and the loss of their activity. Thus, the maintenance of their stability during the production process is a critical factor. In this work, a simple and rapid hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography HILIC-UV method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, LOD, LOQ and specificity and applied to the investigation of the stability of intact proteins and their neo-glycoconjugates with antigenic activity against tuberculosis...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433154/non-immunogenic-porous-and-antibacterial-chitosan-and-antheraea-mylitta-silk-sericin-hydrogels-as-potential-dermal-substitute
#15
Sunaina Sapru, Ananta K Ghosh, Subhas C Kundu
Limitation of existing grafts including restricted donor site, risks of immune reactions, infectious diseases and high cost alarms the growing need of natural, cost effective and functional graft as the dermal substitute. We fabricate stable (>6 weeks) and porous (57.23-75.22μm) yet flexible (in variable pH) matrices using Antheraea mylitta sericin crosslinked with well known biocompatible polysaccharide chitosan by natural crosslinker (genipin) without using any harsh chemical. The fabricated matrices are characterized in terms of chemical modifications (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), crystallinity (X-ray diffraction), swelling, degradability and thermal stability...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432975/vaccination-strategies-against-zika-virus
#16
REVIEW
Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond
The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015-2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432603/immunoprophylaxis-of-multi-antigen-peptide-map-vaccine-for-human-lymphatic-filariasis
#17
Christiana Immanuel, Aparnaa Ramanathan, Malathi Balasubramaniyan, Vishal Kishor Khatri, Nitin Purushottam Amdare, Donthamsetty Nageswara Rao, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy, Kaliraj Perumal
Human lymphatic filariasis, the parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, is ranked as the second most complex clinical condition leading to permanent and long-term disability. The multiple antigen peptide (MAP) approach is an effective method to chemically synthesize and deliver multiple T and B cell epitopes as the constituents of a single immunogen. Here, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and immunoprophylaxis of three epitopes that have been identified from promising vaccine candidates reported in our previous studies, constructed as MAP on an inert lysine core for human lymphatic filariasis in Jird model...
April 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432221/biological-considerations-of-plasma-derived-and-recombinant-factor-viii-immunogenicity
#18
Jesse Lai, Christine Hough, Julie Tarrant, David Lillicrap
In hemophilia A, the most severe complication of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy involves the formation of FVIII neutralizing antibodies, also known as inhibitors, in 25-30% of patients. This adverse event is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and economic burden, thus highlighting the need to identify methods to limit FVIII immunogenicity. Inhibitor development is regulated by a complex balance of genetic factors, such as FVIII genotype, and environmental variables, such as coexistent inflammation...
April 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432147/cutting-edge-a-dual-tlr2-and-tlr7-ligand-induces-highly-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#19
Alice Gutjahr, Laura Papagno, Francesco Nicoli, Alain Lamoureux, Fabienne Vernejoul, Thierry Lioux, Emma Gostick, David A Price, Gérard Tiraby, Eric Perouzel, Victor Appay, Bernard Verrier, Stéphane Paul
TLR agonists are currently being developed and tested as adjuvants in various formulations to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory properties of a novel compound incorporating covalently linked moieties designed to stimulate both TLR2 and TLR7. This dual TLR2/TLR7 agonist induced the maturation of dendritic cells and primed substantial populations of cytolytic and highly polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cells in vitro, and safely potentiated the immunogenic properties of a nanoparticulate Ag in vivo, eliciting humoral responses with a balanced TH1/TH2 profile in mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432052/genomic-instability-in-cancer-teetering-on-the-limit-of-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Noemi Andor, Carlo C Maley, Hanlee P Ji
Cancer genomic instability contributes to the phenomenon of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, provides the genetic diversity required for natural selection, and enables the extensive phenotypic diversity that is frequently observed among patients. Genomic instability has previously been associated with poor prognosis. However, we have evidence that for solid tumors of epithelial origin, extreme levels of genomic instability, where more than 75% of the genome is subject to somatic copy number alterations, are associated with a potentially better prognosis compared with intermediate levels under this threshold...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Research
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