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x-ray analysis

Jaya Sharma, Kashif Shamim, Santosh Kumar Dubey
Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain SJ11, tolerating up to 4.0 mM lead nitrate, in a defined minimal medium was isolated from the waste of a battery manufacturing industry, Goa, India. Interestingly, it formed white precipitate on exposure to lead nitrate which was also evident from scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of lead (48.5% by weight) along with phosphorus and chlorine in the precipitate. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of bacterial cells clearly refuted the possibility of intracellular lead uptake confirming extracellular precipitation as a predominant mechanism of lead resistance in this bacterium...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Pham Van Viet, Truong Tan Sang, Nguyen Ho Ngoc Bich, Cao Minh Thi
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by an improved green synthesis method via a photo-reduction process using low-power UV light in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as the surface stabilizer. The effective synthesis process was achieved by optimized synthesis parameters such as C2 H5 OH: H2 O ratio, AgNO3 : PVP ratio, pH value, and reducing time. The formation of Ag NPs was identified by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Haili Niu, Qi Han, Chuanai Cao, Qian Liu, Baohua Kong
The potential inhibition of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates (PPPH) on the short-term retrogradation of corn starch (CS) was investigated. Compared with native CS, PPPH significantly enhanced breakdown and decreased the total setback in a rapid visco analyser (RVA) measurement (P < 0.05). Dynamic time sweep analysis of pre-prepared gelatinized samples showed a decrease in the storage modulus (G') and increase in the loss tangent (tan δ) in the presence of PPPH. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that PPPH significantly reduced the gelatinization enthalpies (ΔHg) and retrogradation enthalpies (ΔHr) of CS (P < 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Siwen Li, Huanmin Niu, Yanan Qiao, Rongxiu Zhu, Yong Sun, Zhaojie Ren, Huiqing Yuan, Yun Gao, Yi Li, Wang Chen, Jinchuan Zhou, Hongxiang Lou
Five new terpenoids (1-5) including two dollabellane-type, one ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and two sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the Chinese liverwort Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dumort., together with nine known terpenoids (6-14). Their structures were determined on the basis of analysis of MS and NMR spectroscopic data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism calculations. The selected compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 9 and 14 were screened for anti-inflammatory activities by the model of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production with macrophage cells, and the mechanism of the active compounds 1 and 2 were further explored...
March 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Yu Zhu, Yabing Wang, Tianxi Sun, Xuepeng Sun, Xiaoyun Zhang, Zhiguo Liu, Yufei Li, Fengshou Zhang
A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer based on an elliptical monocapillary X-ray lens (MXRL) and a parallel polycapillary X-ray lens (PPXRL) was designed. This TXRF instrument has micro focal spot, low divergence and high intensity of incident X-ray beam. The diameter of the focal spot of MXRL was 16.5 µm, and the divergence of the incident X-ray beam was 3.4 mrad. We applied this TXRF instrument to the micro analysis of a single-layer film containing Ni deposited on a Si substrate by metal vapor vacuum arc ion source...
April 4, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Sevastián S Medina-Ornelas, Herlinda Vera-Hermosillo, Rafael Delgado-Espín, Francisco O García-Pérez
Background: Imaging studies, particularly simple and contrast-enhanced tomography, constitute the first diagnostic approach to detect recurrence of musculoskeletal tumors. The aim of the present retrospective study was to demonstrate the usefulness of scintigraphy plus SPECT/CT (single photon emission computed tomography) with thallium-201 (201 Tl) in the evaluation of malignant musculoskeletal tumors with suspicion of recurrence or metastatic disease. Methods: Eight weeks after the last therapy, 72 scintigraphy and SPECT/CT studies were performed to assess regional recurrence and metastatic disease in 42 patients with different types of malignant musculoskeletal tumors, such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, retinoblastoma, synovial sarcoma, and Wilms tumor at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Qian Su, Jie Xu, Yuqiao Li, Jae Ik Yoon, Debin Shan, Bin Guo, Hyoung Seop Kim
Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of LZ91 Mg-Li alloy processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at an ambient temperature were researched in this paper. The microstructure analysis demonstrated that significant grain refinement was achieved after HPT processing with an average grain size reducing from 30 &mu;m (the as-received condition) to approximately 230 nm through 10 turns. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed LZ91 alloy was consisted of &alpha; phase (hexagonal close-packed structure, hcp) and &beta; phase (body-centered cubic structure, bcc) before and after HPT processing...
April 13, 2018: Materials
A A Strunina, D V Sokolov, V V Sokolov, N N Volchenko, S V Kashin
AIM: To assess the possibilities of modern diagnostic techniques to diagnose precancerous pathology and early central lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of Russian and foreign publications for precancerous pathology and early lung cancer, results and comparison of various diagnostic techniques. RESULTS: Central lung cancer has a stepwise development with transformation of normal bronchial epithelium to hyperplastic followed by focal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer in situ (CIS) and microinvasive cancer...
2018: Khirurgiia
Igor Melnikov, Olof Svensson, Gleb Bourenkov, Gordon Leonard, Alexander Popov
In macromolecular crystallography, mesh (raster) scans are carried out either as part of X-ray-based crystal-centring routines or to identify positions on the sample holder from which diffraction images can be collected. Here, the methods used in MeshBest, software which automatically analyses diffraction images collected during a mesh scan and produces a two-dimensional crystal map showing estimates of the dimensions, centre positions and diffraction qualities of each crystal contained in the mesh area, are presented...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Santosh Kumar Chaudhary, Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan, Kanagaraj Sekar
Thymidylate kinase is an important enzyme in DNA synthesis. It catalyzes the conversion of thymidine monophosphate to thymidine diphosphate, with ATP as the preferred phosphoryl donor, in the presence of Mg2+ . In this study, the dynamics of the active site and the communication paths between the substrates, ATP and TMP, are reported for thymidylate kinase from Thermus thermophilus. Conformational changes upon ligand binding and the path for communication between the substrates and the protein are important in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Somak Chatterjee, Sanjay Jha, Sirshendu De
Low cost naturally available bone meal was carbonized and its fluoride adsorption capacity was explored. Carbonized bone meal (CBM) produced at 550°C, 4 h carbonization time and a heating rate of 60°C/min, showed fluoride adsorption capacity of 14 mg g-1 . Adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluoroscence, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to highlight its physical and chemical properties. Best fluoride uptake capacity was observed for 0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Manisha Pant, Gwenalyn Garcia, Marcel Odaimi
Primary bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma comprises 5% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and usually has an indolent course. Synchronous primary lung cancers with BALT lymphoma are seldom seen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Synchronous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and BALT lymphoma is an extremely rare occurrence. We report an unusual case of stage 4 BALT lymphoma requiring treatment that revealed an underlying ipsilateral mass causing a diagnostic dilemma. An 84-year-old female with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus, deep vein thrombosis, and thrombotic microangiopathy presented to the hospital with cough and dyspnea on exertion...
February 6, 2018: Curēus
Donghua Hu, Devika Remash, Ryan D Russell, Timothy Greenaway, Stephen Rattigan, Kathryn A Squibb, Graeme Jones, Dino Premilovac, Stephen M Richards, Michelle A Keske
BACKGROUND: In obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), adipose tissue expansion (because of larger adipocytes) results in reduced microvascular density which is thought to lead to adipocyte hypoxia, inflammation, and reduced nutrient delivery to the adipocyte. Adipose tissue microvascular responses in humans with T2D have not been extensively characterized. Furthermore, it has not been determined whether impaired microvascular responses in human adipose tissue are most closely associated with adiposity, inflammation, or altered metabolism...
April 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Yuqian Jia, Yanfang Zhao, Mei Zhao, Zhenhua Wang, Xiangfeng Chen, Minglin Wang
A core-shell discoid shaped indium (III) sulfide@metal-organic framework (MIL-125(Ti)) nanocomposite was synthesized by a solvothermal method and explored as an adsorbent material for dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). The as-synthesized sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The extraction performance was evaluated by the d-SPE of 16 nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) from water samples...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
P Grogger, C Sacher, S Weber, G Millesi, R Seemann
Deviations in measuring dentofacial components in a lateral X-ray represent a major hurdle in the subsequent treatment of dysgnathic patients. In a retrospective study, we investigated the most prevalent source of error in the following commonly used cephalometric measurements: the angles Sella-Nasion-Point A (SNA), Sella-Nasion-Point B (SNB) and Point A-Nasion-Point B (ANB); the Wits appraisal; the anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI); and the overbite depth indicator (ODI). Preoperative lateral radiographic images of patients with dentofacial deformities were collected and the landmarks digitally traced by three independent raters...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Mar Collado-González, Miguel R Pecci-Lloret, Christopher J Tomás-Catalá, David García-Bernal, Ricardo E Oñate-Sánchez, Carmen Llena, Leopoldo Forner, Vinicius Rosa, Francisco J Rodríguez-Lozano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Equia Forte (GC, Tokyo, Japan) and Ionostar Molar (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). METHODS: hDPSCs isolated from third molars were exposed to several dilutions of Equia Forte and Ionostar Molar eluates (1/1, 1/2 and 1/4). These eluates were obtained by storing material samples in respective cell culture medium for 24h (n=40). hDPSCs in basal growth culture medium were the control...
April 9, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ashish Kumar Nayak, Anjali Pal
In this research, the performance of naturally abundant lignocellulosic by-product, Abelmoschus esculentus, and its processed seed powder referred as AESP, as a potential biosorbent for the removal of acridine orange (AO) from the aqueous environment was examined. The AESP biosorbent was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and pHZPC analyses. The average size of the biosorbent according to particle size distribution analysis was found to be ∼132 μm...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Xiufei Zhao, Chenggang Niu, Lei Zhang, Hai Guo, Xiaoju Wen, Chao Liang, Guangming Zeng
In this study, Co-Mn layered double hydroxide (Co-Mn LDH) was synthesized, characterized, and tested as heterogeneous catalyst to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for degradation of organic dyes. The results of characterization showed that Co-Mn LDH had high purity, uniform morphology and large specific surface area (49.9379 m2 /g). The degradation experiments demonstrated that five different dyes with the concentration of 50 mg/L could be decomposed completely within 240 s using only 0.025 g/L of Co-Mn LDH and 0...
April 6, 2018: Chemosphere
M Verezhak, E F Rauch, M Véron, C Lancelon-Pin, J-L Putaux, M Plazanet, A Gourrier
The nanoscale characteristics of the mineral phase in bone tissue such as nanocrystal size, organization, structure and composition have been identified as potential markers of bone quality. However, such characterization remains challenging since it requires combining structural analysis and imaging modalities with nanoscale precision. In this paper, we report the first application of automated crystal orientation mapping using transmission electron microscopy (ACOM-TEM) to the structural analysis of bone mineral at the individual nanocrystal level...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Priya Vashisth, Jayesh R Bellare
In the present study, a biomimetic three-dimensional hybrid scaffold has been designed considering the bone natural architecture with favorable interconnected porous structure, nano-microscale features and mechanical strength. The chief components of the hybrid scaffold are core-sheath nanofibers and hydrogel, suitably arranged to create a bone like microenvironment. Specifically, the core-sheath nanofibers were coiled tightly into a ring to mimic the osteon, and reinforced in a hydrogel matrix. Morphological analysis using SEM and 4D-X-ray microscopy revealed that the hybrid scaffold consists of coiled rings of nanofibers in highly porous hydrogel matrix showing structural similarity to osteons...
April 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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