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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782910/comparison-of-dissolution-time-profiles-no-similarity-but-where-is-the-difference
#1
Stefan Horkovics-Kovats
The similarity of the dissolution time profiles is routinely determined by various statistical methods, e.g. by calculating the f2 similarity factor, by calculating the multivariate statistical distance or determining the confidence interval of f2 metrics using the bootstrapping method. If the similarity of the dissolution profiles is not achieved, these methods provide no information about the possible causes of the differences in the final dosage forms. In this article it is shown that after introduction of summary parameters into the disintegration-dissolution model (DDM), such as intrinsic lifetime distribution of particles, saturation state function, drug load of the system and applying population data analysis, differences on the level of intrinsic lifetime distributions of particles of active pharmaceutical ingredient in immediately release formulations are identified...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776316/a-systematic-review-and-combined-analysis-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-studies-for-oral-paliperidone
#2
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Edoardo Spina, Christoph Hiemke, Jose de Leon
This article includes a combined analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies and a review of the marketer's data on pharmacological mechanisms. Areas covered: An article search led to the inclusion of 21 paliperidone studies in the systematic review plus 2 case reports. Paliperidone clearance was calculated from: 1) steady-state studies using concentration/dose (C/D) ratios, and 2) single-dose studies describing 24-hour area under the curve calculations. The marketed extended-release formulation has 28% bioavailability...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766592/scoring-the-best-deal-quantity-discounts-and-street-price-variation-of-diverted-oxycodone-and-oxymorphone
#3
Jacob A Lebin, David L Murphy, Stevan Geoffrey Severtson, Gabrielle E Bau, Nabarun Dasgupta, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: Diverted prescription opioids are significant contributors to drug overdose mortality. Street price has been suggested as an economic metric of the diverted prescription opioid black market. This study examined variables that may influence the street price of diverted oxycodone and oxymorphone. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing data from the previously validated, crowdsourcing website StreetRx. Street price reports of selected oxycodone and oxymorphone products, between August 22, 2014 and June 30, 2016, were considered for analysis...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764549/-clinical-verification-of-vancomycin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-patients-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#4
Haodi Lu, Lian Tang, Shengmin Xue, Zhiwei Zhuang, Jie Fang, Fuli Zhao, Erning Shang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value and to verify the clinical effect of JPKD-vancomycin for the trough concentration of vancomycin in patients with augmented renal clearance (ARC), and to provide a reference for clinical individualized drug therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. The clinical data of 48 adult patients with ARC using vancomycin and monitoring steady-state trough concentration of vancomycin admitted to Suzhou Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from July 2013 to July 2017 were collected...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762314/effectiveness-of-dexmedetomidine-versus-propofol-on-extubation-times-length-of-stay-and-mortality-rates-in-adult-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
John Nguyen, Noel Nacpil
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of dexmedetomidine versus propofol on extubation time, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, total hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates in cardiac surgery patients. INTRODUCTION: Recovery from cardiovascular surgery involves weaning from mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation decreases the work of breathing for patients by inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide via a ventilator or breathing machine...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744873/methylphenidate-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-and-adolescents-assessment-of-adverse-events-in-non-randomised-studies
#6
REVIEW
Ole Jakob Storebø, Nadia Pedersen, Erica Ramstad, Maja Lærke Kielsholm, Signe Sofie Nielsen, Helle B Krogh, Carlos R Moreira-Maia, Frederik L Magnusson, Mathilde Holmskov, Trine Gerner, Maria Skoog, Susanne Rosendal, Camilla Groth, Donna Gillies, Kirsten Buch Rasmussen, Dorothy Gauci, Morris Zwi, Richard Kirubakaran, Sasja J Håkonsen, Lise Aagaard, Erik Simonsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable effects on ADHD symptoms, but the true magnitude of the effect is unknown. Concerning adverse events associated with the treatment, our systematic review of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated no increase in serious adverse events, but a high proportion of participants suffered a range of non-serious adverse events...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721323/inconsistencies-in-dosage-practice-in-children-with-overweight-or-obesity-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Christina Gade, Hanne R Christensen, Kim P Dalhoff, Jens Christian Holm, Helle Holst
Obesity can affect the pharmacokinetics of most drugs, which may result in under- or overdosing if traditional pediatric dosing strategies are used. To investigate currently applied dosage strategies in children with overweight or obesity (overweight/obesity), in a clinical treatment facility. In particular, whether dosing guidelines were available and metrics of body size applied. A retrospective cohort study of 200 patients admitted to the Danish Children's Obesity Clinic. Data were collected from 2007 to 2015...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695194/diffusional-interaction-behavior-of-nsaids-in-lipid-bilayer-membrane-using-molecular-dynamics-md-simulation-aspirin-and-ibuprofen
#8
Gholamhossein Sodeifian, Fariba Razmimanesh
In this research, for the first time, molecular dynamics (MD) method was used to simulate aspirin and ibuprofen at various concentrations and in neutral and charged states. Effects of the concentration (dosage), charge state and existence of an integral protein in the membrane on the diffusion rate of drug molecules into lipid bilayer membrane were investigated on 11 systems, for which the parameters indicating diffusion rate and those affecting the rate were evaluated. Considering the diffusion rate, a suitable score was assigned to each system, based on which, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679751/solubilitydetermination-of-raloxifene-hydrochloride-in-ten-pure-solvents-at-various-temperatures-thermodynamics-based-analysis-and-solute-solvent-interactions
#9
Abdul Ahad, Faiyaz Shakeel, Omar Ali Alfaifi, Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea
The purpose of the present study was to determine the solubility of raloxifene hydrochloride (RHCl) in ten solvents: water, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), Transcutol, 1-butanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and ethyl acetate (EA) at temperatures of 298.2-323.2 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. The solubility data obtained was fitted upon "Apelblat and Van't Hoff" equations. The maximum mole fraction solubility of RHCl was obtained in DMSO (5...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677197/a-novel-statistical-method-for-assessing-effective-adherence-to-medication-and-calculating-optimal-drug-dosages
#10
Garrett Greene, Richard W Costello, Breda Cushen, Imran Sulaiman, Elaine Mac Hale, Ronan M Conroy, Frank Doyle
OBJECTIVE: We derive a novel model-based metric for effective adherence to medication, and validate it using data from the INhaler Compliance Assessment device (INCATM). This technique employs dose timing data to estimate the threshold drug concentration needed to maintain optimal health. METHODS: The parameters of the model are optimised against patient outcome data using maximum likelihood methods. The model is fitted and validated by secondary analysis of two independent datasets from two remote-monitoring studies of adherence, conducted through clinical research centres of 5 Irish hospitals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674137/level-a-in-vitro-in-vivo-correlation-application-to-establish-a-dissolution-test-for-artemether-and-lumefantrine-tablets
#11
Graziella Gomes Rivelli, Letícia Brandão Magalhães Ricoy, Isabela Costa César, Christian Fernandes, Gérson Antônio Pianetti
Malaria is the most incident parasite infection worldwide. Artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) has been proposed as a promising treatment for malaria, and artemether + lumefantrine (20 + 120 mg) is the recommended association in endemic areas. Despite its widespread use, there is still scarce information about dissolution of artemether and lumefantrine, reflecting in the absence of a specific method in pharmacopoeias and international compendia. Because the of their low solubility, both artemether and lumefantrine are candidates for in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) studies...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665897/-effects-of-triptolide-combined-with-homoharringtonine-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-kg-1%C3%AE-cells
#12
Xin Li, Jia-Yan Liu, Xiao-Hong Yuan, Zhen-Xing Lin, Yong Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of low concentration of triptolide (TPL) combined with homoharringtonine (HHT) on the proliferation and apoptosis of KG-1α cells. METHODS: CCK-8 method was used to detect the antiproliferating effects of different concentrations of TPL and HHT single-use and combined use on KG-1α cells, and the combined index (CI) was calculated. The colony formation ability was also determined by methylcellulose colony formation assay, cell surface molecules, apoptosis rate and cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometry...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659206/effects-of-antipsychotics-on-secular-mortality-trends-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
René Ernst Nielsen, Jan B Valentin, Annette Lolk, Kjeld Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate secular changes in mortality rates between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the general population as well as changes in antipsychotic drug treatment and the association between drug treatment and mortality in patients with AD in Denmark during a 12-year study period. METHODS: This nationwide, retrospective cohort study identified all-cause mortality in all Danish patients with incident ICD-10-defined AD from 2000 through 2011...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623710/-development-of-dissolution-method-for-warfarin-sodium-tablets
#14
Ivana Lukášová, Jan Muselík, Aleš Franc
Warfarin is intensively discussed drug with narrow therapeutic index. In the past, its generic substitution was identified as a cause of bleeding. Altered quality of the active substance or varying drug content was discussed. The substance quality can be evaluated with adequate dissolution method. An official dissolution method with aqueous medium exists, however this method is non-discriminatory. In the first 15 minutes the whole amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient is released from a tested dosage form, which does not allow comparison between tablets from different producers and it also makes difficult to track the changes throughout stability testing...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600629/-effect-of-zhenwu-tang-on-regulating-of-avp-v2r-aqp2-pathway-in-nrk-52e-cells
#15
Xiao-Jie Zhou, Yu-Ting Bao, Hong-Shu Chen, Ling Xuan, Xue-Ming Chen, Jie-Ying Zhang, Yuan-Xiao Yang, Chang-Yu Li
This study was aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of Zhenwu Tang on AVP-V2R-AQP2 pathway in NRK-52E cells in vitro . Forty eight male SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups with 6 animals in each group. Distilled water or 22.68 g·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹ Zhenwu Tang(calculated by raw drug dosage meter) was given by gavage. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture, and the medicated serum was centrifuged from the blood by 3 000 r·min⁻¹. NRK-52E cells were treated with different medicated serum or dDAVP...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599698/the-effectiveness-of-alitretinoin-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hand-eczema-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Mohammed Saleh Al-Dhubaibi, Ahmad Abdulsalam Settin
Alitretinoin is a new oral retinoid authorized for use in grownups that have severe chronic hand eczema (CHE). A comprehensive search to solicit all studies of alitretinoin for the treatment of CHE. A comprehensive search to solicit all studies of alitretinoin for the treatment of CHE including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or uncontrolled trials, re-treatment studies, open-label studies, or observational studies, along with case series of 10 or more participants. Physician global assessment (PGA), patient global assessment (PaGA) and modified total lesion symptom score (mTLSS) are the methods and outcomes criteria...
March 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598152/secondary-adherence-to-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-in-sweden-and-the-netherlands
#17
Maartje S Jacobs, Jeroen F Schouten, Pieter T de Boer, Mikael Hoffmann, Lars-Åke Levin, Maarten J Postma
OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence on patients' adherence and the impact of the prescribed dosing regimen in non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs). We aimed to assess secondary adherence to NOACs and to determine the impact of the dosing regimen in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Patients using a NOAC between 2009 and 2013 were identified from the nation-wide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Dutch regional IADB.nl database. Patients using a consistent dosage for at least 180 consecutive days were included...
March 30, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575989/financial-impact-of-oral-chemotherapy-wastage-on-society-and-the-patient
#18
Varun Monga, Chenise Meyer, Brandon Vakiner, Gerald Clamon
Background Targeted oral agents are now increasingly being utilized in cancer treatment, but are expensive. Changing the dose of these medications due to toxicity or discontinuation secondary to disease progression or death causes waste from unused medication. Limiting waste is an important goal, as waste has a substantial financial impact on patients and insurance companies. Methods Patients started on oral targeted agents' sunitinib, everolimus, axitinib, or vemurafenib between January 2012 and February 2015 who obtained their medications at Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center specialty pharmacy were included in the analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525885/utilization-patterns-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-italy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Marco Orsini Federici, Janette McQuillan, Giovanni Biricolti, Serena Losi, Jeremie Lebrec, Catrina Richards, Cristiana Miglio, Kirsi Norrbacka
INTRODUCTION: Real-world evidence on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RAs) usage is emerging in different European countries but is lacking in Italy. This retrospective cohort study aimed to describe the real-world drug utilization patterns in patients initiating GLP-1 RAs for treating T2DM in Italy. METHODS: Adults aged ≥ 20 years and with ≥ 1 oral antidiabetic drug (alone or in combination with insulin) other than GLP-1 RAs in the 6 months prior to initiating exenatide twice daily (exBID), exenatide once weekly (exQW), dulaglutide once weekly (DULA), liraglutide once daily (LIRA) or lixisenatide once daily (LIXI) between March and July 2016 were retrospectively identified in the Italian IMS LifeLink™ longitudinal prescriptions database (retail pharmacy data)...
April 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517495/hydroxychloroquine-balancing-the-need-to-maintain-therapeutic-levels-with-ocular-safety-an-update
#20
Nada Abdulaziz, Anjali R Shah, William J McCune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimalarial drugs including chloroquine, its less toxic quinolone-derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and quinacrine have become cornerstones in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, and Sjogren syndrome; cutaneous disorders, antiphospholipid syndrome, and have recently been employed at higher dioses in oncology. Benefits include anti-inflammatory effects, protection against thrombosis, and improved control of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
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