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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290713/the-influence-of-growth-and-e-coli-endotoxaemia-on-amoxicillin-pharmacokinetics-in-turkeys
#1
B Poźniak, U Pasławska, K Motykiewicz-Pers, M Świtała
1. This experiment was designed to determine if the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin (AMO) was affected by rapid growth or the acute phase reaction induced by intravenous (i.v.) injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2. Turkeys of 2.0, 5.5 and 12.0 kg were administered i.v. or orally with AMO sodium at the dose of 15 mg/kg. One group of turkeys (5.7 kg) was treated with LPS 1 h prior to i.v. AMO administration. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model...
March 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195516/young-adulthood-cognitive-ability-predicts-statin-adherence-in-middle-aged-men-after-first-myocardial-infarction-a-swedish-national-registry-study
#2
John Wallert, Claudia Lissåker, Guy Madison, Claes Held, Erik Olsson
Background Cognitive ability (CA) is positively related to later health, health literacy, health behaviours and longevity. Accordingly, a lower CA is expected to be associated with poorer adherence to medication. We investigated the long-term role of CA in adherence to prescribed statins in male patients after a first myocardial infarction (MI). Methods CA was estimated at 18-20 years of age from Military Conscript Register data for first MI male patients (≤60 years) and was related to the one- and two-year post-MI statin adherence on average 30 years later...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195483/development-of-oromucosal-dosage-forms-by-combining-electrospinning-and-inkjet-printing
#3
Mirja Palo, Karin Kogermann, Ivo Laidmäe, Andres Meos, Maren Preis, Jyrki Heinämäki, Niklas Sandler
Printing technology has been shown to enable flexible fabrication of solid dosage forms for personalized drug therapy. Several methods can be applied for tailoring the properties of the printed pharmaceuticals. In this study, the use of electrospun fibrous substrates in the fabrication of inkjet-printed dosage forms was investigated. A single-drug formulation with lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and a combination drug system containing LH and piroxicam (PRX) for oromucosal administration were prepared. The LH was deposited on the electrospun and cross-linked gelatin substrates by inkjet printing, whereas PRX was incorporated within the substrate fibers during electrospinning...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160138/pharmacodynamics-of-oxaliplatin-derived-platinum-compounds-during-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-hipec-an-emerging-aspect-supporting-the-rational-design-of-treatment-protocols
#4
Markus W Löffler, Heiko Schuster, Anne Zeck, Nicolas Quilitz, Jürgen Weinreich, Alexander Tolios, Sebastian P Haen, Philipp Horvath, Stefan Löb, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Ingmar Königsrainer, Alfred Königsrainer, Stefan Beckert
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is used to treat peritoneal surface malignancies with application of cytostatic drugs such as oxaliplatin (OX) after cytoreductive surgery. Despite its increased use, evidence for optimal drug dosage, and notably duration of HIPEC, is scarce. METHODS: In this study, OX distribution was comprehensively assessed in nine patients during HIPEC (300 mg OX/m(2) body surface area in Physioneal solution for 30 min)...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141640/successful-treatment-of-infantile-hemangiomas-with-propranolol-in-low-birth-weight-infants
#5
Makiko Kado, Azusa Shimizu, Takashi Matsumura, Mariko Mochizuki, Hiroshi Mizuno, Ayato Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a benign neoplasm that causes scarring and cosmetic problems after spontaneous regression. Therefore, aggressive treatments such as laser irradiation and corticosteroid have been used; however, recently, the effect of propranolol has been widely noticed. In this study, the authors applied propranolol to low-birth-weight infants with IHs and evaluated its effect. METHODS: Four low-birth-weight infants having IH were selected, with birth weights ranging from 582 to 814 g (average 703 g)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118578/novel-pure-component-contribution-algorithm-pcca-and-uhplc-methods-for-separation-and-quantification-of-amlodipine-valsartan-and-hydrochlorothiazide-in-ternary-mixture
#6
Shereen Mowaka, Maha A Hegazy, Hayam M Lotfy, Ekram H Mohamed
Two accurate and sensitive methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine (AML),valsartan (VAL), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in their ternary mixture. The first method is a novel simple algorithm capable of extracting the contribution of each component from a mixture signal in which the components are partially or completely overlapped. It is based on the use of a coded function that eliminates the signal of interfering components using mean centering as a processing tool...
December 21, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111282/nanoaggregation-of-inclusion-complexes-of-glibenclamide-with-cyclodextrins
#7
David Lucio, Juan Manuel Irache, María Font, María Cristina Martínez-Ohárriz
Glibenclamide is a sulfonylurea used for the oral treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. This drug shows low bioavailability as consequence of its low solubility. In order to solve this problem, the interaction with cyclodextrin has been proposed. This study tries to provide an explanation about the processes involved in the formation of GB-βCDs complexes, which have been interpreted in different ways by several authors. Among native cyclodextrins, βCD presents the most appropriate cavity to host glibenclamide molecules showing AL solubility diagrams (K1:1≈1700M(-1))...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079753/synergistic-effects-of-serotonin-or-dopamine-combined-with-lidocaine-at-producing-nociceptive-block-in-rats
#8
Ching-Hsia Hung, Chong-Chi Chiu, Kuo-Sheng Liu, Yu-Wen Chen, Jhi-Joung Wang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the interactions of the local anesthetic lidocaine combined with an agent (serotonin or dopamine) as infiltrative anesthetics. METHODS: Cutaneous analgesia was characterized by the blockade of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex following 6 skin pinpricks on the rat back. Serotonin or dopamine at producing cutaneous analgesia in a dosage-dependent fashion was compared with lidocaine. Drug-drug interactions were calculated using the isobolographic analysis...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079413/striving-for-a-good-standard-of-maths-for-potential-student-nurses
#9
Sheila Roberts, Anne Campbell
This article explores some of the issues surrounding numerical competence for potential pre-registration children's nursing students, with examples of success and failure, at the University of Hertfordshire. With poor numerical ability causing concern in the UK, and the effect of low competence on patient safety when calculating drug dosages in healthcare, this article considers some of the literature surrounding numerical ability, confidence and anxiety, along with considering whether a 'C' grade at GCSE is a suitable marker for assessing numerical competence before starting a pre-registration nursing programme...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051569/the-efficacy-of-nalbuphine-medetomidine-and-azaperone-in-immobilizing-american-bison-bison-bison
#10
Lisa L Wolfe, Mary E Wood, Pauline Nol, Matthew P McCollum, Mark C Fisher, William R Lance
We evaluated a combination of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMed-A) in 12 American bison ( Bison bison ) during 13 sedation handling events. The mean (SE) dosage was 0.4 (0.02) mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.08 (0.003) mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.08 (0.003) mg/kg azaperone contained in an average delivery volume of 0.8 mL/100 kg. Two animals required a supplemental dose for safe handling (additive dose used in calculating means) and a third animal was not adequately sedated despite a supplemental dose. Bison immobilized with NalMed-A showed good sedation in 12 of 13 handling attempts...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050395/variation-of-cost-among-anti-cancer-drugs-available-in-indian-market
#11
Bhanu Prakash Kolasani, Divyashanthi Chellathambi Malathi, Raghunatha Rao Ponnaluri
INTRODUCTION: Although cancer remains a major health problem all over the world, its treatment is limited by affordability of patients in a developing country like India. Information generated from cost analysis studies will be helpful for both the doctors in choosing the correct medicine for their patients and also for policy makers in successfully utilizing the meager resources that are available. AIM: The aim of the present observational study was to analyse the price variations of anti-cancer drugs available in India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045702/effects-of-web-based-instruction-on-nursing-students-arithmetical-and-drug-dosage-calculation-skills
#12
Arzu Karabag Aydin, Leyla Dinç
Drug dosage calculation skill is critical for all nursing students to ensure patient safety, particularly during clinical practice. The study purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based instruction on improving nursing students' arithmetical and drug dosage calculation skills using a pretest-posttest design. A total of 63 nursing students participated. Data were collected through the Demographic Information Form, and the Arithmetic Skill Test and Drug Dosage Calculation Skill Test were used as pre and posttests...
December 29, 2016: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012035/effective-downsizing-but-enhanced-intratumoral-heterogeneity-following-neoadjuvant-sorafenib-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#13
Gencay Hatiboglu, Markus Hohenfellner, Aysenur Arslan, Boris Hadaschik, Dogu Teber, Jan Philipp Radtke, Peter Hallscheidt, Yanis Tolstov, Wilfried Roth, Carsten Grüllich, Johannes Huesing, Stefan Duensing, Sascha Pahernik
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of sorafenib prior to surgery for downsizing tumors in patients with non-metastatic cT1-3 renal tumors together with a characterization of functional intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of 4-week sorafenib prior to curative surgery were assessed in a prospective, single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, pilot trial in patients with T1-3N0M0 renal cell carcinoma (RCC)...
December 23, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995743/anticholinergic-exposure-in-a-cohort-of-adults-aged-80-years-and-over-associations-of-the-marante-scale-with-mortality-and-hospitalisation
#14
Maarten Wauters, Therese Klamer, Monique Elseviers, Bert Vaes, Olivia Dalleur, Jan Degryse, Carlos Durán, Thierry Christiaens, Majda Azermai, Robert Vander Stichele
Anticholinergics are frequently prescribed for older adults and can lead to adverse drug events. The novel MARANTE (Muscarinic Acetylcholinergic Receptor ANTagonist Exposure) scale measures the anticholinergic exposure by incorporating potency and dosages of each medication into its calculations. The aims were to assess prevalence and intensity of the anticholinergic exposure in a longitudinal cohort study of community-dwelling patients aged 80 years and over (n=503) and to study the impact on mortality and hospitalisation...
December 20, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994392/bottle-characteristics-of-topical-international-glaucoma-medications-versus-local-brands-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Nasser Al-Jumaian, Rizwan Malik, Rajiv Khandekar, Abdullah Al-Humaidan, Rana Al-Madany, Reham Al-Qahtani, Ahmed Altowairqi, Abdulwahab Al-Theeb, Babar Zaman, Leyla Al-Djasim, E Randy Craven, Deepak P Edward
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Physical bottle characteristics differ of brand name topical glaucoma medications and local generic equivalents. This study compares the bottle characteristics of international topical glaucoma brands versus local brands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Data were collected on bottle drum volume, drop volume, bottle squeezability, bottle tip diameter, labels and instructions, cap color coding, and clarity of the drug label. Density-based calculations of drops in bottle volume were assessed using an analytic balance...
October 2016: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984753/validated-spectrofluorimetric-methods-for-the-determination-of-apixaban-and-tirofiban-hydrochloride-in-pharmaceutical-formulations
#16
Ramzia I El-Bagary, Ehab F Elkady, Naira A Farid, Nadia F Youssef
Apixaban and Tirofiban Hydrochloride are low molecular weight anticoagulants. The two drugs exhibit native fluorescence that allow the development of simple and valid spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of Apixaban at λ ex/λ em=284/450nm and tirofiban HCl at λ ex/λ em=227/300nm in aqueous media. Different experimental parameters affecting fluorescence intensities were carefully studied and optimized. The fluorescence intensity-concentration plots were linear over the ranges of 0.2-6μgml(-1) for apixaban and 0...
March 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930655/effect-of-immunosuppressive-drugs-on-the-changes-of-serum-galactose-deficient-iga1-in-patients-with-iga-nephropathy
#17
Min Jeong Kim, Stefan Schaub, Karen Molyneux, Michael T Koller, Susanne Stampf, Jonathan Barratt
Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and IgA-IgG complexes are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We aimed therefore to determine the impact of immunosuppression on the serum levels of Gd-IgA1, total IgA1 and IgA-IgG complexes in IgAN patients. In a retrospective study, serum samples from IgAN patients collected before transplantation (t0) and at 3- and 6-month posttransplant (t3 & t6) were used to measure the levels of Gd-IgA1, total IgA1 and IgA-IgG complexes. The area under the curves (AUC) of immunosuppressants was calculated by the plot of plasma trough level or dosage of each immunosuppressant versus time and was interpreted as the extent of drug exposure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889072/if-euhydric-and-isotonic-do-not-work-what-are-acceptable-ph-and-osmolality-for-parenteral-drug-dosage-forms
#18
REVIEW
Dieter Roethlisberger, Hanns-Christian Mahler, Ulrike Altenburger, Astrid Pappenberger
Parenteral products should aim toward being isotonic and euhydric (physiological pH). Yet, due to other considerations, this goal is often not reasonable or doable. There are no clear allowable ranges related to pH and osmolality, and thus, the objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of acceptable formulation pH, buffer strength, and osmolality taking into account the administration route (i.e., intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous) and administration technique (i.e., bolus, push, infusion)...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888640/chronotherapy-versus-conventional-statins-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hyperlipidaemia
#19
REVIEW
Jose Manuel Izquierdo-Palomares, Jesus Maria Fernandez-Tabera, Maria N Plana, Almudena Añino Alba, Pablo Gómez Álvarez, Inmaculada Fernandez-Esteban, Luis Carlos Saiz, Pilar Martin-Carrillo, Óscar Pinar López
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein play an important role in the development of atheromas and, therefore, in cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol biosynthesis follows a circadian rhythm and is principally produced at night (between 12:00 am and 6:00 am). The adjustment of hypolipaemic therapy to biologic rhythms is known as chronotherapy. Chronotherapy is based on the idea that medication can have different effects depending on the hour at which it is taken...
November 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855070/pharmacokinetics-of-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-ghanaian-children-with-tuberculosis-with-or-without-hiv-coinfection
#20
Sampson Antwi, Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Anima M Sarfo, Fizza S Gillani, Daniel Ansong, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Orstin, Theresa Opoku, Dennis Bosomtwe, Lubbe Wiesner, Jennifer Norman, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is the most important risk factor for a poor antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment response, its effect on the pharmacokinetics of the first-line drugs in children is understudied. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of the four first-line anti-TB drugs in children with TB with and without HIV coinfection. Ghanaian children with TB on isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected predose and at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours postdose...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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