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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936957/-pk-pd-of-vancomycin-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-combined-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#1
Juan He, Enqiang Mao, Feng Jing, Huiting Jiang, Wenyun Xu, Wanhua Yang, Erzhen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum trough concentration and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of vancomycin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and analyze the effect of vancomycin continuous infusion for optimizing the characteristics of its PK/PD. METHODS: The inhospital patients with SAP received vancomycin treatment and admitted to emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016 were enrolled...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906353/immunomodulatory-treatments-for-persistent-and-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-a-prisma-compliant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-28-studies
#2
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Weber, Quitterie Reynaud, Romain Fort, Stéphane Durupt, Pascal Cathébras, Isabelle Durieu, Jean-Christophe Lega
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid sparing is required in 15% to 40% of adults with persistent or chronic primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Herein, the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs (dapsone, interferon alpha, danazol, and hydroxychloroquine as second-third-line therapies in ITP is investigated. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched for studies that included patients with persistent or chronic primary ITP and published before the end of December 2014. Two investigators independently extracted data regarding study design, patient characteristics, dosage schedule, time to response, and occurrence of adverse events...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903824/pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-nalbuphine-after-intraperitoneal-and-subcutaneous-administration-to-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Brenda L Kick, Pan Shu, Bo Wen, Duxin Sun, Douglas K Taylor
Mice undergo a variety of procedures that necessitate the use of analgesic agents. Opioids are often essential to successful pain management plans, but most are controlled substances, and their use requires appropriate federal and state registrations. Nalbuphine is a potentially effective opioid analgesic for mice that is not currently classified as a controlled substance. This compound has received little attention as an analgesic for mice, and standard dosage regimens have not been developed. Here we compared the pharmacokinetic profiles of 10 mg/kg nalbuphine in male C57BL/6 mice subcutaneous or intraperitoneal administration...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881662/bevacizumab-significantly-increases-the-risks-of-hypertension-and-proteinuria-in-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-comprehensive-meta-analysis
#4
Tingting Zhao, Xiaonan Wang, Tingting Xu, Xiaodong Xu, Zhihong Liu
Published data regarding the overall risks and incidence of hypertension and proteinuria associated with bevacizumab were still unclear. To quantify the precise risks and incidence, we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis of 72 published clinical trials including 21902 cases and 20608 controls. The overall incidence, risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using a fixed or random-effect model based on the heterogeneity. The incidence of all-grade and high-grade hypertension were 25...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872925/starting-dose-of-sorafenib-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-retrospective-multi-institutional-study
#5
Kim A Reiss, Shun Yu, Ronac Mamtani, Rajni Mehta, Kathryn D'Addeo, E Paul Wileyto, Tamar H Taddei, David E Kaplan
Purpose Sorafenib is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved first-line therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. There are few data examining how sorafenib starting dose may influence patient outcomes and costs. Patients and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 4,903 patients from 128 Veterans Health Administration hospitals who were prescribed sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma between January 2006 and April 2015. After 1:1 propensity score matching to account for potential treatment bias, hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression and were tested against a noninferiority margin of HR = 1...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830854/a-mobile-device-app-to-reduce-medication-errors-and-time-to-drug-delivery-during-pediatric-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-study-protocol-of-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#6
Johan N Siebert, Frederic Ehrler, Christian Lovis, Christophe Combescure, Kevin Haddad, Alain Gervaix, Sergio Manzano
BACKGROUND: During pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), vasoactive drug preparation for continuous infusions is complex and time-consuming. The need for individual specific weight-based drug dose calculation and preparation places children at higher risk than adults for medication errors. Following an evidence-based and ergonomic driven approach, we developed a mobile device app called Pediatric Accurate Medication in Emergency Situations (PedAMINES), intended to guide caregivers step-by-step from preparation to delivery of drugs requiring continuous infusion...
August 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810278/-infections-in-patients-with-home-ventilation
#7
Christian Giesa, Fabian Wolter, Santiago Ewig
In patients with home ventilation, there is a markedly higher probability for lower respiratory infections or pneumonia and severe courses due to comorbidity. Tracheobronchitis and pneumonia are often difficult to distinguish. Tracheobronchitis with pronounced secretion which can't be controlled otherwise can be an indication for antimicrobial therapy.There are no data available in order to establish a recommendation for the initial empiric calculated antimicrobial therapy in patients with home ventilation...
August 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797721/intact-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-small-molecular-drugs-in-animal-models-of-amyloid-beta-and-alpha-synuclein-pathology
#8
Sofia Gustafsson, Veronica Lindström, Martin Ingelsson, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Stina Syvänen
Pathophysiological impairment of the neurovascular unit, including the integrity and dynamics of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), has been denoted both a cause and consequence of neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological impact on BBB drug delivery has also been debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate BBB drug transport, by determining the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,uu,brain), in aged AβPP-transgenic mice, α-synuclein transgenic mice, and wild type mice. Mice were dosed with a cassette of five compounds, including digoxin, levofloxacin (1 mg/kg, s...
August 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774678/determination-of-tranilast-in-bio-samples-by-lc-ms-ms-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-and-brain-tissue-distribution-study-in-rats
#9
Wen Yang, Eboka Majolene B Sabi-Mouka, Lei Wang, Chang Shu, Yan Wang, Juefang Ding, Li Ding
As a potent drug used to improve the neurodegenerative conditions, there is few information about the brain tissue distribution of tranilast by now. In this study, a novel sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated to determine tranilast in rat brain tissue samples. The calibration curve showed good linearity ranged from 2.140 to 428.0ng·mL(-1). The method was fully validated and successfully applied in the brain tissue distribution study of tranilast in rats, which had never been reported in detail by now...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770975/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson, David G Williams, Christopher Eccleston
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769788/association-between-cyp2d6-genotypes-and-the-risk-of-antidepressant-discontinuation-dosage-modification-and-the-occurrence-of-maternal-depression-during-pregnancy
#11
Anick Bérard, Andrea Gaedigk, Odile Sheehy, Christina Chambers, Mark Roth, Pina Bozzo, Diana Johnson, Kelly Kao, Sharon Lavigne, Lori Wolfe, Dee Quinn, Kristen Dieter, Jin-Ping Zhao
Importance: Polymorphic expression of drug metabolizing enzymes affects the metabolism of antidepressants, and thus can contribute to drug response and/or adverse events. Pregnancy itself can affect CYP2D6 activity with profound variations determined by CYP2D6 genotype. Objective: To investigate the association between CYP2D6 genotype and the risk of antidepressant discontinuation, dosage modification, and the occurrence of maternal CYP2D6, Antidepressants, Depression during pregnancy. Setting: Data from the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) Antidepressants in Pregnancy Cohort, 2006-2010, were used...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768341/prediction-model-of-serum-lithium-concentrations
#12
Kazunari Yoshida, Hiroyuki Uchida, Takefumi Suzuki, Masahiro Watanabe, Nariyasu Yoshino, Hitoshi Houchi, Masaru Mimura, Noriyasu Fukuoka
Introduction Therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary for lithium, but clinical application of several prediction strategies is still limited because of insufficient predictive accuracy. We herein proposed a suitable model, using creatinine clearance (CLcr)-based lithium clearance (Li-CL). Methods Patients receiving lithium provided the following information: serum lithium and creatinine concentrations, time of blood draw, dosing regimen, concomitant medications, and demographics. Li-CL was calculated as a daily dose per trough concentration for each subject, and the mean of Li-CL/CLcr was used to estimate Li-CL for another 30 subjects...
August 2, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760900/population-pharmacokinetics-of-high-dose-continuous-infusion-meropenem-and-considerations-for-the-use-in-the-treatment-of-infections-due-to-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#13
Piergiorgio Cojutti, Assunta Sartor, Elda Righi, Claudio Scarparo, Matteo Bassetti, Federico Pea
We assessed the population pharmacokinetics of high-dose continuous infusion (HDCI) meropenem in a cohort of patients with KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infections. Monte Carlo simulations were used to define the permissible HDCI meropenem regimens that could be safely considered for the treatment of KPC-Kp infections due to meropenem-resistant strains. Permissible doses were arbitrarily defined as those associated with ≤10-15% likelihood of meropenem steady-state concentrations (Css) >100 mg/L...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760591/the-hairy-lizard-heterothermia-affects-anaesthetic-requirements-in-the-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx
#14
Mads F Bertelsen, Osama Mohammed, Tobias Wang, Paul R Manger, David Michael Scantlebury, Khairi Ismael, Nigel C Bennett, Abdulaziz Alagaili
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of heterothermia on anaesthetic drug requirements in semi-free ranging Arabian oryx and to assess the temperature quotient (Q10) of oxygen consumption. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study and controlled metabolic experiment. ANIMALS: Sixty-eight anaesthetic events in 59 Arabian oryx from Mahazat As-Sayd protected area, Saudi Arabia METHODS: Anaesthesia was induced by remote injection of 25 mg ketamine, 10 mg midazolam and 0...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756580/assessment-of-patients-knowledge-and-practices-regarding-their-medication-use-and-risks-in-lebanon
#15
Elsy Ramia, Rony M Zeenny, Souheil Hallit, Pascale Salameh
Background Patients' knowledge of their medications play a pivotal role in their disease management. Objective Assess the knowledge and practices of Lebanese outpatients regarding their own medication use and risks. Setting Four hundred and sixty community pharmacies across Lebanon. Method It was a cross-sectional study performed from March through May 2016 among Lebanese outpatients, using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate all participants' responses. The association between categorical variables were evaluated using Pearson χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749272/ketamine-medetomidine-and-ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam-anesthesia-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-comparison-of-blood-pressure-and-kidney-blood-flow
#16
Julia Stagegaard, Arne Hørlyck, Helle B Hydeskov, Mads F Bertelsen
Six clinically healthy captive cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) were anesthetized twice using two different drug combinations to investigate if blood pressure and kidney blood flow are affected by medetomidine dosage. Protocol KM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine and 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine) was compared with protocol KMM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine, 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.1 mg/kg midazolam). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (ETCO2), and anesthetic depth were monitored every 10 min...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748430/inicu-integrated-neonatal-care-unit-capturing-neonatal-journey-in-an-intelligent-data-way
#17
Harpreet Singh, Gautam Yadav, Raghuram Mallaiah, Preetha Joshi, Vinay Joshi, Ravneet Kaur, Suneyna Bansal, Samir K Brahmachari
Neonatal period represents first 28 days of life, which is the most vulnerable time for a child's survival especially for the preterm babies. High neonatal mortality is a prominent and persistent problem across the globe. Non-availability of trained staff and infrastructure are the major recognized hurdles in the quality care of these neonates. Hourly progress growth charts and reports are still maintained manually by nurses along with continuous calculation of drug dosage and nutrition as per the changing weight of the baby...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730460/impact-of-safety-warnings-on-domperidone-prescribing-in-ireland
#18
M Teeling, M J MacAvin, K Bennett
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the impact of the 2014 safety warnings on use of domperidone, on subsequent prescribing patterns in Ireland. METHODS: The Irish HSE-PCRS pharmacy claims database was used to identify the study cohort (aged 18+), prescribed domperidone from Jan 2014 to Oct 2015. Dosage was available for each claim; concomitant prescription with the following drug classes was identified and calculated as a percentage of the total number of claims: anti-arrhythmics, macrolide antimicrobials and the selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram and escitalopram...
July 20, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709989/evaluating-biapenem-dosage-regimens-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-a-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-using-monte-carlo-simulation
#19
Yongfu Hang, Yafang Chen, Ling Xue, Shusen Sun, Long Liu, Jie Gao, Cheng Xie, Xianfeng Zhang, Jianguo Zhu, Jun Jin, Liyan Miao
This study sought to both identify optimal dosage regimens and estimate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics characteristics of short-infusion (SI) versus extended-infusion (EI) for the use of biapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in Chinese Intensive Care patients. A total of 85 strains of P. aeruginosa were collected, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of biapenem was measured by the serial two-fold agar dilution method. We designed four frequently used clinical regimens: biapenem 300mg I...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697467/smoking-prevalence-and-seizure-control-in-chinese-males-with-epilepsy
#20
Hui Gao, Josemir W Sander, Xudong Du, Jiani Chen, Cairong Zhu, Dong Zhou
Smoking has a negative effect on most diseases, yet it is under-investigated in people with epilepsy; thus its role is not clear in the general population with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective pilot study on males with epilepsy to determine the smoking rate and its relationship with seizure control using univariate analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and also used a multi-variate logistic regression model. The smoking rate in our sample of 278 individuals was 25.5%, which is lower than the general Chinese population smoking rate among males of 52...
July 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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