keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

drug dosage calculations

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334707/-comparing-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-sequential-inoculation-of-sipv-followed-by-bopv-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-in-different-dosage-forms
#1
H Ye, T Huang, Z F Ying, G L Li, Y C Che, Z M Zhao, J F Wang, X L Yang, L Shi, R J Jiang, X C Liu, Z J Mo, C G Li, J S Yang
Objective: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of two different sequential schedules of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine made from Sabin strain (sIPV) followed by typeⅠ+Ⅲ bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) in Drug Candy (DC) form or liquid dosage form). Methods: This randomized, blinded, single center, parallel-group controlled trial was done from September 2015 to June 2016 in Liuzhou, Guangxi province. Healthy infants aged ≥2 months were eligible for enrollment and divided into 1sIPV+2bOPV or 2sIPV+1bOPV sequential schedules...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332426/effects-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-medications-on-menopausal-age
#2
Ülkü Türk Börü, Cansu Köseoğlu Toksoy, Cem Bölük, Adnan Bilgiç, Mustafa Taşdemir
Objectives We aimed to determine whether multiple sclerosis (MS) and methylprednisolone and disease-modifying drugs have an effect on menopausal age. Methods A total of 86 patients and 98 healthy subjects were included in this study. The natural menopausal age of the patients and healthy subjects were compared. The cumulative dosages of methylprednisolone, beta interferons (IFNβs), and glatiramer acetate were calculated. The effects of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), duration of the disease, and cumulative dosage of medications on menopausal age were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327295/common-deficiencies-of-in-vitro-binding-bioequivalence-be-studies-submitted-in-abbreviated-new-drug-applications-andas
#3
Dongmei Lu, Diana Vivian, Ping Ren, Yongsheng Yang, Hongling Zhang, Xiaojian Jiang, Ethan Stier
There are several drug products that bind phosphate or bile acid in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to exert their therapeutic efficacy. In vitro binding studies are used to assess bioequivalence (BE) of these products. The objective of this study is to identify the common deficiencies in Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) for these products. Deficiencies were compiled from ANDAs containing in vitro binding BE studies. The deficiencies were classified into eight categories: Pre-Study Method Validation, During-Study Sample Analysis, Study Design, Study Procedure, Dissolution/Disintegration, Analytical Site Inspection, Data Submission, and Formulations...
January 11, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298646/tacrolimus-pharmacokinetic-considerations-for-clinicians
#4
Katharina Schutte-Nutgen, Gerold Tholking, Barbara Suwelack, Stefan Reuter
The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (Tac) is an integral part of the standard immunosuppressive regimen after renal transplantation (RTx). However, clinical management of Tac therapy can be challenging because of its narrow therapeutic window and because many factors interfere with its metabolism. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring is used to adjust the dosage. Recently, we were able to classify patients receiving tacrolimus into two major metabolism groups by simple calculation of the C/D ratio (expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the dose)...
December 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287079/numerical-modeling-of-nanodrug-distribution-in-tumors-with-heterogeneous-vasculature
#5
Cheng-Ying Chou, Wan-I Chang, Tzyy-Leng Horng, Win-Li Lin
The distribution and accumulation of nanoparticle dosage in a tumor are important in evaluating the effectiveness of cancer treatment. The cell survival rate can quantify the therapeutic effect, and the survival rates after multiple treatments are helpful to evaluate the efficacy of a chemotherapy plan. We developed a mathematical tumor model based on the governing equations describing the fluid flow and particle transport to investigate the drug transportation in a tumor and computed the resulting cumulative concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247424/method-development-for-clinical-comprehensive-evaluation-of-pediatric-drugs-based-on-multi-criteria-decision-analysis-application-to-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-children-with-asthma
#6
Yuncui Yu, Lulu Jia, Yao Meng, Lihua Hu, Yiwei Liu, Xiaolu Nie, Meng Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Sheng Han, Xiaoxia Peng, Xiaoling Wang
BACKGROUND: Establishing a comprehensive clinical evaluation system is critical in enacting national drug policy and promoting rational drug use. In China, the 'Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation System for Pediatric Drugs' (CCES-P) project, which aims to compare drugs based on clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness to help decision makers, was recently proposed; therefore, a systematic and objective method is required to guide the process. METHODS: An evidence-based multi-criteria decision analysis model that involved an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was developed, consisting of nine steps: (1) select the drugs to be reviewed; (2) establish the evaluation criterion system; (3) determine the criterion weight based on the AHP; (4) construct the evidence body for each drug under evaluation; (5) select comparative measures and calculate the original utility score; (6) place a common utility scale and calculate the standardized utility score; (7) calculate the comprehensive utility score; (8) rank the drugs; and (9) perform a sensitivity analysis...
December 15, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246196/a-two-month-follow-up-evaluation-testing-interventions-to-limit-the-emergence-and-spread-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-among-maasai-of-northern-tanzania
#7
Casey J Roulette, Mark A Caudell, Jennifer W Roulette, Robert J Quinlan, Marsha B Quinlan, Murugan Subbiah, Douglas R Call
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are aggravated by unregulated drug sales and use, and high connectivity between human, livestock, and wildlife populations. Our previous research indicates that Maasai agropastoralists-who have high exposure to livestock and livestock products and self-administer veterinary antibiotics-harbor antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Here, we report the results of a public health intervention project among Maasai aimed at reducing selection and transmission of E...
December 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241505/knowledge-behaviours-training-and-attitudes-of-nurses-during-preparation-and-administration-of-intravenous-medications-in-intensive-care-units-icu-a-multicenter-italian-study
#8
Marco Di Muzio, Corrado De Vito, Daniela Tartaglini, Paolo Villari
BACKGROUND: Medication errors can put at risk the life of patients hospitalized in the ICUs. These errors occur more frequently in the ICUs due to their peculiar medical framework. There is not much information about the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and training needs of the nurses who work in ICUs towards the medication errors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at describing the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and training needs of the Italian nurses who work in ICUs towards the use of IV drugs, and identifying the strategies that nurses can adopt to prevent the occurrence of medication errors...
December 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230490/pharmacokinetic-study-of-tianeptine-and-its-active-metabolite-mc5-in-rats-following-different-routes-of-administration-using-a-novel-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analytical-method
#9
Małgorzata Szafarz, Agnieszka Wencel, Krzysztof Pociecha, Filip A Fedak, Piotr Wlaź, Elżbieta Wyska
Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant with a unique mechanism of action and recently it has been also reported that its major metabolite, compound MC5, possesses pharmacological activity similar to that of the parent drug. The current study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of both tianeptine and MC5 after intravenous or intraperitoneal administration of the parent drug as well as the metabolic ratio of MC5 in rats. To achieve these goals an LC-MS/MS method using the small sample volume for the quantitation of tianeptine and its active metabolite MC5 in rat plasma and liver perfusate has been developed and validated...
December 12, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199766/pentasaccharides-for-the-treatment-of-deep-vein-thrombosis
#10
REVIEW
Gustavo Ms Brandao, Daniela R Junqueira, Hamilton A Rollo, Marcone L Sobreira
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is based on antithrombotic therapy, initially with parenteral administration of unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) for five to seven days, then subsequent long-term therapy with oral vitamin K antagonists (e.g. warfarin). Pentasaccharides are novel anticoagulants that may be favourable over standard therapy due to their predictable effect, no need for frequent monitoring or re-dosing, and few known drug interactions...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189143/retrospective-demonstration-of-25i-nbome-acute-poisoning-using-hair-analysis
#11
Alice Ameline, Audrey Farrugia, Jean-Sebastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: The abuse of new psychoactive substances or NPS has been dramatically increasing all around the world since the late 2000s and has become a serious public health problem. NPS are a challenge for the worldwide forensic community due to the difficulties to accurately document the cases. The N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) group is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs and has gained importance in the recent years. 25I-NBOMe (2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) is an analog of the 2C series of psychedelic phenethylamine drugs that contain an N-methoxybenzyl substituent, which significantly affects their pharmacological activities...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138378/-body-surface-area-formulas-for-the-calculation-of-the-chemotherapy-dosage
#12
Haruna Hatahira, Kazuhiro Iguchi, Sayaka Sasaoka, Yumi Motooka, Shiori Hasegawa, Misa Naganuma, Akiho Fukuda, Tomofumi Ohmori, Tatsuhiko Yoshida, Kaoru Mogushi, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
Body surface area(BSA)is a parameter frequently used to calculate the chemotherapy dosage. Several different equations for predicting BSA have been developed. We examined the formula suggested for BSA calculation for 62 chemotherapy drugs where the recommended dosage was based on patient BSA. We found that the description of the formula to be used for BSA calculation was not provided in the package inserts or in the drug interview forms in the majority of cases; the BSA formula was mentioned in the guide for appropriate use of medication in only 8 of 62 chemotherapy drugs...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137042/associations-among-medication-regimen-complexity-medical-specialty-and-medication-possession-ratio-in-newly-diagnosed-hypertensive-patients-a-population-based-study
#13
Chen-Pei Ho, Jih-I Yeh, Shu-Hui Wen, Tony Jer-Fu Lee
The aim of this study was to explore the associations among the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI), medical specialty, and medication possession ratio (MPR) in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.Data from 19,859 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were collected from 2,000,000 random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All study participants were followed for 1 year after the first diagnosis of hypertension. MPR was defined as total days of antihypertensive drugs supplied/365 days...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080937/population-pharmacokinetics-and-dosing-considerations-for-the-use-of-linezolid-in-overweight-and-obese-adult-patients
#14
Piergiorgio Cojutti, Manjunath P Pai, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND: Linezolid is an anti-Gram-positive antimicrobial agent used at a fixed dose of 600 mg every 12 h. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of linezolid in a retrospective cohort of overweight and obese hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) of an area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC24)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio > 100, defined as the pharmacodynamic target of efficacy, with incremental candidate dosages...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073737/association-distribution-liberation-and-rheological-balances-of-alkyldimethylbenzylammonium-chlorides-c12-c16
#15
Zuzana Vitková, Jarmila Oremusová, Petra Herdová, Oľga Ivánková, Anton Vitko
It is known that cationic surfactants have an antimicrobial effect and act as enhancers. This paper studies three cationic surfactants from the group of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides (dodecyl-, tetradecyl-, and hexadecyl). Interest is focused on the association of the surfactants with respect to temperature, partition balances and their influence on drug release, rheological properties, and the pH of hydrogels. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the surfactants were estimated from dependencies of conductivity, density, spectrofluorimetry, and UV-VIS spectrophotometry on molarity in the temperature range of 25-50 °C...
October 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071229/pantoprazole-sodium-loaded-microballoons-for-the-systemic-approach-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#16
Pravin Gupta, Manish Kumar, Darpan Kaushik
Purpose: Various floating and pulsatile drug delivery systems suffer from variations in the gastric transit time affecting the bioavailability of drugs. The objective of the study was to develop Pantoprazole Sodium (PAN) microballoons that may prolong the gastric residence time and could enhance the drug bioavailability. Methods: Microballoons were prepared using Eudragit(®)L100 by adopting emulsion solvent diffusion method with non-effervescent approach, in vitro studies were performed and the in vivo evaluation was carried out employing ethanol induced ulceration method...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066114/tissue-transport-affects-how-treatment-scheduling-increases-the-efficacy-of-chemotherapeutic-drugs
#17
Dan E Ganz, Briana Sexton-Stallone, Emily L Brackett, Neil S Forbes
A method to predict the effect of tissue transport on the scheduling of chemotherapeutic treatment could increase efficacy. Many drugs with desirable pharmacokinetic properties fail in vivo due to poor transport through tissue. To predict the effect of treatment schedule on drug efficacy we developed an in silico method that integrates diffusion through tissue and cell binding into a pharmacokinetic model. The model was evaluated with an array of theoretical drugs that had different rates of diffusivity, binding, and clearance...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058913/drug-excipient-interactions-in-the-solid-state-the-role-of-different-stress-factors
#18
Corinna Gressl, Michael Brunsteiner, Adrian Davis, Margaret Landis, Klimentina Pencheva, Garry Scrivens, Gregory W Sluggett, Geoffrey P F Wood, Heidrun Gruber-Woelfler, Johannes G Khinast, Amrit Paudel
Understanding properties and mechanisms that govern drug degradation in the solid state is of high importance to ensure drug stability and safety of solid dosage forms. In this study, we attempt to understand drug-excipient interactions in the solid state using both theoretical and experimental approaches. The model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) under study are carvedilol (CAR) and codeine phosphate (COP), which are known to undergo esterification with citric acid (CA) in the solid state. Starting from the crystal structures of two different polymorphs of each compound, we calculated the exposure and accessibility of reactive hydroxyl groups for a number of relevant crystal surfaces, as well as descriptors that could be associated with surface stabilities using molecular simulations...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033841/pharmacodynamic-evaluation-and-pk-pd-based-dose-prediction-of-tulathromycin-a-potential-new-indication-for-streptococcus-suis-infection
#19
Yu-Feng Zhou, Hui-Min Peng, Ming-Xiao Bu, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun, Xiao-Ping Liao
Tulathromycin is the first member of the triamilide antimicrobial drugs that has been registered in more than 30 countries. The goal of this study is to provide a potential new indication of tulathromycin for Streptococcus suis infections. We investigated the pharmacokinetic and ex vivo pharmacodynamics of tulathromycin against experimental S. suis infection in piglets. Tulathromycin demonstrated a relatively long elimination half-life (74.1 h) and a mean residence time of 97.6 h after a single intramuscular administration...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026287/ocular-pharmacokinetics-and-tolerability-of-bimatoprost-ophthalmic-solutions-administered-once-or-twice-daily-in-rabbits-and-clinical-dosing-implications
#20
Jie Shen, Margot L Goodkin, Warren Tong, Mayssa Attar
PURPOSE: Fixed-combination medications can benefit patients requiring multiple agents to lower their intraocular pressure (IOP), but combining agents with complementary mechanisms of action is challenging if their dosing frequency differs. This study compares in vivo pharmacokinetic and ocular tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% ophthalmic solutions dosed once or twice daily. Reports of twice-daily dosing in glaucoma patients are also reviewed. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were administered bimatoprost 0...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
keyword
keyword
49047
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"