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indication and contra indications of drugs

Giuseppe Indolfi, Loreto Hierro, Antal Dezsofi, Jörg Jahnel, Dominique Debray, Nedim Hadzic, Piotr Czubowski, Girish Gupte, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Wendy van der Woerd, Françoise Smets, Henkjan J Verkade, Björn Fischler
OBJECTIVES: In 2017, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and of the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for treatment of adolescents (12-17 years, weighing more than 35 kg) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, 4, 5 and 6 and genotype 2 and 3 infections, respectively. Although trials with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) are ongoing for younger children, the only available treatment in US and Europe for those < 12 years is still the dual therapy of pegylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
E J Smolders, C Smit, Ctmm de Kanter, Asm Dofferhoff, J E Arends, K Brinkman, B Rijnders, M van der Valk, P Reiss, D M Burger
OBJECTIVES: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and non-cART co-medication. We mapped how physicians manage DDIs between DAAs and co-medication and analysed treatment outcomes. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected as part of the ATHENA HIV observational cohort and retrospectively analysed. Dutch patients with HIV/HCV coinfection who initiated treatment with DAAs between January 2015 and May 2016 were included...
December 1, 2017: HIV Medicine
Stéphane Laurent
Successful treatment of hypertension is possible with limited side effects given the availability of multiple antihypertensive drug classes. This review describes the various pharmacological classes of antihypertensive drugs, under two major aspects: their mechanisms of action and side effects. The mechanism of action is analysed through a pharmacological approach, i.e. the molecular receptor targets, the various sites along the arterial system, and the extra-arterial sites of action, in order to better understand in which type of hypertension a given pharmacological class of antihypertensive drug is most indicated...
October 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Elise J Smolders, Colette Smit, Clara Tmm De Kanter, Anton Dofferhoff, Joop E Arends, Kees Brinkman, Bart Rijnders, Marc Van Der Valk, Peter Reiss, David M Burger
BACKGROUD: To describe the use of non-antiretroviral co-medication and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients, and to predict the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, using the Dutch nationwide ATHENA observational HIV cohort database. All patients with a known HIV/HCV co-infection on 1 January 2015 were included...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
H Hy Yu, P Sy Cheung, R Cy Leung, T N Leung, W H Kwan
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is the most common malignancy during pregnancy with an expected rise in incidence. The belief in the need for termination of pregnancy and that chemotherapy is contra-indicated during pregnancy is challenged by recent evidence. Patients can consider breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy with acceptably low fetal risk from radiation exposure. A range of chemotherapeutics is possible in the second trimester in terms of drug class and frequency. Hormonal therapy and monoclonal antibody therapy are contra-indicated during pregnancy and lactation...
August 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Andreea Adelina Artenie, Geng Zang, Mark Daniel, Emmanuel Fortier, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Svetlana Puzhko, Julie Bruneau
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether treatment and care for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can help people who inject drugs (PWID) modify their injection drug use behaviours. This study examined changes in injection drug use among PWID with acute HCV systematically referred for HCV clinical assessment and treatment and offered targeted health care services, over the course of one year. METHODS: The study sample included PWID with documented acute HCV infection recruited and followed-up semi-annually at least twice in IMPACT (2007-2015), a longitudinal community-based prospective study in Montréal, Canada...
September 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Lucas V Boersma, Hueseyin Ince, Stephan Kische, Evgeny Pokushalov, Thomas Schmitz, Boris Schmidt, Tommaso Gori, Felix Meincke, Alexey Vladimir Protopopov, Timothy Betts, David Foley, Horst Sievert, Patrizio Mazzone, Tom De Potter, Elisa Vireca, Kenneth Stein, Martin W Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion with WATCHMAN has emerged as viable alternative to vitamin K antagonists in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: EWOLUTION was designed to provide data in routine practice from a prospective multicenter registry. METHODS: A total of 1025 patients scheduled for a WATCHMAN implant were prospectively and sequentially enrolled at 47 centers. Indication for LAA closure was based on European Society of Cardiology guidelines...
September 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
N Bensalah, S Garcia, F X Rose, P Bedouch, O Conort, M Juste, R Roubille, B Allenet, M Tod, B Charpiat
OBJECTIVE: Combination of alpha-blockers with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors is either contra-indicated or not recommended. We searched data supporting this classification and guiding prescribers when such an interaction occurs. METHODS: We analyzed reports published by the French agency for drug safety, reference books and performed search in databases of pharmacokinetics studies and case or case series related with these interactions. RESULTS: The classification of the potential severity of these interactions defined by the French agency for drug safety evolved over time...
March 29, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
Khaled Abdelaal, Bruce Jaffray
AIMS: To quantify the incidence of loss of an ileoanal pouch in children and to identify variables associated this event. METHODS: Logistic regression of possible explanatory variables: age, sex, indication for procto-colectomy, pre-operative continence status, use of immunosuppressive drugs, open or laparoscopic surgery, number of stages, anastomotic leak, operative complication excluding anastomotic leak, performance of revisional surgery, albumin concentration and platelet count at time of surgery, rank order in series...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Tiphaine Gaillard, Marylin Madamet, Francis Foguim Tsombeng, Jérôme Dormoi, Bruno Pradines
Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the most significant health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of individual chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy remain a major area of research, and new drug molecules are constantly being developed before drug-resistant parasites strains emerge. The use of anti-malarial drugs is challenged by contra-indications, the level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas, clinical tolerance and financial cost...
November 15, 2016: Malaria Journal
Clotilde Muller, Dorothée Bazin Kara, Marion Fourtage, Julien Ott, Thierry Krummel, Olivier Imhoff, Antoine Garstka, Sarah Richter, Isabelle Kolb, Anne-Laure Faller, Philippe Petit-Jean, Clotilde Kiener, Farideh Alenabi, Henriette Sissoko, Émilie Léon, François Chantrel, Yves Dimitrov, Thierry Hannedouche
Leaflets inside drug boxes are complex and often poorly understood. Patients consulting in nephrology are mostly old and often suffer from multiple comorbidities. As so, they are often subject to various contra-indications and drug interactions. This paper aims to evaluate if patients actually read leaflets or other medical information on others medias such as Internet and whether this could, potentially, interfere with their observance. Results showed that leaflets were read by 65.1% of patients, leading to 12% of withdrawal or not taking drugs...
November 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
S Lataoui, S Belghali, H Zeglaoui, E Bouajina, H Ben Saad
BACKGROUND: Studies about sub-maximal aerobic capacity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are scarce. AIMS: To assess the sub-maximal aerobic capacity of these patients through the 6-min walk test, estimated age of the "muscular and cardiorespiratory" chain. METHODS: Thirty-seven consecutive patients (aged 20 to 60 years) with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis will be included. Non-inclusion criteria will be: use of drugs (e.g.; methotrexate, beta-blockers), orthopaedic or rheumatologic conditions (other than rheumatoid arthritis) that may alter walking ability and recent infections...
January 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
I Barillot, R Mazeron, F Mornex, P Giraud
Patients with pacemakers or defibrillators have a relative contra-indication for radiotherapy. This review presents the precautions issued by the French agency for drug safety (ANSM).
September 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Lieven Pouillon, Peter Bossuyt, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic disabling conditions. Monoclonal antibody therapy directed against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF) has revolutionized the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AREAS COVERED: Considerations before starting anti-TNF therapy are highlighted: the best time to start with anti-TNF therapy, either alone or in combination with an immunomodulator, the choice of an anti-TNF agent and the contra-indications to anti-TNF therapy...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Naiem T Issa, Jordan Kruger, Henri Wathieu, Rajarajan Raja, Stephen W Byers, Sivanesan Dakshanamurthy
BACKGROUND: The targeting of disease-related proteins is important for drug discovery, and yet target-based discovery has not been fruitful. Contextualizing overall biological processes is critical to formulating successful drug-disease hypotheses. Network pharmacology helps to overcome target-based bottlenecks through systems biology analytics, such as protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and pathway regulation. RESULTS: We present a systems polypharmacology platform entitled DrugGenEx-Net (DGE-NET)...
May 5, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Charles Khouri, Thomas Jouve, Sophie Blaise, Patrick Carpentier, Jean-Luc Cracowski, Matthieu Roustit
AIM: Peripheral vasoconstriction has long been described as a vascular adverse effect of β-adrenoceptor blockers. Whether β-adrenoceptor blockers should be avoided in patients with peripheral vascular disease depends on pharmacological properties (e.g. preferential binding to β1 -adrenoreceptors or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity). However, this has not been confirmed in experimental studies. We performed a network meta-analysis in order to assess the comparative risk of peripheral vasoconstriction of different β-adrenoceptor blockers...
August 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
R W Wieten, A Goorhuis, E F F Jonker, G J de Bree, A W de Visser, P J J van Genderen, E B M Remmerswaal, I J M Ten Berge, L G Visser, M P Grobusch, E M M van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients using different immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy individuals vaccinated 0-22 years ago were included. The serological response was measured using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
June 2016: Journal of Infection
Kim Dao, Haithem Chtioui, Laura E Rothuizen, Léonore Diezi, Sylvain Prod'hom, Ursula Winterfeld, Thierry Buclin, Françoise Livio
The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2015are reviewed. Sofosbuvir amiodarone interaction: risk of severe bradycardia. Dasabuvir clopidogrel interaction: increased dasabuvir concentrations and potential risk of QTprolongation. SGLT2 inhibitors: risks of diabetic acidocetosis and bone fracture. Dabigatran: therapeutic drug monitoring may improve benefit-risk ratio. Ibuprofen: at higher dosage, vascular risks are comparable to coxibs. Pregabaline, gabapentine: potential for abuse and addiction. Varenicline: potentiates alcohol's effects...
January 13, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Michal Abrahamowicz, Lise M Bjerre, Marie-Eve Beauchamp, Jacques LeLorier, Rebecca Burne
Unmeasured confounding is a major threat to the validity of pharmacoepidemiological studies of medication safety and effectiveness. We propose a new method for detecting and reducing the impact of unobserved confounding in large observational database studies. The method uses assumptions similar to the prescribing preference-based instrumental variable (IV) approach. Our method relies on the new 'missing cause' principle, according to which the impact of unmeasured confounding by (contra-)indication may be detected by assessing discrepancies between the following: (i) treatment actually received by individual patients and (ii) treatment that they would be expected to receive based on the observed data...
March 30, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
M Herten, S Stahlhoff, B Imm, E Schönefeld, A Schwindt, G B Torsello
BACKGROUND: Despite initially encouraging technical success after femoropopliteal PTA, restenosis remains the major challenge in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The main cause of restenosis is neointimal hyperplasia which can be suppressed by antiproliferative drugs. Drug-coated balloons (DCB) or drug-eluting stents (DES) are used for the inhibition of restenosis. OBJECTIVES: The present article gives an overview of DCB development, actual DCB systems for femoro- and infrapopliteal use, displays the outcomes of randomized clinical trials and the discusses the evidence for the DCB treatment in PAD...
March 2016: Der Radiologe
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