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medicine and iv fluid calculations

Yanhong Wang, Yang Li, Yan Zhang, Guan Feng, Zhixin Yang, Qingxia Guan, Rui Wang, Fengjuan Han
Lichong Shengsui Yin (LCSSY) is an effective and classic compound prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) used for the treatment of ovarian cancer. To investigate its pharmacodynamic basis for treating ovarian cancer, the multi-dimensional spectrum-effect relationship was determined. Four compositions (I to IV) were obtained by extracting LCSSY successively with supercritical CO₂ fluid extraction, 75% ethanol reflux extraction, and the water extraction-ethanol precipitation method. Nine samples for pharmacological evaluation and fingerprint analysis were prepared by changing the content of the four compositions...
June 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Diarmaid Semple, Moninne Howlett
AIM: Since the discontinuation of a commercially available liquid calcium medicine, there have been various local strategies to obtain adequate calcium levels, particularly in suspected 22Q11.2 deletion syndrome children post cardiothoracic surgery. Pharmacy obtained on special order a Calcium Liquid food supplement (0.5 mmol calcium/ml) for use in those children whom effervescent tablets did not appear to improve corrected calcium. Anecdotally it was thought that calcium liquid was better tolerated and absorbed, resulting in quicker recovery time of corrected calcium than use of the effervescent tablets...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Wei Xu, Zheng-Yuan Xu, Gong-Jie Cai, Chiao-Yun Kuo, Jing Li, Yi-Syuan Huang
BACKGROUND: At the present time, the government is considering to establish the independent financing system for essential medicines (EMs). However, it is still in the exploration phase. The objectives of this study were to calculate and estimate financing amount of EMs in China in 2014 and to provide data evidence for establishing financing mechanism of EMs. METHODS: Two approaches were adopted in this study. First, we used a retrospective research to estimate the cost of EMs in China in 2014...
March 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
A Wafaisade, T Paffrath, R Lefering, C Ludwig, M Fröhlich, M Mutschler, M Banerjee, B Bouillon, C Probst
BACKGROUND: Penetrating injuries are rare in European populations so their management represents a particular challenge. The aim was to assess early therapeutic aspects that are associated with favourable outcomes in patients with penetrating trauma. METHODS: Patients with penetrating injuries documented from 2009 to 2013 in the TraumaRegister DGU® were analysed. Patients with a primary admission and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of at least 9 were included. The Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC) II score was used for mortality prediction, and a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) calculated per hospital...
September 2015: British Journal of Surgery
D Söhngen, C Balzer, M Fuchs, D Waldschmidt
BACKGROUND: Patients with ileostomies regularly suffer from short bowel syndrome or high volume output associated with loss of absorptive surface and subsequent impairment of absorption for drugs and different nutrients resulting in electrolyte and fluid balance disorders as well as renal insufficiency. Adaptation of these fundamental functions of the gut with adequate fluid uptake, absorption of sufficient different nutrients and vitamins represents a major challenge to rehabilitate these patients shortly after surgery...
April 2015: Die Rehabilitation
Richard A C Hughes, Jane Pritchard, Robert D M Hadden
BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, but not corticosteroids, are beneficial in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The efficacy of other pharmacological agents is unknown. This review was first published in 2011 and this update in 2013.  OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for pharmacological agents other than plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids. SEARCH METHODS: On 28 August 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 8 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2012) for treatments for GBS...
February 28, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kathy N Shaw, Kathleen A Lillis, Richard M Ruddy, Prashant V Mahajan, Richard Lichenstein, Cody S Olsen, James M Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: Medication errors are an important cause of preventable morbidity, especially in children in emergency department (ED) settings. Internal use of voluntary incident reporting (IR) is common within hospitals, with little external reporting or sharing of this information across institutions. We describe the analysis of paediatric medication events (ME) reported in 18 EDs in a paediatric research network in 2007-2008. METHODS: Confidential, deidentified incident reports (IRs) were collected, and MEs were independently categorised by two investigators...
October 2013: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
S Wong, F Derry, A Graham, G Grimble, A Forbes
STUDY DESIGN: A single centre survey. OBJECTIVES: To test: (i) awareness of nutrition screening tools and related care plans and; (ii) nutrition knowledge of doctors, nurses and dietitians working in spinal cord injuries (SCI) centres. METHODS: The 14-item questionnaire was sent to 102 nurses, 17 doctors and 15 dietitians working in UK SCI centres during January-March 2010. RESULTS: Sixty-two (46.5%) questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis...
June 2012: Spinal Cord
Gang Chen, Lei Mu, Xiao Zhang, Shixiang Hou, Haijun Nan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 ) and sanchinoside R1 (R1) after intratympanic administration (IT) or intravenous administration (IV) of Panax notoginseng saponions (PNS) solution, and provide a novel route for delivering traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to the brain. METHOD: The guinea pigs were employed as experimental animal. Perilymph (PL), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain tissue and plasma were collected periodically after IT and IV of PNS solution...
July 2011: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
R Oertel, J Pietsch, N Arenz, L Goltz, W Kirch
In forensic medicine autopsy material is primarily investigated to find out the cause of death. But the results of corresponding toxicology measurements often involve more information. With screening methods drugs were detected not being related to the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction and LC/MS/MS methods were used for the determination of drug concentrations. In seven cases metoprolol could be determined in different autopsy materials. In all cases the dosage of the drug was unknown. In cases with oral application probably the patients took a normal customary continuous dosage...
February 2011: Die Pharmazie
Richard Ac Hughes, Jane Pritchard, Robert Dm Hadden
BACKGROUND: Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, but not corticosteroids, are beneficial in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The efficacy of other pharmacological agents is unknown.   OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials for pharmacological agents other than plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (5 July 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2010) and EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2010) for treatments for GBS...
March 16, 2011: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Steven A Kahn, Mark Schoemann, Christopher W Lentz
The Parkland formula is the standard for calculating the initial intravenous fluid rate for resuscutation after thermal injury. However, it is cumbersome when used by those with modest burn training. We propose an easier method to calculate fluid requirements that can be initiated by first-line providers. Burn size is estimated by using the Burn Size Score (BSS), which is then crossreferenced with the patient's weight on a preprinted Burn Resuscitation Index (BRI), based on the Parkland formula, to determine initial hourly fluid rate...
July 2010: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Sudesh Gyawali, P Ravi Shankar, Archana Saha, Lalit Mohan
Unnecessary, excessive and poor injection practices in the South East Asia region (including Nepal) have been observed previously. The authors aim to study prescription of injectable drugs to inpatients in a teaching hospital in Western Nepal. Prescription of injectable drugs (IDs) and intravenous fluids (IVFs) to inpatients discharged from the wards of the Manipal Teaching Hospital during 1st January to 30th June 2006 was studied. The mean number of drugs, IDs and IVFs administered, median cost of drugs and of IDs/IVFs per prescription calculated...
January 2009: McGill Journal of Medicine: MJM: An International Forum for the Advancement of Medical Sciences By Students
Sen-lin Shi, Lian-ying Xu, Jin-jin Wu, Chang-yu Li, Wei-hong Ge, Wen-yun Dai
By comparing the drug distribution of breviscapine administered intranasally, orally and intrgvenous injected in rats' brain. After 0.4 mg x kg(-1) breviscapine was given by tail vein, intranasal and gastric perfusion administration to SD rats, cerebrospinal fluid was obtained by erebellomedllery cisternal puncture at different times. 125I labeling was used to determine the drug content of cerebrospinal fluid, cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, olfactory region, olfactory bulb and blood in rats. AUCs were calculated by trapezoidal rule...
May 2009: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Hong-Nü Chu, Mei-Juan Shen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether purified herbal extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza can improve the amniotic fluid volume in pre-term oligohydramnios by improving uteroplacental circulation. METHODS: Forty-three pregnant women with oligohydramnios received a daily intravenous dose of 30 mL of salvia extract mixed with 5% glucose 500 mL. A control group of 41 women received daily 5% glucose 500 mL only. The amniotic fluid index (AFI) was assessed at least twice a week by ultrasonographists who were blinded to the treatment...
February 2008: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Victor A Convertino, Kathy L Ryan, Caroline A Rickards, Jose Salinas, John G McManus, William H Cooke, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: Most prehospital medical interventions during civilian and military trauma casualty transport fail to utilize advanced decision-support systems for treatment and delivery of medical interventions, particularly intravenous fluids and oxygen. Current treatment protocols are usually based on standard vital signs (eg, blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation) which have proven to be of limited value in detecting the need to implement an intervention before cardiovascular collapse...
April 2008: Journal of Trauma
W Patrick Springhart, Charles G Marguet, Roger L Sur, Regina D Norris, Fernando C Delvecchio, Matthew D Young, Paula Sprague, Charles A Gerardo, David M Albala, Glenn M Preminger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The management of acute renal colic is a problem commonly encountered by both urologists and emergency medicine physicians. The classic approach to managing uncomplicated acute renal colic involves hydration, along with imaging and pain control. Previous studies have suggested that hydration has a significant impact on patient comfort, as well as spontaneous stone passage. This study evaluated the effects of maintenance v forced hydration and its effect on the pain experienced from renal colic...
October 2006: Journal of Endourology
M R van der Harst, S Bull, C M Laffont, W R Klein
The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin is commonly used in equine medicine for the prevention and treatment of Gram-negative and staphylococcal bacteria in surgically treated colic patients. The pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in these patients might be altered by the disease status, and/or under the influence of fluid therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intravenous fluid treatment on gentamicin kinetics in colic patients. Colic patients subjected to laparotomy were given fluid infusions according to clinical status...
February 2005: Veterinary Research Communications
Cynthia A. Cox, William W. Fox, Carla M. Weiss, Marla R. Wolfson, Thomas H. Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Compare the physiologic, histologic, and biochemical findings of tidal and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with gas ventilated lambs with an acute lung injury. DESIGN: Experimental, prospective randomized controlled study. SETTING: School of medicine, department of physiology. SUBJECTS: Eighteen newborn lambs (</=1 wk old). INTERVENTIONS: Injury was established by using HCl saline lavages. Seven lambs underwent tidal liquid ventilation (TLV), five underwent PLV, and six underwent gas ventilation (GV) for 4 hrs...
July 2002: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
F Oki, T Saito, H Watanabe
The possibility of an application of microexplosion to medicine has been studied by Watanabe et al., who found silver azide and lead azide to be most suitable explosives for this purpose. In the present paper, we calculated by means of fluid dynamics some mechanical effects produced by "microexplosives" such as (i) solid-angle dependence of pressure, (ii) distance-dependence of pressure, (iii) velocity of the shock wave, (iv) time-dependence of pressure, (v) temperature and (vi) energy efficiency.
January 1981: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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