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intravenous fluid calculations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290002/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-pharmacokinetics-of-select-chemotherapeutic-agents-following-intranasal-delivery-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#1
James C League-Pascual, Cynthia M Lester-McCully, Shaefali Shandilya, Lukas Ronner, Louis Rodgers, Rafael Cruz, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Katherine E Warren
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of most chemotherapeutic agents into the CNS, resulting in inadequate exposure within CNS tumor tissue. Intranasal administration is a proposed means of delivery that can bypass the BBB, potentially resulting in more effective chemotherapeutic exposure at the tumor site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics (plasma and CSF) of intranasal delivery using select chemotherapeutic agents in a non-human primate (NHP) model. Three chemotherapeutic agents with known differences in CNS penetration were selected for intranasal administration in a NHP model to determine proof of principle of CNS delivery, assess tolerability and feasibility, and to evaluate whether certain drug characteristics were associated with increased CNS exposure...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289935/repeated-intravenous-administration-of-gadobutrol-does-not-lead-to-increased-signal-intensity-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-images-a-voxel-based-whole-brain-analysis
#2
Soenke Langner, Marie-Luise Kromrey, Jens-Peter Kuehn, Matthias Grothe, Martin Domin
OBJECTIVES: To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. METHODS: In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol...
March 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208965/long-term-outcomes-of-kangaroo-mother-care-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#3
Sunil Gavhane, Deepak Eklare, Haseeb Mohammad
INTRODUCTION: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) has been gaining acceptance as an effective alternative to incubator based Conventional Medical Care (CMC) in preterm or Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants especially in resource scarce developing countries. AIM: To report and analyse the long-term effects of KMC for relatively stable Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants on nutritional indicators and feeding conditions at 6-12 months of corrected age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was done at a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a teaching institution in southern India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091837/peritoneal-fluid-of-low-ct-hounsfield-units-as-a-screening-criterion-for-traumatic-bowel-perforation
#5
Yon-Cheong Wong, Li-Jen Wang, Cheng-Hsien Wu, Huan-Wu Chen, Being-Chuan Lin, Yu-Pao Hsu
PURPOSE: To investigate whether peritoneal fluid of low CT Hounsfield units is an important screening criterion for traumatic bowel perforation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on two cohorts of blunt trauma patients who had peritoneal fluid. Intravenous and oral contrast was used for the first cohort (61 patients) as opposed to intravenous contrast only for the second cohort (60 patients). We compared the CT Hounsfield units of peritoneal fluid with bowel perforation...
January 13, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043308/diagnostic-accuracy-of-modified-ct-severity-index-in-assessing-severity-of-acute-pancreatitis
#6
Amna Rehan, Zonaira Shabbir, Asim Shaukat, Osman Riaz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of modified CT severity index in assessing the severe acute pancreatitis keeping APACHE II as gold standard. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional (validation) study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Radiology, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, from February to August 2014. METHODOLOGY: A total of 120 patients of either gender aged 20-60 years with epigastric pain radiating to back and having sonographic findings (decreased or heterogeneous pancreatic echogenicity, pancreatic enlargement, peripancreatic fluid collection), supportive of acute pancreatitis were taken...
December 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039243/electrical-impedance-tomography-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-stroke-volume-variation-in-health-and-experimental-lung-injury
#7
C J C Trepte, C Phillips, J Solà, A Adler, B Saugel, S Haas, S H Bohm, D A Reuter
BACKGROUND: Functional imaging by thoracic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive approach to continuously assess central stroke volume variation (SVV) for guiding fluid therapy. The early available data were from healthy lungs without injury-related changes in thoracic impedance as a potentially influencing factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate SVV measured by EIT (SVVEIT) against SVV from pulse contour analysis (SVVPC) in an experimental animal model of acute lung injury at different lung volumes...
January 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000146/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-treatment-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Cecilia J Sorensen, Kristen DeSanto, Laura Borgelt, Kristina T Phillips, Andrew A Monte
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with cannabis use. Our objective is to summarize the available evidence on CHS diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 through September 24, 2015. Articles eligible for inclusion were evaluated using the Grading and Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data were abstracted from the articles and case reports and were combined in a cumulative synthesis...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932763/-effect-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-on-defecation-and-vip-camp-pka-aqp3-signaling-pathway-%C3%A2-in-rats-with-constipation
#9
Yongxue Zhou, Yujin Wang, Hong Zhang, Shuguang Yan, Bin Wang, Pei Xie
To observe the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the metabolism of intestinal fluid and cyclic AMP protein kinase A signaling pathway (cAMP-PKA) and water channel protein 3 (AQP3) in rats with constipation, and to explore the mechanism of VIP in the treatment of constipation.
 Methods: A total of 45 healthy adult rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a model +VIP group. After 4 weeks of VIP treatment, the first black stool time were examined with the ink gastric method; the water content in feces was calculated; the morphological changes in colonic tissues were observed by HE staining...
November 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882418/compliance-with-guidelines-of-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-gastrectomy
#10
Oh Jeong, Young Kyu Park, Mi Ran Jung, Seong Yeob Ryu
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) aims at expediting postoperative recovery by implementing specific strategies in perioperative management. However, the tolerance to such fast-tracking protocols is under debate, especially in elderly patients. We aimed to investigate rate of compliance with the main ERAS guidelines in elderly gastrectomy patients. METHODS: Using data for 168 gastric cancer patients who underwent ERAS after gastrectomy as part of Clinical Trial NCT01653496, we calculated the rates of compliance with nine main ERAS guidelines and compared the compliance rates of elderly (≥70 years) and non-elderly (<70 years) patients...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821445/substantial-targeting-advantage-achieved-by-pulmonary-administration-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-in-a-large-animal-model
#11
Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Tri-Hung Nguyen, Linh Thuy Lieu, Gary Nguyen, Robert J Bischof, Els N Meeusen, Jian Li, Roger L Nation, Michelle P McIntosh
Colistin, administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is often used in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pulmonary infections. The CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous and pulmonary dosing have not been evaluated in a large-animal model with pulmonary architecture similar to that of humans. Six merino sheep (34 to 43 kg body weight) received an intravenous or pulmonary dose of 4 to 8 mg/kg CMS (sodium) or 2 to 3 mg/kg colistin (sulfate) in a 4-way crossover study...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779353/mortality-following-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-repair-the-role-of-anesthesia
#12
Chulananda Goonasekera, Kamal Ali, Ann Hickey, Lekshmi Sasidharan, Malcolm Mathew, Mark Davenport, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Mortality following surgical repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains high. The volume and type of perioperative intravenous fluid administered, baro-trauma, oxygen toxicity, and the duration of anesthesia are thought to affect outcome in surgical populations. AIMS: The aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine whether the perioperative volume or type of fluids and/or the duration of anesthesia were associated with postoperative mortality and if mortality was predicted by the oxygenation index (OI) prior to or following CDH surgical repair...
December 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749346/intravenous-air-the-partially-invisible-phenomenon
#13
Christopher Varga, Isaac Luria, Nikolaus Gravenstein
BACKGROUND: Air injection is carefully avoided during IV solution administration; however, ambient air is dissolved in all liquids used for intravenous (IV) therapy. A portion of this gas will come out of solution in the form of bubbles as the solution is warmed to body temperature in a fluid warming system and/or within the body. We sought to quantify the proportion of the gas theoretically dissolved in room temperature crystalloid and 4°C blood products that comes out of solution in the IV tubing on warming to 37°C...
November 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746527/impact-of-different-intravenous-fluids-on-blood-glucose-levels-in-nondiabetic-patients-undergoing-elective-major-noncardiac-surgeries
#14
Ranjana Khetarpal, Veena Chatrath, Jagjit Kaur, Anju Bala, Harjeet Singh
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) fluids are an integral part of perioperative management. Intraoperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients undergoing major surgeries even in nondiabetics. AIM: This study was conducted to observe the effect of different maintenance fluid regimens on intraoperative blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients undergoing major surgeries under general anesthesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Randomized double-blind study...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692663/decisions-by-default-incomplete-and-contradictory-molst-in-emergency-care
#15
Brian Clemency, Colleen Clemency Cordes, Heather A Lindstrom, Jeanne M Basior, Deborah P Waldrop
OBJECTIVES: What patients intend when they make health care choices and whether they understand the meaning of orders for life-sustaining treatment forms is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the directives from a sample of emergency department (ED) patients' MOLST forms. PROCEDURES: MOLST forms that accompanied 100 patients who were transported to an ED were collected and their contents analyzed. Data categories included age, gender, if the patient completed the form for themselves, medical orders for life-sustaining treatment including intubation, ventilation, artificial nutrition, artificial fluids or other treatment, and wishes for future hospitalization or transfer...
January 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692279/factors-predisposing-to-worsening-of-sleep-apnea-in-response-to-fluid-overload-in-men
#16
Bojan Gavrilovic, T Douglas Bradley, Daniel Vena, Owen D Lyons, Joseph M Gabriel, Milos R Popovic, Azadeh Yadollahi
OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in patients with fluid-retaining conditions. Using bioimpedance measurements, previous studies have shown that the greater the amount of fluid redistributed from the legs to the neck overnight, the greater the severity of OSA. Our objective was to investigate factors that predispose the development or worsening of OSA in response to experimental fluid overload. METHODS: Fifteen normotensive and non-obese adult men with and without OSA underwent polysomnography (PSG) during which normal saline was infused intravenously at a minimal rate to keep the vein open (control) or as a bolus of 22 ml/kg body weight (approximately 2 L) in a random order and crossed over after a week...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689777/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-measurement-of-xenon-in-gas-loaded-liposomes-for-neuroprotective-applications
#17
Melvin E Klegerman, Melanie R Moody, Jermaine R Hurling, Tao Peng, Shao-Ling Huang, David D McPherson
RATIONALE: We have produced a liposomal formulation of xenon (Xe-ELIP) as a neuroprotectant for inhibition of brain damage in stroke patients. This mandates development of a reliable assay to measure the amount of dissolved xenon released from Xe-ELIP in water and blood samples. METHODS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantify xenon gas released into the headspace of vials containing Xe-ELIP samples in water or blood. In order to determine blood concentration of xenon in vivo after Xe-ELIP administration, 6 mg of Xe-ELIP lipid was infused intravenously into rats...
January 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577038/anion-gap-as-a-prognostic-tool-for-risk-stratification-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Stella Andrea Glasmacher, William Stones
BACKGROUND: Lactate concentration is a robust predictor of mortality but in many low resource settings facilities for its analysis are not available. Anion gap (AG), calculated from clinical chemistry results, is a marker of metabolic acidosis and may be more easily obtained in such settings. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we investigated whether the AG predicts mortality in adult patients admitted to critical care settings. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and regional electronic databases from inception until May 2016...
2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553703/state-of-the-art-monitoring-in-treatment-of-dengue-shock-syndrome-a-case-series
#19
Steven L Moulton, Jane Mulligan, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Greg Z Grudic, Sharone Green, Robert V Gibbons, Gary W Muniz, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Alan L Rothman, Stephen J Thomas, Victor A Convertino
BACKGROUND: Early recognition and treatment of circulatory volume loss is essential in the clinical management of dengue viral infection. We hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm, originally developed for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss in combat casualties, could: (1) indicate the central volume status of children with dengue during the early stages of "shock"; and (2) track fluid resuscitation status. METHODS: Continuous noninvasive photoplethysmographic waveforms were collected over a 5-month period from three children of Thai ethnicity with clinical suspicion of dengue...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540229/the-impact-of-fixed-concentrations-sedation-infusions-on-fluid-overload-in-critically-ill-children
#20
Adam Sutherland, Elizabeth Jemmett, Stephen Playfor
INTRODUCTION: Fluid overload of 10% at 48 hrs (100 ml/kg additional fluid) is strongly associated with morbidity in critically ill children.1 Contributors include fluid resuscitation, acute kidney injury, and administration of intravenous drugs. Acute Kidney Injury has been observed to be more prevalent in infants.2 Drug infusions are historically prepared according to bodyweight to run at large volumes to facilitate end-of-bed calculation and administration. We report the impact of using standardised concentrations on fluid overload in critically ill children in a tertiary general PICU...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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