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intravenous fluid calculations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142152/indirect-proton-mr-imaging-and-kinetic-analysis-of-17-o-labeled-water-tracer-in-the-brain
#1
Kohsuke Kudo, Taisuke Harada, Hiroyuki Kameda, Ikuko Uwano, Fumio Yamashita, Satomi Higuchi, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Makoto Sasaki
PURPOSE: The feasibility of steady-state sequences for (17)O imaging was evaluated based on a kinetic analysis of the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this prospective study with written informed consent. Dynamic 2D or 3D steady-state sequences were performed in five and nine participants, respectively, with different parameters using a 3T scanner. During two consecutive dynamic scans, saline was intravenously administered for control purposes in the first scan, and 20% (17)O-labeled water (1 mL/Kg) was administered in the second scan...
November 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112650/maternal-pulse-pressure-and-the-risk-of-postepidural-complications-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Justin R Lappen, Stephen A Myers, Norman Bolen, Brian M Mercer, Edward K S Chien
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that increasing the intravenous fluid bolus volume at the time of epidural placement in women with narrow pulse pressure would reduce postepidural fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities, hypotension, and resuscitative obstetric interventions. METHODS: We performed a single-center randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants were normotensive with a nonanomalous singleton gestation at or after 35 weeks and with a narrow pulse pressure (less than 45 mm Hg) on admission...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108091/effects-of-low-dose-epinephrine-on-perioperative-hemostasis-and-inflammatory-reaction-in-major-surgeries-a%C3%A2-randomized%C3%A2-clinical-trial
#3
J L Liu, W N Zeng, F Y Wang, C Chen, X Y Gong, H Yang, Z J Tan, X L Jia, L Yang
BACKGROUND: Haemostasis, thrombosis, and surgical stress-induced immune reaction are important for perioperative morbidity and recovery in major surgeries. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combined administration of low-dose epinephrine (LDEPI) plus tranexamic acid (TXA) on perioperative blood loss, thromboembolic complications, and inflammatory response in total hip arthroplasty (THA). PATIENTS /METHODS: Patients scheduled for THA (n = 195) were randomized into 3 interventions: intravenous (IV) LDEPI plus TXA (Group IV); topical (TP) diluted-epinephrine plus TXA (Group TP); and TXA alone as control (CT) (Group CT)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091212/penetration-of-linezolid-into-synovial-fluid-and-muscle-tissue-after-elective-arthroscopy
#4
R Schwameis, S Syré, K Sarahrudi, A Appelt, D Marhofer, D Burau, C Kloft, M Zeitlinger
Objectives: Penetration of antibiotics into synovial fluid is crucial to combat septic arthritis efficiently. Since linezolid may be used for treatment of septic arthritis when methicillin-resistant bacterial strains are suspected, we investigated its target-site concentrations in synovial fluid. Patients and methods: Ten patients undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were included in this study. Subjects received a single dose of 600 mg of linezolid intravenously and linezolid concentrations were measured in plasma and by using microdialysis in muscle tissue and synovial fluid...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089037/revisiting-atenolol-as-a-low-passive-permeability-marker
#5
Xiaomei Chen, Tim Slättengren, Elizabeth C M de Lange, David E Smith, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes
BACKGROUND: Atenolol, a hydrophilic beta blocker, has been used as a model drug for studying passive permeability of biological membranes such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the intestinal epithelium. However, the extent of S-atenolol (the active enantiomer) distribution in brain has never been evaluated, at equilibrium, to confirm that no transporters are involved in its transport at the BBB. METHODS: To assess whether S-atenolol, in fact, depicts the characteristics of a low passive permeable drug at the BBB, a microdialysis study was performed in rats to monitor the unbound concentrations of S-atenolol in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and plasma during and after intravenous infusion...
October 31, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067696/pharmacokinetics-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-the-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-t-tucb-in-horses-with-experimentally-induced-radiocarpal-synovitis
#6
A G P Guedes, F Aristizabal, A Sole, A Adedeji, R Brosnan, H Knych, J Yang, S-H Hwang, C Morisseau, B D Hammock
This study determined the pharmacokinetics, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor t-TUCB (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-Trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid) in horses with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced radiocarpal synovitis. A total of seven adult healthy mares (n = 4-6/treatment) were administered 3 μg LPS into one radiocarpal joint and t-TUCB intravenously (i.v.) at 0 (control), 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg in a blinded, randomized, crossover design with at least 3 weeks washout between...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948373/evaluation-of-endolymphatic-hydrops-using-3-t-mri-after-intravenous-gadolinium-injection
#7
Takao Imai, Atsuhiko Uno, Tadashi Kitahara, Tomoko Okumura, Arata Horii, Yumi Ohta, Takashi Sato, Suzuyo Okazaki, Takefumi Kamakura, Yoshiyuki Ozono, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Yukiko Hanada, Ryusuke Imai, Kazuya Ohata, Hidenori Inohara
Aim of this work is to establish evaluation criteria for identifying endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibule and cochlea using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. This is a retrospective diagnostic study. We evaluated 70 ears of 35 unilateral Ménière's disease patients. We performed 3-T MRI 4 h after intravenous gadolinium injection. Otologists manually traced the outline of vestibule, cochlea, and endolymphatic space of the vestibule and cochlea on two-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (2D-FLAIR) images...
December 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937238/effects-of-roflumilast-a-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-on-the-lung-functions-in-a-saline-lavage-induced-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#8
P Kosutova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, S Rezakova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with deterioration of alveolar-capillary lining and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. Whereas a selective phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast has exerted potent anti-inflammatory properties, this study evaluated if its intravenous delivery can influence inflammation, edema formation, and respiratory parameters in rabbits with a lavage-induced model of ALI. ALI was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with roflumilast i...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930937/administration-of-hypertonic-solutions-for-hemorrhagic-shock-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Meng-Che Wu, Tin-Yun Liao, Erica M Lee, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Wan-Ting Hsu, Meng-Tse Gabriel Lee, Po-Yang Tsou, Shyr-Chyr Chen, Chien-Chang Lee
BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials on hypertonic fluid administration have been completed, but the results have been inconclusive. The objective of this study is to summarize current evidence for treating hypovolemic patients with hypertonic solutions by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from inception through June 2014. We included only randomized controlled trials involving hemorrhagic shock patients treated with hypertonic solutions...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927439/barriers-and-facilitators-towards-implementing-the-sepsis-six-care-bundle-bliss-1-a-mixed-methods-investigation-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework
#10
Neil Roberts, Guy Hooper, Fabiana Lorencatto, Wendell Storr, Michael Spivey
BACKGROUND: The 'Sepsis 6', a care bundle of basic, but vital, measures (e.g. intravenous fluid, antibiotics) has been implemented to improve sepsis treatment. However, uptake has been variable. Tools from behavioral sciences, such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) may be used to understand and address such implementation issues. This study used a behavioral science approach to identify barriers and facilitators towards Sepsis Six implementation at a case study hospital. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews based on the TDF were conducted with a sample group of consultants, junior doctors and nurses from Emergency Department, Medical and Surgical Admissions, to explore barriers/facilitators to Sepsis Six performance...
September 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814256/current-issues-in-intravenous-fluid-use-in-hospitalized-children
#11
Jennifer Fuchs, Sarah T Adams, Julie Byerley
BACKGROUND: Fluid and electrolyte therapy is an important component in the care of the hospitalized child. Previous pediatric guidelines have followed the Holliday-Segar method of calculating and delivering maintenance IV fluids, using hypotonic fluids in maintenance therapy. However, research demonstrates that hypotonic fluids can lead to iatrogenic hyponatremia and that isotonic fluid is a safer alternative. OBJECTIVE: To provide the ideal approach to intravenous (IV) fluid use in the hospitalized child and determine the safety and effectiveness of isotonic maintenance fluid therapy...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795486/a-reassessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-large-neutral-amino-acids-during-acute-systemic-inflammation-in-humans
#12
Rasmus H Dahl, Ronan M G Berg, Sarah Taudorf, Damian M Bailey, Carsten Lundby, Fin S Larsen, Kirsten Møller
We reassessed data from a previous study on the transcerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) using a novel mathematical model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport. The study included twelve healthy volunteers who received a 4-h intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (total dose: 0·3 ng/kg), a human experimental model of the systemic inflammatory response during the early stages of sepsis. Cerebral blood flow and arterial-to-jugular venous LNAA concentrations were measured prior to and after LPS, and the BBB transport and brain extracellular concentrations of LNAAs were calculated...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794842/mega-acer-kit%C3%A2-is-more-effective-for-warming-the-intravenous-fluid-than-ranger%C3%A2-and-thermosens%C3%A2-at-440-ml-h-of-infusion-rate-an-experimental-performance-study
#13
Dong Joon Kim, Sang Hun Kim, Keum Young So, Tae Hun An
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of intravenous fluid warmers at low and moderate flow rates below 1,000 ml/h. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of three different fluid warmers at a low flow rate (440 ml/h). METHODS: We experimentally investigated the fluid warming performances of Mega Acer Kit® (Group M, n = 10), Ranger™ (Group R, n = 10), and ThermoSens® (Group T, n = 10) at 440 ml/h for 60 min. All devices were set at a warming temperature of 41℃ with preheating for 10 min...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782112/lower-vs-higher-fluid-volumes-in-sepsis-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#14
T S Meyhoff, M H Møller, P B Hjortrup, M Cronhjort, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid administration with crystalloids is recommended in the initial management of sepsis. However, the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation on fluid volumes is low, and clinical equipoise exists. Potential benefits of restricting fluid volumes has been suggested, but the overall benefit or harm in patients with sepsis is unknown. Accordingly, we aim to assess patient-important benefits and harms of lower vs. higher fluid volumes in resuscitation of adult patients with sepsis...
September 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727093/effects-of-intravenous-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-feed-intake-ruminal-forage-degradability-and-liquid-parameters-and-physiological-responses-in-beef-cattle
#15
K D Lippolis, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
This experiment compared DMI, ruminal forage degradability, and liquid parameters as well as physiological responses in beef cattle receiving a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge or not. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford steers (485 ± 16 kg BW) were housed in individual pens on d -7, ranked by BW, and allocated to 1 of 2 treatments administered on d 0: 1) an intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose (0.5 μg/kg of BW, diluted in 5 mL of 0.9% sterile saline) of bacterial LPS ( 0111:B4) or 2) a 5-mL i.v. injection of 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719014/bioavailability-and-tolerability-of-nebulised-dexamethasone-sodium-phosphate-in-adult-horses
#16
A D Haspel, S Giguère, K A Hart, L J Berghaus, J L Davis
BACKGROUND: Nebulisation of the injectable dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) would offer an inexpensive way of delivering a potent corticosteroid directly to the lungs of horses with asthma. However, this approach would be advantageous only if systemic absorption is minimal and if the preservatives present in the formulation do not induce airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the bioavailability of nebulised DSP and to determine whether it induces airway inflammation or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in healthy adult horses...
July 18, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713530/are-cerebrospinal-fluid-protein-levels-and-plasma-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-associated-with-prognosis-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#17
Sevki Sahin, Nilgun Cinar, Sibel Karsidag
Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious acute autoimmune polyradiculopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein level and plasma neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are related with autoimmune response. We aimed to reach a prognostic indicator for GBS by using electrophysiological findings, protein level of CSF, and plasma NLR based on Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score data. Cases who met diagnostic criteria of GBS and followed at least six months were enrolled in the study. Nerve conduction study (NCS) and lumbar puncture were performed one week after symptom onset...
June 23, 2017: Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710563/an-observational-study-examining-the-effects-of-a-surgically-induced-inflammatory-response-on-the-distribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-into-cerebrospinal-fluid
#18
Yan Wang, Kerry B Goralski, Derek J Roberts, Kathryn Landry, Mark E Issa, Lekha Sleno, Lisa C Julien, Jeremy Wood, Richard I Hall
PURPOSE: Morphine is administered intravenously for pain management in the perioperative period. The effect of the inflammatory response to surgery on morphine distribution across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in humans was investigated. We hypothesized that a graded surgically induced, systemic inflammatory response alters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) through a temporary reduction in BBB drug efflux transporter function...
July 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651509/drivers-of-choice-of-resuscitation-fluid-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Colman B Taylor, Naomi E Hammond, Tracey-Lea Laba, Nicola Watts, Kelly Thompson, Manoj Saxena, Sharon Micallef, Simon Finfer, John Myburgh
OBJECTIVE: To understand the fundamental drivers, and their relative importance, of doctors' and nurses' choice of resuscitation fluid in critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. DESIGN: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) administered via an online survey. Respondents were presented with one of four randomly selected DCE choice sets, each including five patient scenarios. The respondent chose between two types of hypothetical resuscitation fluid. The fluid type was characterised by several attributes and each attribute had pre-specified levels...
June 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526694/measuring-osmosis-and-hemolysis-of-red-blood-cells
#20
Lauren K Goodhead, Frances M MacMillan
Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
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