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intravenous fluid calculations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937238/effects-of-roflumilast-a-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-on-the-lung-functions-in-a-saline-lavage-induced-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#1
P Kosutova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, S Rezakova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with deterioration of alveolar-capillary lining and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. Whereas a selective phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast has exerted potent anti-inflammatory properties, this study evaluated if its intravenous delivery can influence inflammation, edema formation, and respiratory parameters in rabbits with a lavage-induced model of ALI. ALI was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with roflumilast i...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930937/administration-of-hypertonic-solutions-for-hemorrhagic-shock-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#2
Meng-Che Wu, Tin-Yun Liao, Erica M Lee, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Wan-Ting Hsu, Meng-Tse Gabriel Lee, Po-Yang Tsou, Shyr-Chyr Chen, Chien-Chang Lee
BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials on hypertonic fluid administration have been completed, but the results have been inconclusive. The objective of this study is to summarize current evidence for treating hypovolemic patients with hypertonic solutions by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from inception through June 2014. We included only randomized controlled trials involving hemorrhagic shock patients treated with hypertonic solutions...
September 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927439/barriers-and-facilitators-towards-implementing-the-sepsis-six-care-bundle-bliss-1-a-mixed-methods-investigation-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework
#3
Neil Roberts, Guy Hooper, Fabiana Lorencatto, Wendell Storr, Michael Spivey
BACKGROUND: The 'Sepsis 6', a care bundle of basic, but vital, measures (e.g. intravenous fluid, antibiotics) has been implemented to improve sepsis treatment. However, uptake has been variable. Tools from behavioral sciences, such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) may be used to understand and address such implementation issues. This study used a behavioral science approach to identify barriers and facilitators towards Sepsis Six implementation at a case study hospital. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews based on the TDF were conducted with a sample group of consultants, junior doctors and nurses from Emergency Department, Medical and Surgical Admissions, to explore barriers/facilitators to Sepsis Six performance...
September 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814256/current-issues-in-intravenous-fluid-use-in-hospitalized-children
#4
Jennifer Fuchs, Sarah T Adams, Julie Byerley
BACKGROUND: Fluid and electrolyte therapy is an important component in the care of the hospitalized child. Previous pediatric guidelines have followed the Holliday-Segar method of calculating and delivering maintenance IV fluids, using hypotonic fluids in maintenance therapy. However, research demonstrates that hypotonic fluids can lead to iatrogenic hyponatremia and that isotonic fluid is a safer alternative. OBJECTIVE: To provide the ideal approach to intravenous (IV) fluid use in the hospitalized child and determine the safety and effectiveness of isotonic maintenance fluid therapy...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795486/a-reassessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-large-neutral-amino-acids-during-acute-systemic-inflammation-in-humans
#5
Rasmus H Dahl, Ronan M G Berg, Sarah Taudorf, Damian M Bailey, Carsten Lundby, Fin S Larsen, Kirsten Møller
We reassessed data from a previous study on the transcerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) using a novel mathematical model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport. The study included twelve healthy volunteers who received a 4-h intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (total dose: 0·3 ng/kg), a human experimental model of the systemic inflammatory response during the early stages of sepsis. Cerebral blood flow and arterial-to-jugular venous LNAA concentrations were measured prior to and after LPS, and the BBB transport and brain extracellular concentrations of LNAAs were calculated...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794842/mega-acer-kit%C3%A2-is-more-effective-for-warming-the-intravenous-fluid-than-ranger%C3%A2-and-thermosens%C3%A2-at-440-ml-h-of-infusion-rate-an-experimental-performance-study
#6
Dong Joon Kim, Sang Hun Kim, Keum Young So, Tae Hun An
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of intravenous fluid warmers at low and moderate flow rates below 1,000 ml/h. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of three different fluid warmers at a low flow rate (440 ml/h). METHODS: We experimentally investigated the fluid warming performances of Mega Acer Kit® (Group M, n = 10), Ranger™ (Group R, n = 10), and ThermoSens® (Group T, n = 10) at 440 ml/h for 60 min. All devices were set at a warming temperature of 41℃ with preheating for 10 min...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782112/lower-vs-higher-fluid-volumes-in-sepsis-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#7
T S Meyhoff, M H Møller, P B Hjortrup, M Cronhjort, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid administration with crystalloids is recommended in the initial management of sepsis. However, the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation on fluid volumes is low, and clinical equipoise exists. Potential benefits of restricting fluid volumes has been suggested, but the overall benefit or harm in patients with sepsis is unknown. Accordingly, we aim to assess patient-important benefits and harms of lower vs. higher fluid volumes in resuscitation of adult patients with sepsis...
September 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727093/effects-of-intravenous-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-feed-intake-ruminal-forage-degradability-and-liquid-parameters-and-physiological-responses-in-beef-cattle
#8
K D Lippolis, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
This experiment compared DMI, ruminal forage degradability, and liquid parameters as well as physiological responses in beef cattle receiving a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge or not. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford steers (485 ± 16 kg BW) were housed in individual pens on d -7, ranked by BW, and allocated to 1 of 2 treatments administered on d 0: 1) an intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose (0.5 μg/kg of BW, diluted in 5 mL of 0.9% sterile saline) of bacterial LPS ( 0111:B4) or 2) a 5-mL i.v. injection of 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719014/bioavailability-and-tolerability-of-nebulised-dexamethasone-sodium-phosphate-in-adult-horses
#9
A D Haspel, S Giguère, K A Hart, L J Berghaus, J L Davis
BACKGROUND: Nebulisation of the injectable dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) would offer an inexpensive way of delivering a potent corticosteroid directly to the lungs of horses with asthma. However, this approach would be advantageous only if systemic absorption is minimal and if the preservatives present in the formulation do not induce airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the bioavailability of nebulised DSP and to determine whether it induces airway inflammation or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in healthy adult horses...
July 18, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713530/are-cerebrospinal-fluid-protein-levels-and-plasma-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-associated-with-prognosis-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#10
Sevki Sahin, Nilgun Cinar, Sibel Karsidag
Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious acute autoimmune polyradiculopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein level and plasma neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are related with autoimmune response. We aimed to reach a prognostic indicator for GBS by using electrophysiological findings, protein level of CSF, and plasma NLR based on Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score data. Cases who met diagnostic criteria of GBS and followed at least six months were enrolled in the study. Nerve conduction study (NCS) and lumbar puncture were performed one week after symptom onset...
June 23, 2017: Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710563/an-observational-study-examining-the-effects-of-a-surgically-induced-inflammatory-response-on-the-distribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-into-cerebrospinal-fluid
#11
Yan Wang, Kerry B Goralski, Derek J Roberts, Kathryn Landry, Mark E Issa, Lekha Sleno, Lisa C Julien, Jeremy Wood, Richard I Hall
PURPOSE: Morphine is administered intravenously for pain management in the perioperative period. The effect of the inflammatory response to surgery on morphine distribution across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in humans was investigated. We hypothesized that a graded surgically induced, systemic inflammatory response alters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) through a temporary reduction in BBB drug efflux transporter function...
July 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651509/drivers-of-choice-of-resuscitation-fluid-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Colman B Taylor, Naomi E Hammond, Tracey-Lea Laba, Nicola Watts, Kelly Thompson, Manoj Saxena, Sharon Micallef, Simon Finfer, John Myburgh
OBJECTIVE: To understand the fundamental drivers, and their relative importance, of doctors' and nurses' choice of resuscitation fluid in critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. DESIGN: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) administered via an online survey. Respondents were presented with one of four randomly selected DCE choice sets, each including five patient scenarios. The respondent chose between two types of hypothetical resuscitation fluid. The fluid type was characterised by several attributes and each attribute had pre-specified levels...
June 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526694/measuring-osmosis-and-hemolysis-of-red-blood-cells
#13
Lauren K Goodhead, Frances M MacMillan
Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506222/computational-fluid-dynamics-study-of-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-for-oral-cancer
#14
Hiroaki Kitajima, Marie Oshima, Toshinori Iwai, Yoshihito Ohhara, Yasuharu Yajima, Kenji Mitsudo, Iwai Tohnai
BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for oral cancer can deliver a higher concentration of anticancer agent into a tumor-feeding artery than intravenous systemic chemotherapy. However, distribution of anticancer agent into several branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) in IAC has not demonstrated sufficient treatment efficacy. To improve the effectiveness of IAC, the flow distribution of anticancer agent into the branches of the ECA in several IAC methods was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
May 15, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460808/emergency-department-septic-shock-patient-mortality-with-refractory-hypotension-vs-hyperlactatemia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Michael D April, Chase Donaldson, Lloyd I Tannenbaum, Tyler Moore, Jose Aguirre, Alexander Pingree, James H Lantry
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to compare in-hospital mortality among emergency department (ED) patients meeting trial-based criteria for septic shock based upon whether presenting with refractory hypotension (systolic blood pressure<90mmHg after 1L intravenous fluid bolus) versus hyperlactatemia (initial lactate≥4mmol/L). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis by chart review of ED patients admitted to an intensive care unit with suspected infection during 1 August 2012-28 February 2015...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414668/autoimmune-diabetes-presented-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-induced-by-immunotherapy-in-an-adult-with-melanoma
#16
A A Alzenaidi, J Dendy, L Rejjal
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has been approved for treatment of melanoma. Autoimmune endocrinopathies have been reported in trials involving immunotherapy but autoimmune diabetes has not been definitively linked to them. Here we describe a case of autoimmune diabetes presenting with DKA after receiving combined immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies. CASE: A 47year old gentleman with metastatic melanoma presented to our institution with confusion, abdominal pain and decreased oral intake...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372696/effectiveness-of-active-and-passive-warming-for-the-prevention-of-inadvertent-hypothermia-in-patients-receiving-neuraxial-anesthesia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Clarissa A Shaw, Victoria M Steelman, Jennifer DeBerg, Marin L Schweizer
OBJECTIVE: Perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of anesthesia that can result in negative outcomes. The purpose of this review is to answer the question: Does the type of warming intervention influence the frequency or severity of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) in surgical patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia? DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Perioperative care areas. PATIENTS: Adults undergoing surgery with neuraxial anesthesia...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356130/parecoxib-reduced-ventilation-induced-lung-injury-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
Fan-You Meng, Wei Gao, Ying-Nan Ju
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contributes to ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of present study was to observe the therapeutic effect of parecoxib on VILI in ARDS. METHODS: In this parallel controlled study performed at Harbin Medical University, China between January 2016 and March 2016, 24 rats were randomly allocated into sham group (S), volume ventilation group/ARDS (VA), parecoxib/volume ventilation group/ARDS (PVA)...
March 29, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353155/occurrence-of-potential-adverse-drug-events-from-prescribing-errors-in-a-pediatric-intensive-and-high-dependency-unit-in-hong-kong-an-observational-study
#19
Celeste L Y Ewig, Hon Ming Cheung, Kwok Ho Kam, Hiu Lam Wong, Chad A Knoderer
BACKGROUND: Critically ill pediatric patients are considered at high risk for medication errors. Although much research focuses on the actual errors, equally important are medication errors that, although intercepted, carried the potential for an adverse drug event. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of prescribing errors and potential adverse drug events (pADEs) in a local pediatric intensive and critical care unit (PICU) in Hong Kong. Our secondary objective was to determine the type of error, nature of medication involved and the time of error occurrence...
August 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290002/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-pharmacokinetics-of-select-chemotherapeutic-agents-following-intranasal-delivery-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#20
James C League-Pascual, Cynthia M Lester-McCully, Shaefali Shandilya, Lukas Ronner, Louis Rodgers, Rafael Cruz, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Katherine E Warren
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of most chemotherapeutic agents into the CNS, resulting in inadequate exposure within CNS tumor tissue. Intranasal administration is a proposed means of delivery that can bypass the BBB, potentially resulting in more effective chemotherapeutic exposure at the tumor site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics (plasma and CSF) of intranasal delivery using select chemotherapeutic agents in a non-human primate (NHP) model. Three chemotherapeutic agents with known differences in CNS penetration were selected for intranasal administration in a NHP model to determine proof of principle of CNS delivery, assess tolerability and feasibility, and to evaluate whether certain drug characteristics were associated with increased CNS exposure...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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