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intravenous fluid calculations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526694/measuring-osmosis-and-hemolysis-of-red-blood-cells
#1
Lauren K Goodhead, Frances M MacMillan
Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506222/computational-fluid-dynamics-study-of-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-for-oral-cancer
#2
Hiroaki Kitajima, Marie Oshima, Toshinori Iwai, Yoshihito Ohhara, Yasuharu Yajima, Kenji Mitsudo, Iwai Tohnai
BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for oral cancer can deliver a higher concentration of anticancer agent into a tumor-feeding artery than intravenous systemic chemotherapy. However, distribution of anticancer agent into several branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) in IAC has not demonstrated sufficient treatment efficacy. To improve the effectiveness of IAC, the flow distribution of anticancer agent into the branches of the ECA in several IAC methods was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
May 15, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460808/emergency-department-septic-shock-patient-mortality-with-refractory-hypotension-vs-hyperlactatemia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Michael D April, Chase Donaldson, Lloyd I Tannenbaum, Tyler Moore, Jose Aguirre, Alexander Pingree, James H Lantry
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to compare in-hospital mortality among emergency department (ED) patients meeting trial-based criteria for septic shock based upon whether presenting with refractory hypotension (systolic blood pressure<90mmHg after 1L intravenous fluid bolus) versus hyperlactatemia (initial lactate≥4mmol/L). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis by chart review of ED patients admitted to an intensive care unit with suspected infection during 1 August 2012-28 February 2015...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414668/autoimmune-diabetes-presented-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-induced-by-immunotherapy-in-an-adult-with-melanoma
#4
A A Alzenaidi, J Dendy, L Rejjal
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has been approved for treatment of melanoma. Autoimmune endocrinopathies have been reported in trials involving immunotherapy but autoimmune diabetes has not been definitively linked to them. Here we describe a case of autoimmune diabetes presenting with DKA after receiving combined immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies. CASE: A 47year old gentleman with metastatic melanoma presented to our institution with confusion, abdominal pain and decreased oral intake...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372696/effectiveness-of-active-and-passive-warming-for-the-prevention-of-inadvertent-hypothermia-in-patients-receiving-neuraxial-anesthesia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Clarissa A Shaw, Victoria M Steelman, Jennifer DeBerg, Marin L Schweizer
OBJECTIVE: Perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of anesthesia that can result in negative outcomes. The purpose of this review is to answer the question: Does the type of warming intervention influence the frequency or severity of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) in surgical patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia? DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Perioperative care areas. PATIENTS: Adults undergoing surgery with neuraxial anesthesia...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356130/parecoxib-reduced-ventilation-induced-lung-injury-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
Fan-You Meng, Wei Gao, Ying-Nan Ju
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contributes to ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of present study was to observe the therapeutic effect of parecoxib on VILI in ARDS. METHODS: In this parallel controlled study performed at Harbin Medical University, China between January 2016 and March 2016, 24 rats were randomly allocated into sham group (S), volume ventilation group/ARDS (VA), parecoxib/volume ventilation group/ARDS (PVA)...
March 29, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353155/occurrence-of-potential-adverse-drug-events-from-prescribing-errors-in-a-pediatric-intensive-and-high-dependency-unit-in-hong-kong-an-observational-study
#7
Celeste L Y Ewig, Hon Ming Cheung, Kwok Ho Kam, Hiu Lam Wong, Chad A Knoderer
BACKGROUND: Critically ill pediatric patients are considered at high risk for medication errors. Although much research focuses on the actual errors, equally important are medication errors that, although intercepted, carried the potential for an adverse drug event. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of prescribing errors and potential adverse drug events (pADEs) in a local pediatric intensive and critical care unit (PICU) in Hong Kong. Our secondary objective was to determine the type of error, nature of medication involved and the time of error occurrence...
March 28, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290002/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-pharmacokinetics-of-select-chemotherapeutic-agents-following-intranasal-delivery-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#8
James C League-Pascual, Cynthia M Lester-McCully, Shaefali Shandilya, Lukas Ronner, Louis Rodgers, Rafael Cruz, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Katherine E Warren
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of most chemotherapeutic agents into the CNS, resulting in inadequate exposure within CNS tumor tissue. Intranasal administration is a proposed means of delivery that can bypass the BBB, potentially resulting in more effective chemotherapeutic exposure at the tumor site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics (plasma and CSF) of intranasal delivery using select chemotherapeutic agents in a non-human primate (NHP) model. Three chemotherapeutic agents with known differences in CNS penetration were selected for intranasal administration in a NHP model to determine proof of principle of CNS delivery, assess tolerability and feasibility, and to evaluate whether certain drug characteristics were associated with increased CNS exposure...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289935/repeated-intravenous-administration-of-gadobutrol-does-not-lead-to-increased-signal-intensity-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-images-a-voxel-based-whole-brain-analysis
#9
Soenke Langner, Marie-Luise Kromrey, Jens-Peter Kuehn, Matthias Grothe, Martin Domin
OBJECTIVES: To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. METHODS: In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol...
March 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208965/long-term-outcomes-of-kangaroo-mother-care-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#10
Sunil Gavhane, Deepak Eklare, Haseeb Mohammad
INTRODUCTION: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) has been gaining acceptance as an effective alternative to incubator based Conventional Medical Care (CMC) in preterm or Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants especially in resource scarce developing countries. AIM: To report and analyse the long-term effects of KMC for relatively stable Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants on nutritional indicators and feeding conditions at 6-12 months of corrected age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was done at a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a teaching institution in southern India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091837/peritoneal-fluid-of-low-ct-hounsfield-units-as-a-screening-criterion-for-traumatic-bowel-perforation
#12
Yon-Cheong Wong, Li-Jen Wang, Cheng-Hsien Wu, Huan-Wu Chen, Being-Chuan Lin, Yu-Pao Hsu
PURPOSE: To investigate whether peritoneal fluid of low CT Hounsfield units is an important screening criterion for traumatic bowel perforation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on two cohorts of blunt trauma patients who had peritoneal fluid. Intravenous and oral contrast was used for the first cohort (61 patients) as opposed to intravenous contrast only for the second cohort (60 patients). We compared the CT Hounsfield units of peritoneal fluid with bowel perforation...
April 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043308/diagnostic-accuracy-of-modified-ct-severity-index-in-assessing-severity-of-acute-pancreatitis
#13
Amna Rehan, Zonaira Shabbir, Asim Shaukat, Osman Riaz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of modified CT severity index in assessing the severe acute pancreatitis keeping APACHE II as gold standard. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional (validation) study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Radiology, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, from February to August 2014. METHODOLOGY: A total of 120 patients of either gender aged 20-60 years with epigastric pain radiating to back and having sonographic findings (decreased or heterogeneous pancreatic echogenicity, pancreatic enlargement, peripancreatic fluid collection), supportive of acute pancreatitis were taken...
December 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039243/electrical-impedance-tomography-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-stroke-volume-variation-in-health-and-experimental-lung-injury
#14
C J C Trepte, C Phillips, J Solà, A Adler, B Saugel, S Haas, S H Bohm, D A Reuter
BACKGROUND: Functional imaging by thoracic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive approach to continuously assess central stroke volume variation (SVV) for guiding fluid therapy. The early available data were from healthy lungs without injury-related changes in thoracic impedance as a potentially influencing factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate SVV measured by EIT (SVVEIT) against SVV from pulse contour analysis (SVVPC) in an experimental animal model of acute lung injury at different lung volumes...
January 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000146/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-treatment-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Cecilia J Sorensen, Kristen DeSanto, Laura Borgelt, Kristina T Phillips, Andrew A Monte
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with cannabis use. Our objective is to summarize the available evidence on CHS diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 through September 24, 2015. Articles eligible for inclusion were evaluated using the Grading and Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data were abstracted from the articles and case reports and were combined in a cumulative synthesis...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932763/-effect-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-on-defecation-and-vip-camp-pka-aqp3-signaling-pathway-%C3%A2-in-rats-with-constipation
#16
Yongxue Zhou, Yujin Wang, Hong Zhang, Shuguang Yan, Bin Wang, Pei Xie
To observe the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the metabolism of intestinal fluid and cyclic AMP protein kinase A signaling pathway (cAMP-PKA) and water channel protein 3 (AQP3) in rats with constipation, and to explore the mechanism of VIP in the treatment of constipation.
 Methods: A total of 45 healthy adult rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a model +VIP group. After 4 weeks of VIP treatment, the first black stool time were examined with the ink gastric method; the water content in feces was calculated; the morphological changes in colonic tissues were observed by HE staining...
November 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882418/compliance-with-guidelines-of-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-gastrectomy
#17
Oh Jeong, Young Kyu Park, Mi Ran Jung, Seong Yeob Ryu
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) aims at expediting postoperative recovery by implementing specific strategies in perioperative management. However, the tolerance to such fast-tracking protocols is under debate, especially in elderly patients. We aimed to investigate rate of compliance with the main ERAS guidelines in elderly gastrectomy patients. METHODS: Using data for 168 gastric cancer patients who underwent ERAS after gastrectomy as part of Clinical Trial NCT01653496, we calculated the rates of compliance with nine main ERAS guidelines and compared the compliance rates of elderly (≥70 years) and non-elderly (<70 years) patients...
April 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821445/substantial-targeting-advantage-achieved-by-pulmonary-administration-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-in-a-large-animal-model
#18
Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Tri-Hung Nguyen, Linh Thuy Lieu, Gary Nguyen, Robert J Bischof, Els N Meeusen, Jian Li, Roger L Nation, Michelle P McIntosh
Colistin, administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is often used in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pulmonary infections. The CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous and pulmonary dosing have not been evaluated in a large-animal model with pulmonary architecture similar to that of humans. Six merino sheep (34 to 43 kg body weight) received an intravenous or pulmonary dose of 4 to 8 mg/kg CMS (sodium) or 2 to 3 mg/kg colistin (sulfate) in a 4-way crossover study...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779353/mortality-following-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-repair-the-role-of-anesthesia
#19
Chulananda Goonasekera, Kamal Ali, Ann Hickey, Lekshmi Sasidharan, Malcolm Mathew, Mark Davenport, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Mortality following surgical repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains high. The volume and type of perioperative intravenous fluid administered, baro-trauma, oxygen toxicity, and the duration of anesthesia are thought to affect outcome in surgical populations. AIMS: The aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine whether the perioperative volume or type of fluids and/or the duration of anesthesia were associated with postoperative mortality and if mortality was predicted by the oxygenation index (OI) prior to or following CDH surgical repair...
December 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749346/intravenous-air-the-partially-invisible-phenomenon
#20
Christopher Varga, Isaac Luria, Nikolaus Gravenstein
BACKGROUND: Air injection is carefully avoided during IV solution administration; however, ambient air is dissolved in all liquids used for intravenous (IV) therapy. A portion of this gas will come out of solution in the form of bubbles as the solution is warmed to body temperature in a fluid warming system and/or within the body. We sought to quantify the proportion of the gas theoretically dissolved in room temperature crystalloid and 4°C blood products that comes out of solution in the IV tubing on warming to 37°C...
November 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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