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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040868/identification-of-a-novel-proinsulin-associated-snp-and-demonstration-that-proinsulin-is-unlikely-to-be-a-causal-factor-in-subclinical-vascular-remodelling-using-mendelian-randomisation
#1
Rona J Strawbridge, Angela Silveira, Marcel den Hoed, Stefan Gustafsson, Jian'an Luan, Denis Rybin, Josée Dupuis, Ruifang Li-Gao, Maryam Kavousi, Abbas Dehghan, Kadri Haljas, Jari Lahti, Jesper R Gådin, Alexandra Bäcklund, Ulf de Faire, Karl Gertow, Phillipe Giral, Anuj Goel, Steve E Humphries, Sudhir Kurl, Claudia Langenberg, Lars L Lannfelt, Lars Lind, Cecilia C M Lindgren, Elmo Mannarino, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Andrew P Morris, Renée de Mutsert, Rainer Rauramaa, Peter Saliba-Gustafsson, Bengt Sennblad, Andries J Smit, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Elena Tremoli, Fabrizio Veglia, Björn Zethelius, Hanna M Björck, Johan G Eriksson, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Hugh Watkins, J Wouter Jukema, Jose C Florez, Nicholas J Wareham, James B Meigs, Erik Ingelsson, Damiano Baldassarre, Anders Hamsten
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased proinsulin relative to insulin levels have been associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (measured by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)) and are predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of established risk factors. The mechanisms linking proinsulin to atherosclerosis and CVD are unclear. A genome-wide meta-analysis has identified nine loci associated with circulating proinsulin levels. Using proinsulin-associated SNPs, we set out to use a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that proinsulin plays a causal role in subclinical vascular remodelling...
September 28, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040513/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-reduced-levels-of-polyunsaturated-choline-plasmalogens-and-a-smaller-dimethylarginine-arginine-ratio-in-the-follicular-fluid-of-patients-with-a-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#2
J M Chao de la Barca, T Boueilh, G Simard, L Boucret, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, L Tessier, C Gadras, P E Bouet, P Descamps, V Procaccio, P Reynier, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040007/probing-birth-order-effects-on-narrow-traits-using-specification-curve-analysis
#3
Julia M Rohrer, Boris Egloff, Stefan C Schmukle
The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036836/a-panel-of-slow-channel-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-mice-reveals-a-unique-locomotor-behavioral-signature
#4
José G Grajales-Reyes, Aurian García-González, José C María-Ríos, Gary E Grajales-Reyes, Manuel Delgado-Vélez, Carlos A Báez-Pagán, Orestes Quesada, Christopher M Gómez, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mutations can lead to altered channel kinetics and neuromuscular junction degeneration, a neurodegenerative disorder collectively known as slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS). A multivariate analysis using running wheels was used to generate activity profiles for a variety of SCCMS models, uncovering unique locomotor patterns for the different nAChR mutants. Particularly, the αL251T and ɛL269F mutations exhibit decreased event distance, duration, and velocity over a period of 24 hours...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036622/comparison-between-padc-and-fntd-neutron-detector-systems-in-blind-tests
#5
E G Yukihara, M S Akselrod, V Fomenko, J Harrison, M Million, F Assenmacher, A Stabilini, K Meier
The objective of this study was to compare a neutron dosimetry system based on polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) detectors with a new system based on Al2O3:C,Mg fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTD). The irradiations, performed as part of an intercomparison organized by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany, were on a PMMA phantom with 252Cf or 241Am-Be source, usually with the phantom surface perpendicular to the radiation beam (0° angle), and with Hp(10) values between 0.3 and 7 mSv...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036614/identification-of-a-candidate-mutation-in-the-col1a2-gene-of-a-chow-chow-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#6
E M Quist, R Doan, R R Pool, B F Porter, D L Bannasch, S V Dindot
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease that occurs in humans and animals. Individuals with OI exhibit signs of extreme bone fragility and osteopenia with frequent fractures and perinatal lethality in severe cases. In this study, we report the clinical diagnosis of OI in a dog and the use targeted next-generation sequencing to identify a candidate autosomal dominant mutation in the COL1A2 gene. A five-month old male Chow Chow was examined with a fractured left humerus and resolving, bilateral femoral fractures...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036523/stress-dependent-association-between-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-schizotypal-traits-in-young-army-recruits
#7
Alex Hatzimanolis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Dan E Arking, Anna Moes, Pallav Bhatnagar, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Roussos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Panos Bitsios, Nicholas C Stefanis
Schizotypal personality traits may increase proneness to psychosis and likely index familial vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), implying shared genetic determinants with SZ. Here, we sought to investigate the contribution of common genetic risk variation for SZ on self-reported schizotypy in 2 ethnically homogeneous cohorts of healthy young males during compulsory military service, enrolled in the Athens Study of Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS, N = 875) and the Learning on Genetics of Schizophrenia Spectrum study (LOGOS, N = 690)...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036431/longitudinal-outcomes-of-radiofrequency-ablation-versus-surveillance-endoscopy-for-barrett-s-esophagus-with-low-grade-dysplasia
#8
A Kahn, M Al-Qaisi, V T Kommineni, J K Callaway, E S Boroff, G E Burdick, D M Lam-Himlin, M Temkit, M F Vela, F C Ramirez
Radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus with low-grade dysplasia is recommended in recent American College of Gastroenterology guidelines, with endoscopic surveillance considered a reasonable alternative. Few studies have directly compared outcomes of radiofrequency ablation to surveillance and those that have are limited by short duration of follow-up. This study aims to compare the long-term effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation versus endoscopic surveillance in a large, longitudinal cohort of patients with Barrett's esophagus, and low-grade dysplasia...
September 27, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035636/quantification-of-nitrogen-in-the-liquid-fraction-and-in-vitro-assessment-of-lysine-bioavailability-in-the-solid-fraction-of-soybean-meal-hydrolysates
#9
D Luján-Rhenals, R Morawicki, Z Shi, S C Ricke
Soybean meal (SBM) is a product generated from the manufacture of soybean oil and has the potential for use as a source of fermentable sugars for ethanol production or as a protein source for animal feeds. Knowing the levels of nitrogen available from ammonium is a necessary element of the ethanolic fermentation process while identifying the levels of essential amino acids such as lysine is important in determining usage as a feed source. As such the purpose of this study was to quantify total nitrogen and ammonium in the liquid fraction of hydrolyzed SBM and to evaluate total and bioavailable lysine in the solid fraction of the hydrolyzed SBM...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035544/addressing-the-fundamental-electronic-properties-of-wurtzite-gaas-nanowires-by-high-field-magneto-photoluminescence-spectroscopy
#10
Marta De Luca, Silvia Rubini, Marco Felici, Alan Meaney, Peter C M Christianen, Faustino Martelli, Antonio Polimeni
At ambient conditions, GaAs forms in the zincblende (ZB) phase with the notable exception of nanowires (NWs), where the wurtzite (WZ) lattice is also found. The WZ formation is both a complication to be dealt with and a potential feature to be exploited, e.g., in NW homostructures wherein ZB and WZ phases alternate controllably and thus band gap engineering is achieved. Despite intense studies, some of the fundamental electronic properties of WZ GaAs NWs are not fully assessed, yet. In this work, by using photoluminescence (PL) under high magnetic fields (B=0-28 T), we measure the diamagnetic shift, ΔEd, and the Zeeman splitting of the band gap free exciton in WZ GaAs formed in core-shell InGaAs-GaAs NWs...
October 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035220/robot-training-with-vector-fields-based-on-stroke-survivors-individual-movement-statistics
#11
Zachary A Wright, Emily Lazzaro, Kelly O Thielbar, James L Patton, Felix C Huang
The wide variation in upper extremity motor impairments among stroke survivors necessitates more intelligent methods of customized therapy. However, current strategies for characterizing individual motor impairments are limited by the use of traditional clinical assessments (e.g. Fugl-Meyer) and simple engineering metrics (e.g. goal-directed performance). Our overall approach is to statistically identify the range of volitional movement capabilities, and then apply a robot-applied force vector field intervention that encourages under-expressed movements...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034571/association-between-subclinical-thyroid-dysfunction-and-change-in-bone-mineral-density-in-prospective-cohorts
#12
D Segna, D C Bauer, M Feller, C Schneider, H A Fink, C E Aubert, T-H Collet, B R da Costa, K Fischer, R P Peeters, A R Cappola, M R Blum, H A van Dorland, J Robbins, K Naylor, R Eastell, A G Uitterlinden, F Rivadeneira Ramirez, A Gogakos, J Gussekloo, G R Williams, A Schwartz, J A Cauley, D A Aujesky, H A Bischoff-Ferrari, N Rodondi
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) has been associated with increased risk of hip and other fractures, but the linking mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and bone loss. METHODS: Individual participant data analysis was performed after a systematic literature search in MEDLINE/EMBASE (1946-2016). Two reviewers independently screened and selected prospective cohorts providing baseline thyroid status and serial bone mineral density (BMD) measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#13
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034224/trends-in-motor-performance-of-first-graders-a-comparison-of-cohorts-from-2006-to-2015
#14
Sarah Spengler, Matthias Rabel, Arvid Marius Kuritz, Filip Mess
BACKGROUND: Motor performance is an important factor for health. Already in childhood, motor performance is associated with, e.g., obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. It is widely believed that the motor performance of children has declined over recent years. However, this belief is lacking clear evidence. The objective of this study was to examine trends in motor performance of first grade students during a period of 10 years (2006-2015). We examined trends in (a) aerobic fitness, (b) strength, (c) speed, and (d) balance for boys and girls separately and considered body mass index (BMI) as a potential confounder...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034208/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-following-surgical-resection-of-early-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Brooke C Bloom, Alexander Augustyn, Boris Sepesi, Sunil Patel, Shalin J Shah, Ritsuko U Komaki, Steven E Schild, Stephen G Chun
With increasing use of low-dose screening CT scans, the diagnosis of early-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) without evidence of mediastinal nodal or distant metastasis is likely to become more common, but the role of adjuvant therapies such as prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) are not well understood in this population. We performed a review of the literature pertaining to the impact of PCI in patients who underwent surgical resection of early-stage SCLC. Four studies were identified that were pertinent including three single-institution retrospective analyses and a National Cancer Database analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033337/five-year-results-of-great-saphenous-vein-treatment-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Sterre A S Hamann, Jenny Giang, Marianne G R De Maeseneer, Tamar E C Nijsten, Renate R van den Bos
OBJECTIVES: The most frequently used treatment options for great saphenous vein incompetence are high ligation with stripping (HL+S), endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA), mainly consisting of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) or radiofrequency ablation, and ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS). The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the long-term efficacy of these different treatment modalities. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032464/nutritional-composition-of-honey-bee-food-stores-vary-with-floral-composition
#17
Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W Pickup, Kevin C Jones, Eileen F Power, Geraldine A Wright, Kenneth Wilson
Sufficiently diverse and abundant resources are essential for generalist consumers, and form an important part of a suite of conservation strategies for pollinators. Honey bees are generalist foragers and are dependent on diverse forage to adequately meet their nutritional needs. Through analysis of stored pollen (bee bread) samples obtained from 26 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives across NW-England, we quantified bee bread nutritional content and the plant species that produced these stores from pollen...
October 14, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031848/local-national-and-regional-viral-haemorrhagic-fever-pandemic-potential-in-africa-a-multistage-analysis
#18
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
October 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031778/extended-adjuvant-aromatase-inhibition-after-sequential-endocrine-therapy-data-a-randomised-phase-3-trial
#19
Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen, Irene E G van Hellemond, Petronella G M Peer, Astrid C P Swinkels, Carolien H Smorenburg, Maurice J C van der Sangen, Judith R Kroep, Hiltje De Graaf, Aafke H Honkoop, Frans L G Erdkamp, Franchette W P J van den Berkmortel, Maaike de Boer, Wilfred K de Roos, Sabine C Linn, Alexander L T Imholz, Caroline M Seynaeve
BACKGROUND: The effect of extended adjuvant aromatase inhibition in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer after sequential endocrine therapy of tamoxifen followed by an aromatase inhibitor for a 5-year treatment period still needs clarification. To address this issue, we began the DATA study to assess different durations of anastrozole therapy after tamoxifen. METHODS: DATA was a prospective, randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 study done in 79 hospitals in the Netherlands...
October 11, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031298/game-meat-authentication-through-rare-earth-elements-fingerprinting
#20
G P Danezis, A C Pappas, E Zoidis, G Papadomichelakis, I Hadjigeorgiou, P Zhang, V Brusic, C A Georgiou
Accurate labelling of meat (e.g. wild versus farmed, geographical and genetic origin, organic versus conventional, processing treatment) is important to inform the consumers about the products they buy. Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi-element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
October 23, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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