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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913998/immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer-past-present-and-future
#1
Alison Spellman, Shou-Ching Tang
Immunotherapy has shown promise in many solid tumors including melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer with an evolving role in breast cancer. Immunotherapy encompasses a wide range of therapies including immune checkpoint inhibition, monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, vaccinations, antibody-drug conjugates, and identifying other emerging interventions targeting the tumor microenvironment. Increasing efficacy of these treatments in breast cancer patients requires identification of better biomarkers to guide patient selection; recognizing when to initiate these therapies in multi-modality treatment plans; establishing novel assays to monitor immune-mediated responses; and creating combined systemic therapy options incorporating conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and endocrine therapy...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913215/influence-of-surveillance-pet-ct-on-detection-of-early-recurrence-after-definitive-radiation-in-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Jay P Reddy, Chad Tang, Tina Shih, Bumyang Kim, Charissa Kim, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, James Welsh, Marcelo Benveniste, Jianjun Zhang, Zhongxing Liao, Daniel R Gomez
BACKGROUND: There are few data to support the use of varying imaging modalities in evaluating recurrence in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared the efficacy of surveillance positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) versus CT scans of the chest in detecting recurrences after definitive radiation for NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients treated between 2000 and 2011 who met the inclusion criteria of stage III NSCLC, completion of definitive radiation treatment, and absence of recurrence within the initial 6 months...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912990/cancer-rehabilitation-an-overview-of-current-need-delivery-models-and-levels-of-care
#3
REVIEW
Andrea L Cheville, Karen Mustian, Kerri Winters-Stone, David S Zucker, Gail L Gamble, Catherine M Alfano
The relevance of cancer rehabilitation as a public health issue grows steadily as cancer incidence, survival, and mean patient age increase. Reported rates of physical impairment and disability are already high, prior to the anticipated influx of aged cancer survivors. Despite the high prevalence of cancer-related disablement, treatment rates, even for readily remediable physical impairments, are as low as 1-2%. In addition to low referral rates, a challenge to patient-centric cancer rehabilitation is a fractured system that requires multiple visits to a range of specialists to address even a single issue, and cancer survivors generally have several...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910740/oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-current-treatment-strategies-and-nanotechnology-based-approaches-for-prevention-and-therapy
#5
Sankalp A Gharat, Munira Momin, Chintan Bhavsar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer; it involves damage to oral epithelial cells due to accumulation of multiple genetic mutations in the cells. OSCC remains major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco, smoking, alcohol consumption alone or with chewing tobacco, and betel quid are potential carcinogens contributing to the high occurrence of OSCC. Current treatment modalities for OSCC like chemoradiotherapy, surgery, EGFR inhibitors and COX-2 inhibitors, and photodynamic therapy have led to the major problems related to non-specific cell death...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909639/factors-associated-with-the-use-of-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-alberta-canada-a-population-based-study
#6
Hong-Wei Liu, Marc Kerba, Gerald Lim, Zsolt Gabos, Ivo A Olivotto, Anil Abraham Joy, Wilson Roa, Zoann Nugent, Harold Lau
BACKGROUND: Cancer care in Alberta, Canada is publicly funded and provides patients with access to health care facilities and providers. The distribution of patients and health services across Alberta presents challenges to the delivery of cancer care, especially radiation therapy. In this study, we examined the association between patient and health system factors, the use of radiation therapy and survival outcomes in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The provincial cancer registry was used to identify all patients who presented with clinical stage III NSCLC, diagnosed from 2005 to 2007, in Alberta...
October 27, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907230/reverse-geroscience-how-does-exposure-to-early-diseases-accelerate-the-age-related-decline-in-health
#7
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905196/from-scratch-developing-a-hepatic-resection-service-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#8
Neil Wylie, Phillip Hider, Delwyn Armstrong, Kheman Rajkomar, Sanket Srinivasa, Michael Rodgers, Anna Brown, Jonathan Koea
BACKGROUND: Waitemata District Health Board has New Zealand's largest catchment and busiest colorectal unit. The upper gastrointestinal unit was established in 2005, in part to provide a hepatic resection service for patients with colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver. The aim of this investigation was to report on quality indicators for the hepatic resection of colorectal carcinoma in the development of a regional resection service. METHODS: Prospectively collected data on patients undergoing hepatic resection for colorectal carcinoma between 2005 and 2014 was reviewed and correlated with costing data and national hepatic resection rates...
December 1, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904861/a-recent-advance-in-image-guided-locoregional-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Yaoping Shi, Bo Zhai
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are considered to be the preferred treatment for HCC. However, as novel therapeutic options such as image-guided locoregional therapies have emerged and been refined, the manner in which HCC is treated has changed dramatically compared with what it was considered just 2 decades earlier. SUMMARY: This study reviews the current results of various image-guided locoregional therapies for treating HCC, especially focusing on thermal ablative and transarterial techniques...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900105/palliative-sequential-chemoradiotherapy-for-pulmonary-sulcus-tumor-a-case-report
#10
Miki Kikuchi, Toshihiro Ohtani, Tomohiro Tamura, Hiroaki Satoh
Pulmonary sulcus tumors are occasionally encountered in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. If the patients have a good clinical condition, concurrent chemoradiotherapy is indicated. However, palliative chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for patients exhibiting a poor overall condition have not been reported to date. We herein report the case of a 54-year-old female patient with a pulmonary sulcus tumor, who had a poor performance status. The patient received sequential chemoradiotherapy, with no severe complications...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898747/-review-of-medical-or-combined-treatment-of-local-or-locally-advanced-oesophageal-cancer
#11
Tünde Nagy, Gábor Rubovszky
More than 800 oesophageal tumours are diagnosed each year in Hungary. The disease is characterized by high mortality. The curative treatment traditionally surgical, although the study results of recent decades pointed out that patient outcome can be improved with the proper application of radio- and chemotherapy. The diverse study designs, the low number of recruited patients and the sometimes conflicting results make the determination of optimal treatment difficult. The aim of this work is to facilitate the choice of treatment modality with the best outcome, especially with the view of medical oncologists...
November 29, 2016: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896250/clinical-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy
#12
Ye-Kyu Park, Choong-Hak Park
OBJECTIVE: The management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and early invasive cancer of the uterine cervix is very difficult to approach, especially in case of young woman who wants to preserve her fertility. Conization of the cervix may have various kinds of disadvantage. The objective of this clinical retrospective study is to investigate the therapeutic effects and clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) including combined chemo-photodynamic therapy in patients with pre-malignant CIN and malignant invasive cervical cancer...
November 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895714/early-detection-and-personalized-treatment-in-oral-cancer-the-impact-of-omics-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Ilda Patrícia Ribeiro, Leonor Barroso, Francisco Marques, Joana Barbosa Melo, Isabel Marques Carreira
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is one of the most common malignant lesions of the head and neck. This cancer is an aggressive and lethal disease with no significant improvements in the overall survival in the last decades. Moreover, the incidence of oral HPV-positive tumors is rising, especially in young people. This oral neoplasm develops through numerous molecular imbalances that affect key genes and signaling pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of oral tumors are still to be fully determined...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893679/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-increases-the-risk-of-a-second-primary-malignancy-in-patients-with-cervical-cancer-treated-by-surgery-alone
#14
Wen-Yen Chiou, Chien-An Chen, Moon-Sing Lee, Hon-Yi Lin, Chung-Yi Li, Yu-Chieh Su, Shiang-Jiun Tsai, Shih-Kai Hung
As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893374/differential-evolution-optimization-of-the-sar-distribution-for-head-and-neck-hyperthermia
#15
Grazia Cappiello, Brian Mc Ginley, Muhammad Adnan Elahi, Tomas Drizdal, Margarethus M Paulides, Martin Glavin, Martin O'Halloran, Edward Jones
Hyperthermia is an emerging cancer treatment modality which involves applying heat to the malignant tumor. The heating can be delivered using electromagnetic (EM) energy, mostly in the radiofrequency (RF) or microwave range. Accurate patient-specific hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is essential for effective and safe treatments, in particular for deep and loco-regional hyperthermia. An important aspect of HTP is the ability to focus microwave energy into the tumor and reduce the occurrence of hot spots in healthy tissue...
November 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892665/thyroid-function-after-postoperative-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#16
Edyta Wolny-Rokicka, Andrzej Tukiendorf, Jerzy Wydmański, Danuta Roszkowska, Bogusław Staniul, Agnieszka Zembroń-Łacny
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function in breast cancer patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation. The focus was on possible progressive changes and any relationships between the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, and factors such as chemotherapy, hormonotherapy and immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: Seventy females undergoing 3D conformal and IMRT radiation therapy for breast cancers were enrolled in a non-randomized prospective study...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891442/a-retrospective-evaluation-of-clinical-profile-of-second-primary-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Paramjeet Kaur, Nupur Bansal, J Vijaya Kumar, Anil Khurana, Ashok Chauhan
INTRODUCTION: Incidence of Second Primary Malignancy (SPM) after successful treatment of primary is increasing and may cause the problem for optimal treatment. AIM: This study was conducted retrospectively to analyse incidence, disease free survival between malignancies, pattern of treatment and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen out of 22 patients of previously treated cases of head and neck cancer those develop SPM of head and neck region managed over a period of January 2012 to December 2015 in Department of Radiotherapy-II, Pt...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891213/uk-guidelines-for-the-management-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#18
REVIEW
Adam Dangoor, Beatrice Seddon, Craig Gerrand, Robert Grimer, Jeremy Whelan, Ian Judson
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare tumours arising in mesenchymal tissues, and can occur almost anywhere in the body. Their rarity, and the heterogeneity of subtype and location means that developing evidence-based guidelines is complicated by the limitations of the data available. However, this makes it more important that STS are managed by teams, expert in such cases, to ensure consistent and optimal treatment, as well as recruitment to clinical trials, and the ongoing accumulation of further data and knowledge...
2016: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891175/multidetector-computer-tomography-in-the-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-assessment-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Orlando Catalano, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Elisabetta de Lutio di Castelguidone, Mauro Piccirillo, Raffaele Palaia, Roberto Grassi, Francesco Granata, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, with only a minority of cases being resectable at the moment of their diagnosis. The accurate detection and characterization of pancreatic carcinoma is very important for patient management. Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the cross-sectional modality of choice in the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with pancreatic tumors. However, approximately 11% of ductal adenocarcinomas still remain undetected at MDCT because of the lack of attenuation gradient between the lesion and the adjacent pancreatic parenchyma...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890622/multi-functional-nanoparticles-as-theranostic-agents-for-treatment-imaging-in-pancreatic-cancer
#20
L R Jaidev, David Raj Chellappan, Dhiraj Vasanth Bhavsar, Ravi Ranganathan, Banudevi Sivanantham, Anuradha Subramanian, Uma Sharma, Narnamangalam R Jagannathan, Uma Maheswari Krishnan, Swaminathan Sethuraman
: Theranostics has received considerable attention since both therapy and imaging modalities can be integrated into a single nanocarrier. In this study, fluorescent iron oxide (FIO) nanoparticles and gemcitabine (G) encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres (PGFIO) conjugated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, (HER-2) antibody (HER-PGFIO) were prepared and characterized. HER-PGFIO showed the magnetic moment of 10 emu/g, relaxivity (r2) of 773 mM(-1)s(-1) and specific absorption rate (SAR) of 183 W/g...
November 23, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
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