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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636222/recent-progress-in-immunotherapy-for-urological-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Wataru Obara, Renpei Kato, Yoichiro Kato, Mitsugu Kanehira, Ryo Takata
Cancer immunotherapy for urological tumors had made progress for several decades, but recent advances in immunotherapy, as therapeutic vaccines or immune checkpoint inhibitors, have drastically changed the present treatment strategy. Recently, nivolumab and atezolizumab have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of urological cancers. Additional immune checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines are being tested in clinical trials. Despite advances in these therapeutic modalities, benefits are limited to a subset of patients...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635336/new-advances-in-focal-therapy-for-early-stage-prostate-cancer
#2
Kae Jack Tay, Ariel A Schulman, Christina Sze, Efrat Tsivian, Thomas J Polascik
Prostate focal therapy offers men the opportunity to achieve oncological control while preserving sexual and urinary function. The prerequisites for successful focal therapy are to accurately identify, localize and completely ablate the clinically significant cancer(s) within the prostate. We aim to evaluate the evidence for current and upcoming technologies that could shape the future of prostate cancer focal therapy in the next five years. Areas Covered: Current literature on advances in patient selection using imaging, biopsy and biomarkers, ablation techniques and adjuvant treatments for focal therapy are summarized...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633979/zerumbone-modulates-cd1d-expression-and-lipid-antigen-presentation-pathway-in-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Ritis K Shyanti, Anuradha Sehrawat, Shivendra V Singh, J P N Mishra, Rana P Singh
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells based cancer immunotherapy is an evolving area of cancer therapy, but tumors escape from this treatment modality by altering CD1d expression and its antigen presentation pathway. Here, we have studied the relation of CD1d expression in various breast cancer cell lines to their viability and progression. We observed a novel phenomenon that CD1d expression level increases with the progressive stage of the cancer. A small molecule, zerumbone (ZER) caused down-regulation of CD1d that was accompanied by breast cancer cell growth in vitro...
June 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633205/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#4
EDITORIAL
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, Timothy J Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts from June 2 to 3, 2016, in Bethesda, Maryland, to develop NHLBI recommendations aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MCS devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633125/primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
Florian Struller, Moritz Senne, Claudius Falch, Andreas Kirschniak, Alfred Konigsrainer, Sven Muller
BACKGROUND: Primary squamous cell cancer (PSCC) of thyroid is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. It is mandatory to exclude secondary involvement of the thyroid by panendoscopy, CT-scan and immunohistochemical analysis. As treatment surgery, radiation and rarely chemotherapy is employed. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted searching medline and embase database using the medical subject headings "primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid" and "primary squamous cell cancer of thyroid", for articles published until April 2016 (n=1733)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632797/approach-to-management-of-giant-basal-cell-carcinomas
#6
Sarah E Mott, William J Hunter, Edibaldo Silva, Christopher J Huerter
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a common nonmelanoma skin cancer with increasing incidence in the United States and worldwide. It is strongly linked to UV radiation exposure and typically is slow growing. Malignancy in BCCs is due to local growth and invasion rather than metastasis, and the prognosis is generally favorable. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a large, locally destructive giant BCC on the right side of the upper back that was successfully treated via complete surgical excision (SE) and did not recur in the subsequent 36 months...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631775/-innovations-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer-analysis-of-the-therapeutic-development-from-platinum-to-immunotherapy
#7
Gesuino Angius, Pierangela Sepe, Anselmo Papa, Silverio Tomao, Federica Tomao
Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women. The therapeutic approach provides for an appropriate integration between surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery is an important step for diagnosis, staging and therapy, aiming at the complete cytoreduction of all macroscopic visible disease. At the moment, adjuvant and first-line chemotherapy has as a standard the carboplatin-paclitaxel combination. Further, the addition of bevacizumab in the advanced stage (IIIB-IV) is strongly recommended. Despite the initial effectiveness, however, 70-80% of patients develop relapsed disease within the first two years and require subsequent treatment lines that have palliative, rather than curative purposes and that seek to reach a chronic state for the disease...
June 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629632/rationale-for-immunological-approaches-to-breast-cancer-therapy
#8
Gwennaëlle C Monnot, Pedro Romero
Despite great advances in early detection, as well as surgical resection of breast tumours, breast cancer remains the deadliest cancer for women worldwide. Moreover, its incidence is without pair, accounting for twice as many new cancer cases as the second most prevalent cancer, colorectal carcinoma. There is therefore a strong need for new therapeutic approaches to breast cancers. Immunotherapies are novel treatment modalities which aim to use immune mediators to attack cancerous cells. Recent clinical results show that these may not only mediate tumour regressions but also cures in some cases...
June 16, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629477/identification-of-egf-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-foxc1-signaling-axis-in-basal-like-breast-cancer
#9
Stacey Chung, Yanli Jin, Bingchen Han, Ying Qu, Bowen Gao, Armando E Giuliano, Xiaojiang Cui
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of human basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is not well understood and patients with BLBC have a poor prognosis. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is well-known to be upregulated in BLBC. The forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) transcription factor, an important prognostic biomarker specific for BLBC, has been shown to be induced by EGF and is critical for EGF effects in breast cancer cells. How FOXC1 is transcriptionally activated in BLBC is not clear...
June 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628013/modulation-of-antitumor-immune-response-in-mouse-prostate-cancer-model
#10
N Mitskevich, T Tsertsvadze, K Mchedlishvili, K Matchavariani, G Guruli
Aim of study - prostate cancer is second most common cancer in men worldwide, and fifth leading cause of death from cancer in men (6.6% of the total men deaths). Unfortunately, once cancer spreads outside of prostate, it becomes incurable. Androgen deprivation can provide some relief, but resistance will develop eventually, and at that time no effective treatment options are left to the patient. Therefore, the search of alternative treatment modalities is paramount. In this article we evaluated the role of epigenetic modifier 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) and immunomodulator - Lenalidomide and their possible impact on the immune response in the murine prostate cancer model...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627953/role-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-head-and-neck-lesions-pictorial-review
#11
Neeraj Bhatt, Nishant Gupta, Neetu Soni, Kusum Hooda, Joshua M Sapire, Yogesh Kumar
Head and neck cancers are very common worldwide, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Squamous cell carcinoma originating from the epithelial lining of the upper aerodigestive tract is the most common histology. Many patients with head and neck cancers present with advanced stage disease requiring aggressive treatment consisting of extensive surgery and chemo-radiation. Appropriate treatment planning as well as prognosis of tumors depends to a large extent on accurate histological diagnosis and differentiation of malignant from benign lesions...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625655/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-indwelling-pleural-catheters-with-talc-pleurodesis-nvalt-14
#12
R C Boshuizen, V Vd Noort, J A Burgers, G J M Herder, S M S Hashemi, T J N Hiltermann, P W Kunst, J A Stigt, M M van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic malignant pleural effusion (MPE) occurs frequently in patients with metastatic cancer. The associated prognosis is poor and the success rate of talc pleurodesis (TP) is low. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are commonly inserted when TP has been unsuccessful. METHODS: We compared talc pleurodesis with the use of an indwelling pleural catheter in patients with recurrent MPE in a multicenter randomized controlled trial (superiority design)...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624696/superimposable-outcomes-for-sequential-and-concomitant-administration-of-adjuvant-trastuzumab-in%C3%A2-her2-positive-breast-cancer-results-from-the-signal-phare-prospective-cohort
#13
Xavier Pivot, Pierre Fumoleau, Jean-Yves Pierga, Suzette Delaloge, Hervé Bonnefoi, Thomas Bachelot, Christelle Jouannaud, Hugues Bourgeois, Maria Rios, Patrick Soulié, Jean-Philippe Jacquin, Sandrine Lavau-Denes, Pierre Kerbrat, David Cox, Céline Faure-Mercier, Iris Pauporte, Joseph Gligorov, Elsa Curtit, Julie Henriques, Sophie Paget-Bailly, Gilles Romieu
AIM: Adjuvant clinical trials in early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer have assessed either sequential or concomitant incorporation of trastuzumab with chemotherapy; only the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG)-N9831 trial prospectively compared both modalities. In routine trastuzumab has been incorporated into a concurrent regimen with taxane chemotherapy instead of sequential modality on the basis of a positive risk-benefit ratio. This present study assessed sequential versus concomitant administration of adjuvant trastuzumab...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622889/turning-the-tide-clinical-utility-of-pd-l1-expression-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#14
REVIEW
Astrid De Meulenaere, Tijl Vermassen, Sandrine Aspeslagh, Wouter Huvenne, Jo Van Dorpe, Liesbeth Ferdinande, Sylvie Rottey
The use of cytotoxic and/or targeted agents is the gold standard in first- and second-line treatment of metastatic head and neck cancer. Currently the focus of oncologic research is shifting to the implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitor regimens. Many trials are being performed evaluating the survival benefit of various PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies in both solid and haematological malignancies. Also, evaluation of the predictive value of PD-L1 expression on tumour cells and immune cells is being explored...
July 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620731/retinoblastoma
#15
Raksha Rao, Santosh G Honavar
Retinoblastoma represents 3% of all childhood cancers, and is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. It is fatal, if untreated. White eye reflex, also known as leukocoria, is the commonest sign, followed by strabismus. The pediatricians have a very important role to play in the diagnosis of this relatively rare, but easily detectable tumor. Early diagnosis yields better results. The management of retinoblastoma has gradually evolved over the past few decades, with an aim to not only preserve life and eye, but also optimize residual vision...
June 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620571/leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-in-recurrent-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-review-of-current-treatment-modalities
#16
Saqib Abbasi, Elias Moussaly, Jean P Atallah
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon sequelae of non-small cell lung cancer. The treatment modalities for LC have historically been limited with an overall poor prognosis. This case report outlines a 76-year-old female who presented with recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer as LC. LC is difficult to treat, and options include radiation, chemotherapy (systemic and intrathecal), as well as targeted therapies. This case outlines a unique approach and reviews the current literature on the effectiveness of these options in non-small cell lung cancer...
May 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619614/rapid-ex-vivo-examination-of-mohs-specimens-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
D Rashed, D Shah, A Freeman, R J Cook, C Hopper, C M Perrett
BACKGROUND: Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is an effective treatment for certain non-melanoma skin cancers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a biomedical imaging modality that permits high-resolution imaging of the epidermis and dermis with the potential to detect both healthy tissue and tumour. OCT may also provide a means of detecting and differentiating between the various histological subtypes of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) in vivo. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective ex vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of OCT in recognising healthy and pathological margins of excised BCC lesions and detecting different BCC subtypes...
June 12, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619043/effect-of-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-treatment-on-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-after-class-iii-radical-hysterectomy-in-cervical-cancer-patients-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Xiu-Li Sun, Hai-Bo Wang, Zhi-Qi Wang, Ting-Ting Cao, Xin Yang, Jing-Song Han, Yang-Feng Wu, Kathleen H Reilly, Jian-Liu Wang
BACKGROUND: Class III radical hysterectomy (RH III)_plus pelvic lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for early stage cervical cancer (CC) patients, the 5 year survival rate is about 90%, but pelvic floor disorders especially bladder dysfunction are common due to damaged vessels and nerve fibers following surgery. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) treatment has been used to treat bladder disorders for many years, but its effect on cervical cancer patients, the best treatment time point and stimulated protocol, had never been assessed...
June 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618075/surgical-treatment-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-portal-vein-tumor-thrombus
#19
REVIEW
Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Hiroaki Nagano
The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system recommends administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (sorafenib) as standard therapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). Sorafenib has been shown to prolong median overall survival (OS) by about 3 months in advanced HCC patients with PVTT (8.1 vs 4.9 months). However, its clinical effectiveness is still controversial and standard treatment with sorafenib is not established in Japan. Surgical resection is considered as a potentially curative treatment and provides an acceptable outcome for carefully selected patients...
June 15, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614785/drag-reducing-polymers-decrease-hepatic-injury-and-metastases-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion
#20
Samer Tohme, Marina V Kameneva, Hamza O Yazdani, Vikas Sud, Julie Goswami, Patricia Loughran, Hai Huang, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
INTRODUCTION: Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
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